CN111089431B - Array type fixed heat collector rotating paraboloid solar light-gathering and heat-collecting system - Google Patents

Array type fixed heat collector rotating paraboloid solar light-gathering and heat-collecting system Download PDF

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CN111089431B
CN111089431B CN202010050107.2A CN202010050107A CN111089431B CN 111089431 B CN111089431 B CN 111089431B CN 202010050107 A CN202010050107 A CN 202010050107A CN 111089431 B CN111089431 B CN 111089431B
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heat
paraboloid
condenser
heat collector
revolution
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CN111089431A (en
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贾英洲
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贾英洲
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S50/00Arrangements for controlling solar heat collectors
    • F24S50/20Arrangements for controlling solar heat collectors for tracking
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S10/00Solar heat collectors using working fluids
    • F24S10/40Solar heat collectors using working fluids in absorbing elements surrounded by transparent enclosures, e.g. evacuated solar collectors
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S10/00Solar heat collectors using working fluids
    • F24S10/70Solar heat collectors using working fluids the working fluids being conveyed through tubular absorbing conduits
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S23/00Arrangements for concentrating solar-rays for solar heat collectors
    • F24S23/70Arrangements for concentrating solar-rays for solar heat collectors with reflectors
    • F24S23/71Arrangements for concentrating solar-rays for solar heat collectors with reflectors with parabolic reflective surfaces
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S60/00Arrangements for storing heat collected by solar heat collectors
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/40Solar thermal energy, e.g. solar towers
    • Y02E10/44Heat exchange systems
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/40Solar thermal energy, e.g. solar towers
    • Y02E10/47Mountings or tracking

Abstract

The invention relates to a solar light-gathering and heat-collecting system with an array type fixed heat collector and a rotating paraboloid, which breaks through the development bottleneck of high solar photo-thermal power generation cost with high performance and low cost. The device comprises a plurality of light-gathering and heat-collecting units which are connected in series/parallel; the light and heat gathering unit comprises a bracket, a heat transfer pipe fixedly arranged on the bracket, a heat collector fixedly connected to the heat transfer pipe, a rotary paraboloid reflection light gathering mirror and a tracking system supporting the rotary paraboloid reflection light gathering mirror; the focus of the rotary paraboloid reflecting condenser is positioned on the heat collector; the tracking system comprises a vertical rotating mechanism and a horizontal rotating mechanism, wherein the vertical rotating mechanism drives the rotary parabolic reflecting condenser to move up and down by taking a focus of the rotary parabolic reflecting condenser as a center so as to track the change of the solar altitude, and the horizontal rotating mechanism drives the rotary parabolic reflecting condenser to horizontally rotate by taking a vertical line passing through the focus of the rotary parabolic reflecting condenser downwards as an axis so as to track the change of the solar azimuth.

Description

Array type fixed heat collector rotating paraboloid solar light-gathering and heat-collecting system
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the field of solar heat utilization devices, and particularly relates to a rotary paraboloid solar light-gathering and heat-collecting system of an array type fixed heat collector.
Background
Solar thermal power generation and solar high-temperature heat utilization occupy important positions in national green energy. Solar power generation does not have any carbon emission and is the cleanest energy. At present, solar photovoltaic power generation is basically on line at a low price, and the solar power generation is completely possible to bear the burden of main energy in the future. However, photovoltaic power generation can only generate power in the presence of sunlight, and a large-scale direct storage technology of electric energy is not yet realized, so that only photovoltaic power generation cannot realize stable electric energy supply. The heat energy can be stored in a large scale at low cost, and the solar thermal power generation can continue to generate power in the absence of sunlight. Therefore, solar photovoltaic power generation also needs solar thermal power generation to be matched and complemented with the solar thermal power generation, and stable power supply can be realized.
However, the solar thermal power generation cost is 2 to 3 times or more higher than that of the traditional energy, and the key point is to reduce the thermal power generation cost. The cost of solar thermal power generation mainly focuses on the fact that the cost of a light-gathering and heat-collecting system is too high, so that the development of a high-efficiency and low-cost solar light-gathering and heat-collecting system is the key of solar thermal power generation.
In the existing light-gathering and heat-collecting system for solar thermal power generation and high-temperature heat utilization, there are basically three types, namely: the groove type, the tower type and the disc type are adopted less because of lower efficiency. The three light-gathering and heat-collecting systems are used for thermal power generation and have the problems of high cost and low efficiency.
However, the three systems of the trough type, the tower type and the tray type have a series of inherent disadvantages, respectively, and it is difficult to remove the disadvantages by technical means, so that the development of the systems is restricted.
The groove type light-gathering power generation system adopts a groove type parabolic mirror, a vacuum heat collecting pipe is placed on a focal line position, and sunlight is gathered on the vacuum heat collecting pipe. This is the power generation system that is the earliest and the most mature technology. However, the main, and inherent, disadvantages are: because of unidirectional line focusing, the condensing ratio is only dozens of times, and the highest heat collecting temperature is not more than 400 ℃. In thermal power generation, the higher the temperature of the working medium is, the higher the power generation efficiency is, and the working temperature of general thermal power generation reaches six to seven hundred degrees or even more reaches thousands of degrees. The trough type heat collection temperature is only less than 400 ℃, so the power generation efficiency is low and is generally not more than 15%.
