CN113899109B - Efficient integrated system for medium-temperature heating and sky radiation refrigeration by utilizing solar radiation - Google Patents

Efficient integrated system for medium-temperature heating and sky radiation refrigeration by utilizing solar radiation Download PDF

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CN113899109B
CN113899109B CN202111353696.2A CN202111353696A CN113899109B CN 113899109 B CN113899109 B CN 113899109B CN 202111353696 A CN202111353696 A CN 202111353696A CN 113899109 B CN113899109 B CN 113899109B
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heat
storage tank
double
outlet
inlet
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CN113899109A (en
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余雷
杨嵩
陆玉正
王军
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Nanjing Suoleyou Energy Saving Technology Co ltd
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Nanjing Suoleyou Energy Saving Technology Co ltd
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B27/00Machines, plants or systems, using particular sources of energy
    • F25B27/002Machines, plants or systems, using particular sources of energy using solar energy
    • F25B27/007Machines, plants or systems, using particular sources of energy using solar energy in sorption type systems
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S10/00Solar heat collectors using working fluids
    • F24S10/40Solar heat collectors using working fluids in absorbing elements surrounded by transparent enclosures, e.g. evacuated solar collectors
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S10/00Solar heat collectors using working fluids
    • F24S10/70Solar heat collectors using working fluids the working fluids being conveyed through tubular absorbing conduits
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S20/00Solar heat collectors specially adapted for particular uses or environments
    • F24S20/40Solar heat collectors combined with other heat sources, e.g. using electrical heating or heat from ambient air
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S23/00Arrangements for concentrating solar-rays for solar heat collectors
    • F24S23/70Arrangements for concentrating solar-rays for solar heat collectors with reflectors
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B29/00Combined heating and refrigeration systems, e.g. operating alternately or simultaneously
    • F25B29/006Combined heating and refrigeration systems, e.g. operating alternately or simultaneously of the sorption type system
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A30/00Adapting or protecting infrastructure or their operation
    • Y02A30/27Relating to heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC] technologies
    • Y02A30/272Solar heating or cooling
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B10/00Integration of renewable energy sources in buildings
    • Y02B10/20Solar thermal
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/40Solar thermal energy, e.g. solar towers
    • Y02E10/44Heat exchange systems

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  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Physics & Mathematics (AREA)
  • Mechanical Engineering (AREA)
  • Thermal Sciences (AREA)
  • General Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Sustainable Development (AREA)
  • Sustainable Energy (AREA)
  • Chemical & Material Sciences (AREA)
  • Combustion & Propulsion (AREA)
  • Sorption Type Refrigeration Machines (AREA)

Abstract

The invention discloses a high-efficiency integrated system for medium-temperature heating and sky radiation refrigeration by utilizing solar radiation, which comprises: the system comprises a fixed reflector heat collection/refrigeration double-effect array, a heat storage tank, a cold storage tank, a double-effect absorption type refrigerating unit and a cooling device; each fixed reflector heat collection/refrigeration double-effect unit comprises a radiation cooling reflector, a rotating module and a receiver module; the radiation cooling reflector is horizontally placed on the ground, and the receiver module is positioned above the radiation cooling reflector and controlled by the rotating module to move in an arc shape. The solar energy heat source system can provide a medium-temperature heat source and a conventional cold source at the same time, can refrigerate in all weather, is large in comprehensive energy supply per unit floor area, high in solar energy utilization rate and refrigeration efficiency, fixed in the condensing lens and low in cost.

Description

Efficient integrated system for medium-temperature heating and sky radiation refrigeration by utilizing solar radiation
Technical Field
The invention relates to a heat supply and refrigeration integrated system, in particular to a high-efficiency integrated system for medium-temperature heating and sky radiation refrigeration by utilizing solar radiation, belonging to the technical field of new energy and energy conservation.
Background
At present, the national building energy consumption exceeds more than one fourth of the national total energy consumption, and the national building energy consumption has a trend of continuously rising, and the air conditioner energy consumption has a great proportion in the total building energy consumption. The utilization of free clean energy to solve the energy consumption of the air conditioner is a future development trend, and natural solar refrigeration and sky radiation refrigeration without energy consumption are likely to become main solutions in the future.
Sky radiation refrigeration is a refrigeration mode which utilizes specific wavelength electromagnetic waves which can penetrate atmosphere partially to permanently release heat of objects into the universe in the form of infrared radiation. The technology provides a clean cold source without energy consumption for people, particularly, researches on optics and materials in recent years realize that objects can be cooled under direct sunlight in the daytime, and sky radiation refrigeration attracts wide attention of scientific researchers of countries in the world.
On the other hand, due to the similarity of the solar thermal collector and the radiation refrigerating device in structure and position and the complementation of functions and working time intervals, researchers provide that the flat-plate solar thermal collector and the radiation refrigerating device are designed through spectral characteristics and structural parameters, the two physical processes are organically combined on the same set of device, solar thermal collection in daytime and radiation refrigerating at night are realized, so that the multifunctional, all-weather and cross-season utilization of the device is realized, the comprehensive utilization efficiency and the time utilization rate of energy are improved, the investment recovery period is shortened, and the large-scale application of renewable energy sources is promoted. However, the combination of the current solar heat collection and the radiation refrigeration is limited to the combination of a flat-plate solar heat collector and a radiation refrigeration device, the flat-plate solar heat collector is generally only suitable for heat collection below 80 ℃, meanwhile, as the solar radiation is required to be reflected as much as possible in order to ensure the refrigeration effect in the daytime, a reflector for concentrating and collecting the heat can reflect more than 95% of the solar radiation, and the medium-high temperature solar heat collection can be carried out while the radiation refrigeration is realized by combining a selective coating suitable for an atmospheric window waveband (8-13 μm).
The solar light-gathering and heat-collecting modes adopting the reflectors comprise a line focusing mode (groove type, linear Fresnel type) and a point focusing mode (tower type and disc type), wherein the line focusing mode is popularized and applied more due to low cost and wide application range. Working media with higher temperature can be obtained through a light-gathering mode, and solar energy is converted into higher-grade heat energy. However, the above light-gathering manner is not well suited for combining with radiation refrigeration, mainly because: 1) When the reflector works, the reflector needs to rotate according to the position of the sun, so that a refrigeration pipeline is not convenient to arrange; 2) In order to avoid shielding between the reflectors, a larger distance exists between the reflectors, and the effective area of cold radiation is low; 3) The reflector is not directly facing the sky, and the radiation angle coefficient is small and fluctuates, thereby influencing the cold radiation refrigerating capacity. In addition, the current line focusing method has the following defects in heat collection: 1) The construction cost of the heat collecting device is high, for example, the cost of a groove type heat collecting device is about 5.2 yuan/W, the cost of a linear Fresnel type heat collecting device is about 4.5 yuan/W, and the advantages are not obvious compared with the traditional and other energy sources; 2) The maintenance cost is high, a large number of rotating parts exist, the structure is complex, and the failure rate is high; 3) The ground solar energy utilization rate of a unit area is low, and the effective utilization rates of the occupied areas of the trough type heat collector and the linear Fresnel type heat collector are only about 55% and 65%; 4) The trough type heat collector has the defects of heavier device, poor wind resistance and the like, and the linear Fresnel type heat collector has the defects of lower light condensation efficiency, lower light condensation ratio and the like.
In the field of solar heat utilization, the solar refrigeration air conditioner has the advantages of being matched with seasons, having no damage to the environment and the like, and is rapidly developed in recent decades. The solar lithium bromide absorption refrigeration is the most mature solar refrigeration technology at present, but research, application and development are mainly focused on a single-effect system at present, mainly because the single-effect system has low requirement on a heat source (75-90 ℃), the system usually adopts a flat plate type or vacuum tube type solar heat collector with low price, the system cost is relatively low, but the system efficiency is not high (COP 0.6-0.7). The double-effect absorption type refrigerating system has higher requirement on a heat source (120-160 ℃), but has higher utilization efficiency on solar energy (COP 1.2-1.5), has better energy-saving effect, and the heat collection device generally adopts a solar trough type heat collector. However, the trough type heat collector has the defects of high cost, high operation and maintenance difficulty and the like, and meanwhile, the efficiency of the double-effect absorption type refrigerating system is still low relative to the efficiency of the compressor type refrigerating agent, so that the solar refrigerating air conditioner has the problems of low effective utilization rate of unit occupied area, low comprehensive utilization rate all year round, incapability of running at night and in cloudy days and the like, and the popularization and application of the solar double-effect absorption type refrigerating machine are hindered by the factors.
Disclosure of Invention
The technical problem is as follows: the invention aims to overcome the defects of the existing radiation refrigerating device and the solar refrigerating system, and provides a system which can simultaneously provide a medium-temperature heat source and a conventional cold source, can perform all-weather refrigeration, has large comprehensive energy supply per unit floor area, high solar energy utilization rate and refrigerating efficiency, fixed condenser and low cost.