Another inherent disadvantage of the trough is: although the vacuum heat collecting tube of the trough system can be connected without limit, even can be connected for several kilometers to realize huge system power, the vacuum heat collecting tube is transparent because of the function of absorbing solar radiation, so that the heat loss of high-temperature radiation is difficult to avoid. Even if a selective coating is adopted, the heat radiation loss of the heat collecting tube inner tube at the high temperature of nearly 400 ℃ still accounts for a small proportion, and the heat loss of the heat collecting tube with the total length of thousands of meters is a small number, so the power generation efficiency of the total system is influenced.
All this makes the development of trough systems less promising in recent years.
The tower heliostat condensing system has the structural form that: a heat collection tower with the height of 2-300 meters is built in the center of a field of thousands of mu, tens of thousands of heliostats are placed around the heat collection tower, and each heliostat tracks the rotation of sunlight and projects reflected light to a heat collector at the top end of the heat collection tower.
The tower system is mainly used for large-scale solar thermal power generation, and is the most concerned solar thermal power generation form in recent years. Although the light-gathering ratio is lower than that of a butterfly-type rotating paraboloid light-gathering system, the light-gathering ratio is much larger than that of a trough type rotating paraboloid light-gathering system, the light-gathering ratio can reach thousands of times, the heat-gathering temperature also reaches thousands of degrees, heat energy can be stored, and the power generation efficiency is high, so that the light-gathering and heat-gathering solar energy-saving solar energy-gathering solar energy-saving solar energy-gathering system is most concerned and favored by people in recent years. The method has the disadvantages of huge investment, complex technology, high cost, higher requirement on the site and great difficulty in further reducing the cost. There are mainly some inherent problems:
the main drawback of the tower heliostat condensing system is the low light efficiency. The effective cutoff area of each heliostat is equal to its specular area multiplied by the cosine of the angle of incidence of the light. Because the positions of the heliostats are different, the rest chord values are also different, and the incident angle of the solar ray is changed at any moment, the rest chord values are also changed at any moment. For example, the incident angle of many heliostats located at the south of the absorption tower is usually greater than 60 degrees, so the remaining chord value is usually smaller than 0.5, that is, the effective light-intercepting area is only less than 0.5 of the mirror surface area, the cosine values of the heliostats at the east and west sides are slightly larger and are also much lower than 0.7, in short, the cosine values of more than half of the heliostats in the mirror field vary from 0.5 to 0.7, and the mirror surface loss caused by the variation is 30 to 40%.
In order to obtain higher power generation efficiency, the heliostat field is large in scale. For a large tower heliostat field, many day mirrors are far away from the heat absorption tower by 1000-2000 meters and even farther. The reflected light travels over such long low-altitude distances and a slight amount of dust in the air causes a considerable amount of energy attenuation, which is often around 20%.
Only cosine loss and air attenuation loss reach about 50%. This is an inherent disadvantage of tower heliostat systems and is difficult to eliminate by technological improvements, resulting in increased cost and reduced efficiency of such systems.
In addition, a heliostat field of thousands of acres requires good flatness; the construction cost of a heat collecting tower up to hundreds of meters is very high; tracking states of all heliostats are different, tens of thousands of heliostats need independent tracking systems respectively, and the heliostat tracking systems are complex. All this adds to the engineering difficulty and increases the overall construction cost of the system.
The structure of the dish-type light-gathering power generation system adopts a dish-shaped rotating paraboloid condenser. The solar heat collector has higher light concentration ratio than a tower type solar heat collector, so that the solar heat collector has the highest heat collection temperature and the highest heat collection efficiency, and also has higher power generation efficiency. This is the best way to collect light, but the light collector is an integrated machine, i.e. a single machine collects heat and generates electricity at the same time, which results in high cost. In the concentrating power generation system, each collecting lens is provided with a heat collector and a Stirling generator which are connected into a whole, suspended in the air at the focal point of the collecting lens and fixedly connected with the collecting lens to form a whole, and the whole moves to track the movement of the sun. This makes the mechanism of the butterfly-type light-gathering power generation system heavy and complicated, the manufacturing cost is high, and it is difficult to obtain larger single-machine power. If the single-machine power is increased, the condenser area needs to be increased. However, as the area of a single machine increases, the supporting structure becomes larger and more complex, and the cost of the supporting structure also increases exponentially, so that the cost of the whole system is high. Therefore, the existing disc type power generation system is only used for small-scale power generation in remote power shortage areas, the area of a collecting lens of the disc type power generation system is generally within dozens of square meters, and the disc type power generation system is not suitable for being made into a large power generation system.
In recent years, many people have attempted to improve the performance of concentrators, as in the following patents, but none have solved the problem fundamentally.