The technical scheme is as follows: in order to solve the above technical problem, the present application provides an efficient integrated system for heating in solar radiation and cooling in sky radiation, including: the system comprises a fixed reflector heat collection/refrigeration double-effect array, a heat storage tank, a cold storage tank, a double-effect absorption refrigerating unit, a three-way switching valve and a cooling device; the 1# outlet and the 1# inlet of the fixed reflector heat collection/refrigeration double-effect array are respectively connected with the 2# inlet and the 2# outlet of the heat storage tank through pipelines so as to realize the heat exchange between the heating medium of the fixed reflector heat collection/refrigeration double-effect array and the heat storage tank; the 3# outlet and the 3# inlet of the fixed reflector heat collection/refrigeration double-effect array are respectively connected with the 4# inlet and the 4# outlet of the cold storage tank through pipelines so as to realize the heat exchange between the refrigerant of the fixed reflector heat collection/refrigeration double-effect array and the cold storage tank; the No. 5 outlet and the No. 5 inlet of the heat storage tank are respectively connected with the No. 6 inlet and the No. 6 outlet of the double-effect absorption refrigerating unit through one path of a three-way switching valve by pipelines, and the other path of the heat storage tank is connected with the medium-temperature heat utilization system, so that the heat medium of the heat storage tank can be switched to exchange heat with the medium-temperature heat utilization system or a high-pressure generator and a heat regenerator of the double-effect absorption refrigerating unit; the 7# outlet and the 7# inlet of the cold storage tank are respectively connected with the 8# inlet and the 8# outlet of the double-effect absorption refrigerating unit through a pipeline and one way of the three-way switching valve, and the other way of the two-way switching valve is connected with the cooling area, so that the refrigerant of the cold storage tank can be switched to exchange heat with the cooling area or the evaporator of the double-effect absorption refrigerating unit; the 9# outlet of the cold storage tank is connected with the 10# inlet of the double-effect absorption type refrigerating unit through a pipeline, the 10# outlet of the double-effect absorption type refrigerating unit is connected with the 11# inlet of the cooling device through a pipeline, and the 11# outlet of the cooling device is connected with the 9# inlet of the cold storage tank through a pipeline, so that heat exchange between the refrigerant of the cold storage tank and the cooling device as well as between the condenser and the absorber of the double-effect absorption type refrigerating unit is realized.
The above design has the following advantages: 1) By adopting the fixed reflector heat collection/refrigeration double-effect array, the original occupied area and equipment can be utilized to realize daytime heat collection and all-weather refrigeration, the multifunctional, all-weather and cross-season utilization of the device is realized, the comprehensive utilization efficiency of energy sources, the energy supply and time utilization rate of unit occupied area are improved, and the investment recovery period is shortened; 2) Intermediate-temperature heat supply is realized by focusing solar energy, and double-effect absorption refrigerator is drivenThe refrigeration is carried out, the refrigeration efficiency is high, and electric energy and traditional energy are not needed; 3) Refrigeration is performed through sky cold radiation, and the air conditioner is clean and free of energy consumption; 4) The radiation refrigerating capacity is stored in the cold storage tank and is combined with the double-effect absorption refrigerating unit and the cooling device to realize the combined complementary cooling of the radiation refrigerating capacity and the refrigerating capacity of the refrigerating machine, and the radiation refrigerating is mainly carried out at night (about 100W/m at night) 2 About 30W/m in the daytime 2 ) Solar refrigeration in the daytime (about 500W/m) 2 ) The defects that solar absorption refrigeration cannot be operated at night, radiation refrigeration is low in efficiency when operated in the daytime, the temperature of a cold source is higher and the like are overcome; 5) The condenser and the absorber of the absorption refrigerator are connected with the cooling device and the cold storage tank in series, because the medium stored in the cold storage tank is lower than the ambient temperature, the cooling water of the absorption refrigerator is further reduced in temperature by utilizing the radiation refrigerating capacity, namely the condensation temperature of the refrigeration cycle is reduced, and the COP of the refrigerator can be improved; 6) The three-way switching valve connected by controlling the cold storage tank can change the circulation path, and realize that: (1) when the cold energy of the cold storage tank can meet the cold supply load at night or in the daytime, the refrigerator stops running, and the cold storage tank utilizes sky radiation to refrigerate to supply cold to a cold supply area; (2) when the sky radiation refrigerating capacity is insufficient in the daytime, the absorption refrigerator supplies cold independently; (3) when the refrigerating capacity of the solar absorption refrigerating machine is larger than the refrigerating load of a refrigerating area or the refrigerating is not needed, the redundant refrigerating capacity is stored in the cold storage tank through circulation; 7) Can change the circulation path through the three-way switch valve that control heat storage tank is connected, realize: (1) when refrigeration is needed, the solar energy medium temperature heat stored in the heat storage tank is supplied to a high-voltage generator and a heat regenerator of the double-effect absorption refrigerator to push the unit to operate for refrigeration; (2) the medium-temperature heat is supplied to the medium-temperature heat utilization system when the refrigeration season is not in use or the absorption refrigerator is not required to supply heat.