The invention of patent publication No. CN102606430A is based on the idea of placing the collector on a heat collecting tower to separate the parabolic concentrator from the collector, which is advantageous for making the concentrator large. Due to the existence of the heat collecting tower, the invention divides the paraboloid of revolution condenser into a left part and a right part which respectively correspond to two heat collectors on the heat collecting tower. The left and right semi-circular paraboloidal condenser lenses make circular motion around the central axis of the heat collecting tower to track the azimuth motion of the sun, and make up-and-down circular motion on the circular track to track the altitude change of the sun. The two heat collectors also need to do circular motion around the axis of the heat collection tower to move corresponding to the azimuth angle of the parabolic condenser, and meanwhile, the two heat collectors also need to do pitching motion to adapt to the motion of the upper and lower circular tracks of the parabolic condenser tracking the solar altitude. The characteristics of this patent are separated condenser and heat collector, are favorable to the condenser to do greatly, but this is unfavorable for reducing the cost on the contrary, and too big condensing lens must increase too much bearing structure, can make the cost be the exponential law and rise greatly. On the other hand, the heat collector still needs to do circular motion and elevation angle pitching motion, which causes great difficulty for manufacturing and installing high-efficiency heat transmission equipment, especially causes difficulty for sealing high-temperature heat transfer working media and the like, and increases the cost; in addition, a heat collecting tower is added, so that the manufacturing cost is further increased.
At present, the key problems of solar light-gathering heat-collecting power generation and heat utilization are that the cost is higher than that of the traditional energy, and the cost of the system is reduced.
At present, tower type, trough type and disc type light-gathering power generation systems are applied for decades, strong traditional inertia is formed, and people always think in the circle of the tower type, the trough type and the disc type light-gathering power generation systems. Although there are continuous improvements, local improvements are always made on the basis of the three forms. Although the technology is mature, the basic structure is not changed, the basic performance is not changed, and the inherent defects, especially the defects of low efficiency and high cost, are not changed fundamentally. At present, the cost of photo-thermal power generation is 2-3 times higher than that of flat price electricity, and flat price internet surfing is difficult to realize, and the main reason is that the cost of a light-gathering system is too high, so that the further development of solar thermal power generation is influenced. In contrast to photovoltaic power generation, inexpensive networking has been achieved. However, photovoltaic power generation can only generate power when the sun is available in the daytime, and electric energy is difficult to store, and only photovoltaic power generation cannot guarantee continuous and stable supply of electric energy, so that photo-thermal power generation which can store heat energy is required to complement the photo-thermal power generation.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to solve the defects of the light-gathering system, and provides a rotary paraboloid solar light-gathering and heat-collecting system of an array type fixed heat collector, which breaks through the development bottleneck of high solar photo-thermal power generation cost by high performance and low cost.
In order to solve the problems, the technical scheme adopted by the invention is as follows:
the utility model provides an array fixed heat collector rotation paraboloid solar energy spotlight solar collecting system which the key technology lies in: the device comprises a plurality of light-gathering and heat-collecting units which are connected in series/parallel;
the light and heat gathering unit comprises a support, a heat transfer pipe fixedly arranged on the support, a heat collector fixedly connected to the heat transfer pipe, a rotary paraboloid reflection light gathering mirror and a tracking system supporting the rotary paraboloid reflection light gathering mirror;
the focus of the rotary paraboloid reflecting condenser is positioned on the heat collector;
the tracking system includes a vertical rotation mechanism for driving the paraboloid-of-revolution reflecting condenser to move up and down with its focus as a center to track changes in the elevation angle of the sun, and
the horizontal rotating mechanism drives the rotary paraboloid reflecting condenser to horizontally rotate by taking a vertical line passing through a focus of the rotary paraboloid reflecting condenser as an axis so as to track the change of the azimuth angle of the sun;
and the heat transmission pipes of the plurality of light and heat gathering units are connected in series/parallel.
As a further improvement of the present invention, the vertical rotating mechanism includes at least two coaxial arc-shaped tracks fixedly disposed on the horizontal rotating mechanism, a supporting structure, and a first driving mechanism, the paraboloid of revolution reflecting condenser is disposed on the coaxial arc-shaped tracks through the supporting structure, and the first driving mechanism drives the paraboloid of revolution reflecting condenser to move along the coaxial arc-shaped tracks.
As a further improvement of the invention, the support structure comprises a plurality of support rods fixedly connected with the paraboloid of revolution reflecting condenser, the lower ends of the support rods are in contact with the coaxial arc-shaped track through at least one group of first rollers, and two first rollers in one group are respectively arranged on the upper side and the lower side of the coaxial arc-shaped track.
As a further improvement of the present invention, the first driving mechanism is:
the scissor type telescopic mechanism comprises a scissor type telescopic frame and a first electric push rod for driving the scissor type telescopic frame to act, one end of the scissor type telescopic frame is hinged with the horizontal rotating mechanism, and the other end of the scissor type telescopic frame is hinged with the bottom of the rotating paraboloid reflecting condenser or the supporting structure of the rotating paraboloid reflecting condenser;
or one end of the electric push rod II is hinged with the horizontal rotating mechanism, and the other end of the electric push rod II is hinged with the bottom of the rotary paraboloid reflection condenser or the supporting structure of the rotary paraboloid reflection condenser.
As a further improvement of the present invention, the supporting structure comprises a plurality of connecting rods fixedly connected to the paraboloidal mirror condenser and a turntable disposed on the support or the heat collector, the plurality of connecting rods extend toward the heat collector and are hinged to the turntable, the plurality of connecting rods are used to suspend the paraboloidal mirror condenser, and the axial line of the rotating shaft at the upper ends of the plurality of connecting rods passes through the focal point of the paraboloidal mirror condenser.
As a further improvement of the present invention, the horizontal rotation mechanism includes a circular arc horizontal rail fixedly disposed, a chassis disposed on the circular arc horizontal rail, and a second driving mechanism for driving the chassis to rotate and move along the circular arc horizontal rail.
As a further improvement of the present invention, the chassis is provided with at least three second rollers, the second rollers are matched with the circular arc horizontal rail, at least one of the second rollers is driven by a second driving mechanism, and the second driving mechanism is a motor speed reduction mechanism.
As a further improvement of the invention, the heat transfer pipe is made of an inner stainless steel pipe and an outer stainless steel pipe, the inner pipe transfers heat transfer medium, the inner side of the outer pipe is plated with a high-reflection film, and an interlayer between the inner pipe and the outer pipe is vacuum.
As a further improvement of the invention, the bottom surface of the heat collector is used as a heat absorption surface, and the diameter of the reflection light-gathering spot of the revolution paraboloid reflection light-gathering mirror is 10-50 cm.
As a further improvement of the invention, when the heat collector only uses the bottom surface thereof as a heat absorbing surface, the rotary paraboloid reflecting condenser uses the whole lower half part or partial lower half part of the rotary paraboloid as a reflecting surface;
when the whole or more than half of the paraboloid of revolution is used as the reflecting surface of the collecting mirror, the heat collector adopts a bulb-shaped heat absorber.
Adopt the produced beneficial effect of above-mentioned technical scheme to lie in:
the key point of the invention is to break through the traditional mode that the heat collector in the dish-type paraboloid light-gathering system also needs to track the movement of the sun, namely, the heat collector is separated from the rotary paraboloid reflection light-gathering mirror (namely, the butterfly light-gathering mirror), and the heat collector is fixed, so that the fixed connection of the heat collector and the heat transfer pipe is facilitated. In the invention, the heat collector is fixed, namely, the movement of the sun is not tracked any more, only the rotary paraboloid condenser is made to track the movement of the sun, and the sunlight is converged on the heat absorption surface of the heat collector. This structure brings about various benefits:
(1) the solar heat collector has the main advantages of large light concentration ratio and high heat collection temperature, is higher than a trough type solar heat collector and a tower type solar heat collector, can realize the light concentration ratio of 2-3000 times, and can easily reach the heat collection temperature of more than 1000 ℃. The higher the heat collection temperature of the heat collector is, the higher the energy quality of the heat collector is, and the higher the power generation efficiency is.
(2) Another major advantage of the present invention is: the heat collectors are separated from the condenser and are fixed, so that the fixed connection among the heat collectors can be realized, high-efficiency heat-insulation heat transmission pipelines are conveniently adopted, and high-temperature and high-pressure heat transfer media with the temperature up to thousands of degrees are gathered together, so that a huge heat collection and storage system is formed, and continuous heat supply and power generation can be realized regardless of sunlight.
In a common butterfly-type rotary paraboloid light-gathering and heat-collecting system, because the heat collectors and the light collectors are fixed together, the heat collectors and the light collectors move with the sun at all times, the two heat collectors can be connected only by hoses or movable joints, but for heat transfer media with high temperature and high pressure up to thousands of degrees, the manufacture of the hoses and the movable joints is difficult to solve. Therefore, the butterfly power generation is realized by a single condenser and is not suitable for large-scale system power generation because the connection of a heat collector is not realized. In the invention, because the heat collector is fixed, the contradictions are solved. The fixed heat collectors are easily connected by vacuum heat-insulating stainless steel heat transfer pipelines with good heat insulation, and tens of thousands of heat collectors are easily connected in sequence to form a huge heat transfer and storage system so as to realize high-power generation.
(3) In the invention, the travel of the reflected light of the condenser is only a few meters, and almost no light energy is attenuated, which is a great advantage compared with the serious light energy attenuation caused by the travel of the tower-type reflected light reaching 1-2 kilometers. On the other hand, when the condensing lens tracks the sun, cosine loss like a tower type heliostat is avoided, the lighting area of the condensing lens is kept constant all the time, the difference between morning and evening and noon is small, and the light efficiency is high and is close to 100%. This is a great advantage over towers.