Furthermore, the fixed reflecting plate heat collection/refrigeration double-effect array consists of a plurality of fixed reflecting plate heat collection/refrigeration double-effect units; each fixed reflector heat collection/refrigeration double-effect unit comprises a radiation cooling reflector, a rotating module and a receiver module; the radiation cooling reflector is horizontally placed on the ground, the rotating modules are positioned on two sides of the radiation cooling reflector, and the receiver modules are positioned above the radiation cooling reflector and controlled by the rotating modules to move in an arc shape. The radiation cooling reflector comprises an arc-shaped plate layer, the upper surface of the arc-shaped plate layer is covered with a spectrum selective coating, the spectrum selective coating comprises a middle infrared high-emission material layer and a solar radiation high-reflection material layer, the arc-shaped plate layer is a groove formed by stretching an arc line, and the lower surface of the arc-shaped plate layer is embedded with a plurality of cooling pipelines horizontally arranged along the stretching direction of the arc line; the lower surfaces of the arc-shaped plate layer and the cooling pipeline are covered with heat-insulating layers.
The basis for medium-temperature heat collection by adopting the heat collection device is as follows: 1) The incident light deviating from the axis of the parabola within a certain range (generally within +/-30 degrees) still has better focusing effect after being reflected; 2) The change range of the south-north elevation angle of the sunlight (when the heat collectors are arranged in the east-west axial direction, the angle is the angle of incident light) is small in one year (in the lighting period, about 90% of the time is less than +/-30 degrees). Its advantage does: the problems of the existing line focusing heat collector are solved, the number of rotating parts is small, the requirement on tracking precision is low, and the investment cost of rotating equipment and control equipment can be reduced; the solar energy utilization rate of the unit floor area is high (can reach 95 percent) so as to fully utilize the solar energy; the wind resistance and the stability of the device are good, the weight is light, and the device has the advantages of low construction and maintenance cost.
The reflector adopting the light-gathering mode has the following advantages: 1) The reflector is fixed, does not need to rotate, and is convenient for the flow of cooling media and the arrangement of pipelines; 2) The reflectors do not need to be arranged at intervals, and the effective cold radiation area of the unit floor area is high; 3) The reflector is horizontally and upwards placed and faces the sky, and the angular coefficient of radiation heat exchange is maximized; 4) Compared with a single solar heat collecting device and a sky refrigeration radiation device, the device can simultaneously realize medium-temperature heat collection and radiation refrigeration by adopting the same floor area and approximate cost, has higher heat collection efficiency and refrigeration efficiency, and has heat collection power of about 300 to 700W/m 2 The refrigerating power is about 20 to 50W/m in the day 2 About 60 to 110W/m at night 2
The adopted base can finely adjust the height, radian and angle of the radiation cooling reflector within a certain range, so that the reflector reaches the set state of the area. The base and the radiation cooling reflector can be fixed in a magnet adsorption mode and are easy to disassemble.
Furthermore, the rotating module comprises a supporting rod, a rotating shaft, a receiver fixing frame, a balancing weight and a power device; the rotating rod is connected with the upper end of the supporting rod through a rotating shaft, the lower end of the supporting rod is fixed on the ground, the rotating shaft is connected with a power device, and the power device drives the rotating shaft and the rotating rod to rotate; the two ends of the rotating rod are respectively connected with the receiver fixing frame and the balancing weight.
Furthermore, the receiver module comprises a straight-through vacuum heat collecting tube and a CPC reflecting plate, and the straight-through vacuum heat collecting tube and the CPC reflecting plate are fixedly arranged on the receiver fixing frame; a part of sunlight reflected by the radiation cooling reflecting plate directly irradiates the straight-through type vacuum heat collecting tube, and a part of sunlight irradiates the straight-through type vacuum heat collecting tube after being reflected by the CPC reflecting plate. The CPC reflector plate can further improve the light condensation ratio of the heat collecting device and reduce the requirement on tracking precision.
Furthermore, the double-effect absorption refrigerating unit comprises a high-pressure generator, a high-temperature heat exchanger, a heat regenerator, a condenser, a low-pressure generator, an evaporator, an absorber and a low-temperature heat exchanger; the 6# inlet is connected to the 6# outlet after passing through the high-pressure generator, the heat regenerator and the heat exchanger through the pipeline; the 8# inlet is connected to the 8# outlet after heat exchange of the evaporator through a pipeline; the 10# inlet is connected to the 10# outlet after heat exchange through the absorber and the condenser through a pipeline, and the double-effect absorption type refrigerating unit improves the COP (coefficient of performance) of the refrigerating efficiency by multi-stage utilization of high-grade energy.
Further, the 2# inlet is connected to the 2# outlet through a built-in heat exchanger of the heat storage tank; and the 7# inlet is connected to the 7# outlet after passing through the built-in heat exchanger of the heat storage tank.
Furthermore, the heat storage tank is connected with the gas furnace through a pipeline, and when the solar irradiation amount is insufficient, the gas furnace is used for supplying heat, so that the reliability and the stability of the operation of the absorption type refrigerating unit are ensured.
Furthermore, the arc-shaped plate layer is made of copper, aluminum or glass and has higher heat transfer coefficient and certain hardness; the middle infrared high-emission material layer is made of silicon dioxide material or polyethylene glycol terephthalate material and has high spectral emissivity in a wave band of 8-13 mu m; the solar radiation high-reflection material layer is made of silver materials and has high reflectivity to solar radiation.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a schematic view of a highly efficient integrated system for warming heat and cooling by solar radiation.
FIG. 2 is a schematic structural diagram of a fixed reflector heat collection/refrigeration double-effect unit.
Fig. 3 is a schematic view of a radiation cooled reflector panel.
Fig. 4 is a schematic structural view of the rotating module.
Fig. 5 is a schematic diagram of a receiver module.
Wherein: 1 is a fixed reflector heat collection/refrigeration double-effect array, 2 is a double-effect absorption refrigeration unit, 3 is a heat storage tank, 4 is a cold storage tank, 5 is a gas furnace, 6 is a cooling device, 7 is a cold supply area, 8 is a medium temperature heat utilization system, 101 is a radiation cooling reflector, 102 is a rotating module, 103 is a receiver module, 104 is a base, 201 is a high-pressure generator, 202 is a high-temperature heat exchanger, 203 is a heat regenerator, 204 is a condenser, 205 is a low-pressure generator, 206 is an evaporator, 207 is an absorber, 208 is a low-temperature heat exchanger, 101-1 is an arc-shaped slab, 101-2 is a spectrally selective coating, 101-3 is a cooling pipe, 101-4 is a cooling dry tube, 101-5 is a thermal insulation layer, 102-1 is a support rod, 102-2 is a rotating rod, 102-3 is a receiver holder, 102-4 is a weight, 102-5 is a power device, 103-1 is a straight-through evacuated collector tube, 103-2 is a CPC reflector, a1 is a # outlet, b1 is a # inlet, a2 is a # outlet, b2 is a # inlet, a3 is a # outlet, b3 is a # inlet, a4 is a # outlet, b4 is a # inlet, a5 is a # outlet, b5 is a # inlet, a6 is a # outlet, b6 is a # inlet, a7 is a # outlet, b7 is a # inlet, a8 is an # outlet, b8 is an # inlet, a9 is a # outlet, b9 is an # inlet, a10 is an outlet, b10 is an inlet, b11 # outlet, 11 is an outlet.
Detailed Description
Please refer to fig. 1-5.
Utilize high-efficient integrated system of medium temperature heating of solar radiation and sky radiation refrigeration, its characterized in that:
the 1# outlet a1 and the 1# inlet b1 of the fixed reflector heat collection/refrigeration double-effect array 1 are respectively connected with the 2# inlet b2 and the 2# outlet a2 of the heat storage tank 3 through pipelines so as to realize the heat exchange between the heat medium of the fixed reflector heat collection/refrigeration double-effect array 1 and the heat storage tank 3; a 3# outlet a3 and a 3# inlet b3 of the fixed reflector heat collection/refrigeration double-effect array are respectively connected with a 4# inlet b4 and a 4# outlet a4 of the cold storage tank 4 through pipelines so as to realize the heat exchange between the refrigerant of the fixed reflector heat collection/refrigeration double-effect array 1 and the cold storage tank 4; one path of the outlet a 5# and the inlet b 5# of the heat storage tank 3 is respectively connected with the outlet a 6# of the double-effect absorption refrigerating unit 2 and the outlet a 6# of the double-effect absorption refrigerating unit 2 through a pipeline by a three-way switching valve, and the other path is connected with the medium temperature heat utilization system 8, so that the heat medium of the heat storage tank 3 can be switched to exchange heat with the medium temperature heat utilization system 8 or the high-pressure generator 201 and the heat regenerator 203 of the double-effect absorption refrigerating unit 2; one path of the outlet a 7# and the inlet b 7# 7 of the cold storage tank 4 is respectively connected with the outlet b 8# and the outlet a 8# of the double-effect absorption type refrigerating unit 2 through a pipeline and a three-way switching valve, and the other path is connected with the cooling area 7, so that the refrigerant of the cold storage tank 4 can be switched to exchange heat with the cooling area 7 or the evaporator 206 of the double-effect absorption type refrigerating unit 2; the 9# outlet a9 of the cold storage tank 4 is connected with the 10# inlet b10 of the double-effect absorption type refrigerating unit 2 through a pipeline, the 10# outlet a10 of the double-effect absorption type refrigerating unit 2 is connected with the 11# inlet b11 of the cooling device 6 through a pipeline, the 11# outlet a11 of the cooling device is connected with the 9# inlet b9 of the cold storage tank 4 through a pipeline, so that heat exchange between the refrigerant of the cold storage tank 4 and the cooling device 6 as well as between the condenser 204 and the absorber 207 of the double-effect absorption type refrigerating unit 2 is realized, and the heat storage tank 3 is connected with the gas furnace 5 through a pipeline.