(4) An important characteristic of a paraboloid of revolution is that its light gathering properties are independent of the area size. The characteristics of the highest condensing ratio and the highest condensing temperature of the rotary paraboloid condenser regardless of the size are utilized, and when a single condenser is designed, a design scheme with the lowest cost per unit area is selected. Generally, the smaller the area of an individual condenser, the lower the cost per unit area. Conversely, as the area of a single concentrator increases, the more complex the support structure, the more exponentially the manufacturing cost per unit area will increase rapidly. But considering tracking system, supporting system and other factors, the smaller the size, the better. The invention can select an optimal single area scheme by comprehensively considering various factors. By utilizing the selection advantage, the system manufacturing cost can be greatly reduced.
(5) The heat transmission pipeline adopts the vacuum stainless steel pipe with the inner side of the outer pipe plated with the high-reflection film, can isolate convection and conduction heat loss, can isolate radiation heat loss, and has much smaller radiation heat loss compared with the high-temperature radiation heat loss of a glass vacuum pipe of a groove type system. Is suitable for long-distance high-temperature and high-pressure heat transfer.
(6) Tower systems are known in which the heliostats, each in a different operating state, each require a separate signal system. In the invention, not only every condenser in the system is identical, but also the tracking system, the signal system and the tracking mode are identical, even the running state is identical, which brings great benefits for manufacturing products and controlling the running. A large heat collecting system or a heat collecting power generation system usually needs thousands, tens of thousands or even hundreds of thousands of sets of collecting lenses, so that large-scale automatic production can be realized, and the manufacturing cost is reduced; and centralized automatic control operation can be adopted to reduce the operation cost.
(7) In the invention, the bottom surface of the heat collector can be designed to be used as a heat absorption surface, reflected light is only projected onto the bottom surface from the lower part of the heat collector, and the diameter of a light spot is limited within a range of tens of centimeters, so that the heat collector can be small and compact, good heat insulation measures can be taken on the periphery and the top surface, only the bottom surface is used as the heat absorption surface, the heat dissipation surface can be greatly reduced, the heat loss is reduced, the efficiency is improved, and the cost is reduced.
(8) The support frame of the heat collector of the invention is only a few meters high, and can be completely manufactured in a factory and installed on site. Compared with the tower type power generation which needs to build a heat collecting tower with the height of hundreds of meters and needs to be constructed in site, the method has the advantages that the construction cost can be greatly reduced.
Drawings
In order to more clearly illustrate the embodiments of the present invention or the technical solutions in the prior art, the drawings used in the description of the embodiments or the prior art will be briefly described below, and it is obvious that the drawings in the following description are some embodiments of the present invention, and other drawings can be obtained by those skilled in the art without creative efforts.
FIG. 1 is a schematic structural diagram of a light and heat collecting system according to the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a schematic structural diagram of a first embodiment of a light and heat collecting unit.
Fig. 3 is a schematic diagram of the structure of the tracking system in fig. 2.
Fig. 4 is a schematic structural diagram of a second embodiment of the light and heat collecting unit.
FIG. 5 is a schematic structural diagram of a third embodiment of a light and heat collecting unit.
Fig. 6 is a schematic diagram of using the entire lower half or a part of the lower half of a paraboloid of revolution as a reflecting surface.
Fig. 7 is a schematic view of the case where most or all of the paraboloid of revolution is used as the reflecting surface.
Wherein: wherein: the solar heat collector comprises a support 1, a cross beam 1-1, a vertical column 1-2, a heat transfer pipe 2, a heat collector 3, a parabolic reflecting condenser 4, a reflecting surface 41, a solar ray 5, a chassis 6, a supporting rotating shaft 7, a second roller 8, a horizontal rail 9 in the shape of an arc, a coaxial arc rail 10, a supporting rod 11, a first roller 12, a first driving mechanism 13, a scissor type telescopic frame 13-1, a first electric push rod 13-2, a second electric push rod 13-3, a second driving mechanism 14, a supporting frame 15, a rotary table 16, a connecting plate 17, a connecting rod 18 and a ground 19.
Detailed Description
For purposes of clarity and a complete description of the present invention, and the like, in conjunction with the detailed description, it is to be understood that the terms "central," "vertical," "lateral," "up," "down," "front," "back," "left," "right," "vertical," "horizontal," "top," "bottom," "inner," "outer," and the like are used in the orientation or positional relationship indicated in the drawings for convenience in describing and simplifying the present invention, but do not indicate or imply that the referenced device or element must have a particular orientation, be constructed and operated in a particular orientation, and thus should not be considered as limiting the present invention.
The array type fixed heat collector rotating paraboloid solar light-gathering and heat-collecting system shown in fig. 1 comprises a plurality of light-gathering and heat-collecting units which are connected in series/parallel; the light and heat gathering units are connected in series/parallel through the heat transfer pipes 2 to form the light and heat gathering system.
As shown in fig. 2 to 5, the light and heat collecting unit includes a support 1, a heat transfer pipe 2 fixedly disposed on the support 1, a heat collector 3 fixedly connected to the heat transfer pipe 2, a paraboloid of revolution reflecting condenser 4, and a tracking system supporting the paraboloid of revolution reflecting condenser 4; the support 1 comprises a beam 1-1 and a column 1-2 supporting the beam 1-1, and the heat transfer pipe 2 is suspended and hung on the beam 1-1; the heat collector 3 is fixedly arranged right below the heat transfer pipe 2 and is communicated with the heat transfer pipe 2.
The heat transfer pipe 2 is made of an inner stainless steel pipe and an outer stainless steel pipe, the inner pipe transfers heat transfer medium, the inner side of the outer pipe is plated with a high-reflection film to isolate high-temperature radiation heat loss, and an interlayer between the inner pipe and the outer pipe is vacuum to form a vacuum heat insulation layer. The heat transfer pipe 2 can also be made of other pipelines adopting high-efficiency heat insulation measures.
The focus of the paraboloid of revolution reflecting condenser 4 is positioned on the heat collector 3 to ensure that the reflected light can be converged on the heat collector 3.
The tracking system comprises a vertical rotating mechanism which drives the rotary paraboloid reflection condenser 4 to move up and down by taking a focus of the rotary paraboloid reflection condenser as a center so as to track the change of the solar altitude angle, and a horizontal rotating mechanism which drives the rotary paraboloid reflection condenser 4 to horizontally rotate by taking a vertical line passing through the focus and vertically downwards as an axis so as to track the change of the solar azimuth angle; the tracking system also comprises a control device, wherein the control device comprises a solar azimuth angle automatic control signal device and a solar altitude angle automatic control signal device; the solar azimuth angle automatic control signal device controls the horizontal rotating mechanism to operate, and the solar altitude angle automatic control signal device controls the vertical rotating mechanism to operate. Because the tracking systems of the plurality of light-gathering and heat-collecting units are completely synchronous, the tracking systems of the plurality of light-gathering and heat-collecting units can be connected in parallel and control all the vertical rotating mechanisms and the horizontal rotating mechanisms by adopting the same control device.
As shown in fig. 2, the horizontal rotation mechanism includes an arc horizontal rail 9 fixedly disposed on the ground 19, a chassis 6 disposed on the arc horizontal rail 9, and a second driving mechanism 14 for driving the chassis 6 to rotate along the arc horizontal rail 9; at least three second rollers 8 are arranged on the chassis 6, the second rollers 8 are matched with the circular arc-shaped horizontal track 9, at least one second roller 8 is driven by a second driving mechanism 14, the second driving mechanism 14 is a motor reducing mechanism, and the second roller 8 connected with the motor reducing mechanism is a driving wheel; the sun azimuth angle automatic control signal device controls the second driving mechanism 14 to act.
The central axis of rotation of the base plate 6 is located right below the heat collector 3, i.e. the line between the center of the central axis of rotation and the focal point of the paraboloid-of-revolution reflecting condenser 4 is perpendicular to the ground 19. The line between the circle center of the circular arc horizontal track 9 and the focus of the paraboloid of revolution reflection condenser 4 is vertical to the ground 19.
The bottom center of the chassis 6 is fixedly provided with a supporting rotating shaft 7, the supporting rotating shaft 7 is connected with a rotating shaft supporting device fixed on the ground, the supporting rotating shaft plays a role in supporting the chassis 6, and the rotating track of the chassis is limited.
As another embodiment, the second driving mechanism 14 may also drive the supporting rotating shaft 7 to rotate through a transmission mechanism to drive the entire chassis 6 to rotate so as to track the change of the azimuth angle of the sun.
As shown in fig. 3, the vertical rotation mechanism is an embodiment of the vertical rotation mechanism, and includes two coaxial arc-shaped tracks 10 fixedly disposed on the horizontal rotation mechanism, a support structure, and a first driving mechanism 13, where the revolved parabolic reflection condenser 4 is disposed on the coaxial arc-shaped tracks 10 through the support structure, and the first driving mechanism 13 drives the revolved parabolic reflection condenser 4 to move along the coaxial arc-shaped tracks 10. Since the sun altitude varies over 90 degrees, the length of the coaxial arc-shaped track 10 is approximately 1/4 degrees long, i.e. its central angle is approximately 90 degrees.
The coaxial arc tracks 10 are at least two, and the connecting line of the circle centers of the coaxial arc tracks is parallel to the ground and penetrates through the focus of the rotary paraboloid reflection condenser 4. The first driving mechanism 13 drives the paraboloid-of-revolution reflecting condenser 4 to move up and down along the coaxial arc-shaped track 10 so as to track the change of the altitude angle of the sun.
The supporting structure comprises a plurality of supporting rods 11 fixedly connected with the revolution paraboloid reflection condenser 4, the lower ends of the supporting rods 11 are in contact with the coaxial arc-shaped track 10 through at least one group of first idler wheels 12, and the two first idler wheels 12 in one group are respectively arranged on the upper side and the lower side of the coaxial arc-shaped track 10, so that the supporting structure can smoothly roll on the coaxial arc-shaped track 10 to track the change of the altitude angle of the sun and does not depart from the coaxial arc-shaped track 10, and the supporting structure has good stability. The number of the coaxial arc-shaped tracks 10 is at least two, and each coaxial arc-shaped track 10 corresponds to at least two support rods 11.