The three-way switching valve connected by controlling the cold storage tank 4 can change the circulation path, and realize that: (1) when the cold energy of the cold storage tank 4 can meet the cold supply load at night or in the daytime, the double-effect absorption refrigerating unit 2 stops running, and the cold storage tank 4 utilizes sky radiation refrigeration to supply cold to the cold supply area 7; (2) when the sky radiation refrigerating capacity is insufficient in the daytime, the double-effect absorption refrigerating unit 2 supplies cold independently; (3) when the refrigerating capacity of the double-effect absorption refrigerating unit 2 is larger than the refrigerating load of the refrigerating area 7 or when the refrigerating is not needed, the surplus refrigerating capacity is stored in the cold storage tank 4 by circulation.
Can change the circulation path through the three-way switch valve that control heat storage tank is connected, realize: (1) when refrigeration is needed, the solar energy medium temperature heat stored in the heat storage tank 3 is supplied to the high pressure generator 201 and the heat regenerator 203 of the double-effect absorption type refrigerating unit 2 to push the double-effect absorption type refrigerating unit 2 to operate and refrigerate; (2) this medium temperature heat is supplied to the medium temperature heat utilization system 8 when the refrigeration of the double-effect absorption refrigerator group 2 is not required or in the non-refrigeration season.
The double-effect absorption type refrigerating unit 2 adopts a lithium bromide absorption type refrigerating unit and comprises a high-pressure generator 201, a high-temperature heat exchanger 202, a heat regenerator 203, a condenser 204, a low-pressure generator 205, an evaporator 206, an absorber 207 and a low-temperature heat exchanger 208; the 6# inlet b6 is connected to the 6# outlet a6 after exchanging heat through the high-pressure generator 201 and the heat regenerator 203 through a pipeline; the 8# inlet b8 is connected to the 8# outlet a8 after heat exchange through the evaporator 206 through a pipeline; the 10# inlet b10 is connected to the 10# outlet a10 after heat exchange through the absorber 207 and the condenser 204 through a pipeline; the 2# inlet b2 is connected to the 2# outlet a2 through the built-in heat exchanger of the heat storage tank 3; the 7# inlet b7 is connected to the 7# outlet a7 through the built-in heat exchanger of the heat-storage tank 4. The rated refrigerating capacity of the double-effect absorption refrigerating unit is 18KW, the condensing temperature is 40 ℃, the outlet temperature of refrigerant water is 7 ℃, the inlet temperature of the refrigerant water is 12 ℃, the outlet temperature of the cooling water is 38 ℃, the inlet temperature of the refrigerant water is 27 ℃, the temperature of heat medium is 152 ℃, and the rated COP is 1.4.
The fixed reflector heat collection/refrigeration double-effect array 1 consists of 12 fixed reflector heat collection/refrigeration double-effect units; each fixed reflector heat collection/refrigeration double-effect unit comprises a radiation cooling reflector 101, a rotating module 102 and a receiver module 103; the radiation cooled reflector 101 is horizontally placed on the ground, the rotating modules 102 are located on two sides of the radiation cooled reflector 101, and the receiver module 103 is located above the radiation cooled reflector 101 and controlled by the rotating modules 102 to move in an arc shape.