As an equivalent alternative, a rack may be fixedly disposed on the back of the paraboloidal mirror 4, the first driving mechanism 13 may be a motor speed reducing mechanism or a stepping motor, and a gear is fixedly disposed on an output shaft of the first driving mechanism and is engaged with the rack.
Fig. 5 shows another embodiment of the vertical rotation mechanism, which includes a plurality of connecting rods 18 fixedly connected to the paraboloidal reflecting condenser 4 and a rotating plate 16 disposed on the rack 1 or the heat collector 3, wherein the rotating plate 16 is disposed on the top of the heat collector 3 in this embodiment; a plurality of connecting rods 18 extend towards the heat collector 3 and are hinged with the rotary disc 16, referring to fig. 5, two sides of the rotary disc 16 are provided with connecting plates 17 extending downwards, and the top ends of the connecting rods 18 are hinged with the connecting plates 17 and can rotate around the connecting points thereof.
The connecting rods 18 are used for suspending the paraboloidal rotating reflection condenser 4, the connecting rods 18 are respectively arranged on two sides of the heat collector 3, and the axial line of the rotating shaft at the upper end of the connecting rods 18 penetrates through the focus of the paraboloidal rotating reflection condenser 4. Preferably four connecting rods 18 are provided.
Fig. 3 and 4 show two different embodiments of the first drive mechanism 13.
Referring to fig. 3, the first driving mechanism 13 is a scissor type telescopic mechanism, the scissor type telescopic mechanism includes a scissor type telescopic frame 13-1 and an electric push rod one 13-2 for driving the scissor type telescopic frame 13-1 to move, one end of the scissor type telescopic frame 13-1 is hinged to the horizontal rotating mechanism, and the other end of the scissor type telescopic frame 13-1 is hinged to the bottom of the rotating parabolic reflection condenser 4 or the supporting structure thereof. In this embodiment, the coaxial arc-shaped track 10 is fixed by a support frame 15 fixedly arranged on the turntable chassis 6, one end of the scissor type telescopic frame 13-1 is hinged on the horizontal rotating mechanism, the other end of the scissor type telescopic frame is hinged with the tail end of the bottom of the support rod 11, and the solar altitude angle automatic control signal device controls the action of the electric push rod I13-2 to track the change of the solar altitude angle.
Referring to fig. 5, a scissor type telescopic mechanism is also used in this embodiment, in which a scissor type telescopic frame 13-1 is hinged at one end to a column fixed to the base plate 6 and at the other end to the bottom end of a connecting rod 18.
Referring to fig. 4, the first driving mechanism 13 is a second electric push rod 13-3, one end of the second electric push rod 13-3 is hinged to the support frame 15, and the other end of the second electric push rod 13-3 is hinged to the bottom of the rotating parabolic reflection condenser 4 or the support rod 11. The solar elevation angle automatic control signal device controls the second electric push rod 13-3 to act so as to track the change of the solar elevation angle.
As shown in fig. 2 and 3, the bottom surface of the heat collector 3 is used as a heat absorbing surface, and the focal point of the paraboloidal rotating reflecting condenser 4 coincides with the center of the heat absorbing surface of the heat collector 3, so as to ensure that the reflected light 5 can be converged on the heat collector 3. The diameter of the reflecting light-gathering spot of the rotary paraboloid reflecting light-gathering mirror 4 is 10-50 cm.
When the heat collector 3 uses only the bottom surface thereof as the heat absorbing surface, the condenser portion of the paraboloidal rotary reflecting condenser 4 is selected as shown in fig. 6, and the whole lower half portion or a part of the lower half portion of the paraboloidal rotary reflecting condenser 4 is used as the reflecting surface 41.
As shown in fig. 7, in the case where most or all of the paraboloid of revolution of the parabolic reflector 4 is used as the reflecting surface 41, the heat absorbing surface of the heat collector 3 is of a bulb type to receive the reflected light from the upper side, and the distance between the heat collector 3 and the heat transfer pipe 2 is set to be appropriately increased so as not to affect the upward movement of the parabolic reflector 4.
Finally, it should be noted that: the above examples are only intended to illustrate the technical solution of the present invention, but not to limit it; although the present invention has been described in detail with reference to the foregoing embodiments, it will be understood by those of ordinary skill in the art that: the technical solutions described in the foregoing embodiments may still be modified, or some technical features may be equivalently replaced; and such modifications or substitutions do not depart from the spirit and scope of the corresponding technical solutions of the embodiments of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. The utility model provides an array fixed heat collector rotation paraboloid solar energy spotlight solar collecting system which characterized in that: the device comprises a plurality of light-gathering and heat-collecting units which are connected in series/parallel;
the light and heat gathering unit comprises a support (1), a heat transfer pipe (2) fixedly arranged on the support (1), a heat collector (3) fixedly connected to the heat transfer pipe (2), a rotary paraboloid reflection condenser (4) and a tracking system supporting the rotary paraboloid reflection condenser;
the focus of the rotary paraboloid reflecting condenser (4) is positioned on the heat collector (3);
the tracking system comprises a vertical rotating mechanism for driving the rotary paraboloid reflecting condenser (4) to move up and down by taking the focus thereof as the center so as to track the change of the solar altitude, and
the horizontal rotating mechanism drives the rotating paraboloid reflecting condenser (4) to horizontally rotate by taking a vertical line passing through a focus downwards as an axis so as to track the change of the azimuth angle of the sun;
the heat transmission pipes (2) of the plurality of light and heat collecting units are connected in series/parallel.
2. The array type fixed heat collector paraboloid of revolution solar concentrating and heat collecting system according to claim 1, wherein: the vertical rotating mechanism comprises at least two coaxial arc-shaped tracks (10), a supporting structure and a first driving mechanism (13), wherein the coaxial arc-shaped tracks (10) are fixedly arranged on the horizontal rotating mechanism, the rotary parabolic reflection condenser (4) is arranged on the coaxial arc-shaped tracks (10) through the supporting structure, and the first driving mechanism (13) drives the rotary parabolic reflection condenser (4) to move along the coaxial arc-shaped tracks (10).
3. The array type fixed heat collector revolution paraboloid solar concentrating and heat collecting system according to claim 2, wherein: the supporting structure comprises a plurality of supporting rods (11) fixedly connected with the paraboloid of revolution reflection condenser (4), the lower ends of the supporting rods (11) are in contact with the coaxial arc-shaped track (10) through at least one group of first rollers (12), and the two first rollers (12) in one group are respectively arranged on the upper side and the lower side of the coaxial arc-shaped track (10).
4. The array type fixed heat collector revolution paraboloid solar concentrating and heat collecting system according to claim 2, wherein: the first driving mechanism (13) is
The scissor type telescopic mechanism comprises a scissor type telescopic frame (13-1) and an electric push rod I (13-2) for driving the scissor type telescopic frame (13-1) to move, one end of the scissor type telescopic frame (13-1) is hinged with the horizontal rotating mechanism, and the other end of the scissor type telescopic frame is hinged with the bottom of the rotating paraboloid reflecting condenser (4) or the supporting structure of the rotating paraboloid reflecting condenser;
or an electric push rod II (13-3), one end of the electric push rod II (13-3) is hinged with the horizontal rotating mechanism, and the other end of the electric push rod II (13-3) is hinged with the bottom of the rotary paraboloid reflection condenser (4) or the supporting structure thereof.
5. The array type fixed heat collector revolution paraboloid solar concentrating and heat collecting system according to claim 2, wherein: the supporting structure comprises a plurality of connecting rods (18) fixedly connected with the paraboloid of revolution reflection condenser (4) and a turntable (16) arranged on the support (1) or the heat collector (3), the connecting rods (18) extend towards the heat collector (3) and are hinged with the turntable (16), the connecting rods (18) are used for suspending the paraboloid of revolution reflection condenser (4), and the axial lead of the upper end rotating shaft of the connecting rods (18) penetrates through the focus of the paraboloid of revolution reflection condenser (4).
6. The array type fixed heat collector paraboloid of revolution solar concentrating and heat collecting system according to claim 1, wherein: the horizontal rotating mechanism comprises a circular arc horizontal rail (9) which is fixedly arranged, a chassis (6) which is arranged on the circular arc horizontal rail (9) and a second driving mechanism (14) which drives the chassis (6) to rotate and move along the circular arc horizontal rail (9), and the center of the circular arc horizontal rail (9) is positioned on a vertical downward vertical line of the focus of the rotating parabolic reflector.
7. The array fixed collector paraboloid of revolution solar concentrating and heat collecting system of claim 6, wherein: the chassis (6) is at least provided with three second rollers (8), the second rollers (8) are matched with the circular arc-shaped horizontal track (9), at least one second roller (8) is driven by a second driving mechanism (14), and the second driving mechanism (14) is a motor speed reducing mechanism.
8. The array type fixed heat collector paraboloid of revolution solar concentrating and heat collecting system according to claim 1, wherein: the heat transfer pipe (2) is made of an inner stainless steel pipe and an outer stainless steel pipe, the inner pipe transfers heat transfer medium, the inner side of the outer pipe is plated with a high-reflection film, and an interlayer between the inner pipe and the outer pipe is vacuum.
9. The array type fixed heat collector paraboloid of revolution solar concentrating and heat collecting system according to claim 1, wherein: the bottom surface of the heat collector (3) is used as a heat absorption surface, and the diameter of a reflection light-gathering spot of the rotary paraboloid reflection light-gathering mirror (4) is 10-50 cm.
10. The array type fixed heat collector paraboloid of revolution solar concentrating and heat collecting system according to claim 1, wherein: when the heat collector (3) only uses the bottom surface thereof as a heat absorbing surface, the rotary paraboloid reflection condenser (4) uses the whole lower half part or partial lower half part of the rotary paraboloid as a reflecting surface;
when the whole or more than half of the revolution paraboloid is used as the reflecting surface of the reflecting condenser (4), the heat collector (3) adopts a bulb-shaped heat absorber.
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