The radiation cooling reflector 101 comprises an arc-shaped plate layer 101-1, the upper surface of the arc-shaped plate layer 101-1 is covered with a spectrum selective coating 101-2, the arc-shaped plate layer 101-1 is made of copper, the spectrum selective coating 101-2 comprises a middle infrared high-emission material layer and a solar radiation high-reflection material layer, the middle infrared high-emission material layer is made of a silicon dioxide material, and the solar radiation high-reflection material layer is made of a silver material; the arc-shaped plate layers 101-1 are grooves formed by arc stretching, and 9 cooling pipelines 101-3 horizontally arranged along the arc stretching direction are embedded on the lower surface of each arc-shaped plate layer 101-1; the lower surfaces of the arc-shaped plate layer 101-1 and the cooling pipeline 101-3 are covered with an insulating layer 101-5; two ends of the cooling pipeline 101-3 are provided with a cooling main pipe 101-4; a base 104 is provided under the radiation-cooled reflector 101 for adjusting the height, curvature and angle of the radiation-cooled reflector 101.
The rotating module 102 comprises a supporting rod 102-1, a rotating rod 102-2, a rotating shaft, a receiver fixing frame 102-3, a balancing weight 102-4 and a power device 102-5; the rotating rod 102-2 is connected with the upper end of the supporting rod 102-1 through a rotating shaft, the lower end of the supporting rod 102-1 is fixed on the ground, the rotating shaft is connected with the power device 102-5, and the power device 102-5 drives the rotating shaft and the rotating rod 102-2 to rotate; two ends of the rotating rod 102-2 are respectively connected with a receiver fixing frame 102-3 and a balancing weight 102-4; the power device 102-5 comprises a servo motor, a speed reducer and a rotating gear; the weight of the counter weight is such that the center of gravity of the object supported by the support rod 102-1 is on the axis of the rotating shaft.
The receiver module 103 comprises a straight-through type vacuum heat collecting tube 103-1 and a CPC reflector 103-2, wherein the straight-through type vacuum heat collecting tube 103-1 and the CPC reflector 103-2 are both fixedly arranged on a receiver fixing frame 102-3, and the CPC reflector 103-2 is positioned on the upper side of the straight-through type vacuum heat collecting tube 103-1. A part of sunlight reflected by the radiation cooling reflecting plate 101 directly irradiates on the straight-through type vacuum heat collecting tube 103-1, and a part of sunlight irradiates on the straight-through type vacuum heat collecting tube 103-1 after being reflected by the CPC reflecting plate 103-2. The straight-through vacuum heat collecting tube 103-1 has a length of 2m, and the metal tube inside the straight-through vacuum heat collecting tube is DN16 stainless steel tube (external diameter is 22 mm). The opening width of the CPC reflector plate 103-2 is 70.8mm, the receiving angle of the CPC reflector plate is 60 degrees, and the axial direction of the straight-through vacuum heat collecting tube 103-1 is in the east-west direction. Each radiation-cooled reflector 101 has an area of 0.85m × 2mm =1.7m 2 The height of the device is about 1.7m; the total lighting area of the array is 1.7 × 12=20.4 m 2 The rated heat collecting power is 15kW, and the light concentration ratio is 848.67 ÷ div22=38.6。
In this embodiment: 1) The effective cold radiation area rate of the unit floor area reaches 92 percent; 2) The emissivity of the adopted silicon dioxide spectral coating in the middle infrared band reaches 93 percent; 3) Rated radiation refrigeration power: 0.6kW in daytime and 1.8kW at night; 4) In the daylighting period, the south-north height angle (the angle of incident light) of sunlight is less than +/-30 degrees for about 90% of the time, and theoretically most of reflected sunlight can irradiate the heat collecting tube, so that the device has ideal light condensation effect in one-year operation under the condition that the reflector plate does not need to be rotated.
It should be noted that the above-mentioned embodiments are only preferred embodiments of the present invention, and are not intended to limit the scope of the present invention, which is defined by the claims.

Claims (8)

1. The high-efficiency integrated system for warming in medium temperature by utilizing solar radiation and refrigerating in sky is characterized by comprising a fixed reflector heat collection/refrigeration double-effect array, a heat storage tank, a cold storage tank, a double-effect absorption refrigerating unit, a three-way switching valve and a cooling device; the 1# outlet and the 1# inlet of the fixed reflector heat collection/refrigeration double-effect array are respectively connected with the 2# inlet and the 2# outlet of the heat storage tank through pipelines so as to realize the heat exchange between the heating medium of the fixed reflector heat collection/refrigeration double-effect array and the heat storage tank; the 3# outlet and the 3# inlet of the fixed reflector heat collection/refrigeration double-effect array are respectively connected with the 4# inlet and the 4# outlet of the cold storage tank through pipelines so as to realize the heat exchange between the refrigerant of the fixed reflector heat collection/refrigeration double-effect array and the cold storage tank; the No. 5 outlet and the No. 5 inlet of the heat storage tank are respectively connected with the No. 6 inlet and the No. 6 outlet of the double-effect absorption refrigerating unit through one path of a three-way switching valve by pipelines, and the other path of the heat storage tank is connected with the medium-temperature heat utilization system, so that the heat medium of the heat storage tank can be switched to exchange heat with the medium-temperature heat utilization system or a high-pressure generator and a heat regenerator of the double-effect absorption refrigerating unit; the 7# outlet and the 7# inlet of the cold storage tank are respectively connected with the 8# inlet and the 8# outlet of the double-effect absorption refrigerating unit through a pipeline and one way of the three-way switching valve, and the other way of the two-way switching valve is connected with the cooling area, so that the refrigerant of the cold storage tank can be switched to exchange heat with the cooling area or the evaporator of the double-effect absorption refrigerating unit; the 9# outlet of the cold storage tank is connected with the 10# inlet of the double-effect absorption type refrigerating unit through a pipeline, the 10# outlet of the double-effect absorption type refrigerating unit is connected with the 11# inlet of the cooling device through a pipeline, and the 11# outlet of the cooling device is connected with the 9# inlet of the cold storage tank through a pipeline, so that heat exchange between the refrigerant of the cold storage tank and the cooling device as well as between the condenser and the absorber of the double-effect absorption type refrigerating unit is realized; the fixed reflecting plate heat collection/refrigeration double-effect array consists of a plurality of fixed reflecting plate heat collection/refrigeration double-effect units; each fixed reflector heat collection/refrigeration double-effect unit comprises a radiation cooling reflector, a rotating module and a receiver module; the radiation cooling reflector is horizontally placed on the ground, the rotating modules are positioned on two sides of the radiation cooling reflector, and the receiver modules are positioned above the radiation cooling reflector and controlled by the rotating modules to move in an arc shape.
2. The system of claim 1, wherein the radiant cooling reflector comprises an arc-shaped sheet, the upper surface of the arc-shaped sheet is coated with a spectrally selective coating, the spectrally selective coating comprises a middle infrared high-emission material layer and a solar radiation high-reflection material layer, the arc-shaped sheet is a groove formed by stretching an arc, and the lower surface of the arc-shaped sheet is embedded with a plurality of cooling pipes horizontally arranged along the stretching direction of the arc; the lower surfaces of the arc-shaped plate layer and the cooling pipeline are covered with heat-insulating layers; and a base is arranged below the radiation cooling reflecting plate and used for adjusting the height, radian and angle of the radiation cooling reflecting plate.
3. The system of claim 1, wherein the rotation module comprises a support rod, a rotation shaft, a receiver fixing frame, a weight block, and a power device; the rotating rod is connected with the upper end of the supporting rod through a rotating shaft, the lower end of the supporting rod is fixed on the ground, the rotating shaft is connected with a power device, and the power device drives the rotating shaft and the rotating rod to rotate; the two ends of the rotating rod are respectively connected with the receiver fixing frame and the balancing weight.
4. A system as claimed in claim 1, wherein the receiver module comprises a straight-through evacuated collector tube and a CPC reflector panel, the straight-through evacuated collector tube and the CPC reflector panel being fixedly mounted on the receiver holder; a part of sunlight reflected by the radiation cooling reflecting plate directly irradiates the straight-through type vacuum heat collecting tube, and a part of sunlight irradiates the straight-through type vacuum heat collecting tube after being reflected by the CPC reflecting plate.
5. The system of claim 1, wherein the double-effect absorption chiller comprises a high-pressure generator, a high-temperature heat exchanger, a heat regenerator, a condenser, a low-pressure generator, an evaporator, an absorber, and a low-temperature heat exchanger; the 6# inlet is connected to the 6# outlet after passing through the high-pressure generator, the heat regenerator and the heat exchanger through the pipeline; the 8# inlet is connected to the 8# outlet after heat exchange of the evaporator through a pipeline; the 10# inlet is connected to the 10# outlet after heat exchange through the absorber and the condenser through a pipeline.
6. The system of claim 1, wherein the 2# inlet is connected to the 2# outlet via a heat storage tank with a built-in heat exchanger; and the 7# inlet is connected to the 7# outlet after passing through the built-in heat exchanger of the heat storage tank.
7. The system of claim 1, wherein the system further comprises a gas furnace, and the gas furnace is connected to the heat storage tank through a pipeline.
8. The system of claim 2, wherein the arc-shaped plate layer is made of copper, aluminum or glass, the middle infrared high-emission material layer is made of silica or polyethylene terephthalate, and the solar radiation high-reflection material layer is made of silver.
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