CN113372035B - Anti-segregation agent for concrete and preparation method thereof - Google Patents

Anti-segregation agent for concrete and preparation method thereof Download PDF

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CN113372035B
CN113372035B CN202110836807.9A CN202110836807A CN113372035B CN 113372035 B CN113372035 B CN 113372035B CN 202110836807 A CN202110836807 A CN 202110836807A CN 113372035 B CN113372035 B CN 113372035B
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concrete
segregation
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CN113372035A (en
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翁仲彪
吕荣峰
夏永州
马快
韦成秋
胡禹梅
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Xinxingzhan Mianyang Building Materials Co ltd
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Xinxingzhan Mianyang Building Materials Co ltd
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B40/00Processes, in general, for influencing or modifying the properties of mortars, concrete or artificial stone compositions, e.g. their setting or hardening ability
    • C04B40/0028Aspects relating to the mixing step of the mortar preparation
    • C04B40/0039Premixtures of ingredients

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  • Emulsifying, Dispersing, Foam-Producing Or Wetting Agents (AREA)

Abstract

The application relates to the technical field of concrete auxiliaries, and particularly discloses an anti-segregation agent for concrete and a preparation method thereof. The concrete segregation resisting agent comprises 5-15 parts of dispersing agent, 1-5 parts of polyaluminium chloride, 20-30 parts of water and 8-20 parts of cohesive material; the cohesive material comprises oxhide gelatin; the preparation method comprises the following steps: according to the formula, the dispersant and the cohesive material are mixed and stirred for 20-30min at the rotating speed of 800-1200r/min to obtain the anti-segregation agent for concrete. The segregation-resisting agent for the concrete can be used for reducing the segregation rate of the concrete, and has the advantages of being not easy to cause shrinkage cracks on the concrete and improving the performances of the concrete such as impermeability and frost resistance; in addition, the preparation method has the advantages of wide application and simplicity in operation.

Description

Anti-segregation agent for concrete and preparation method thereof
Technical Field
The application relates to the technical field of concrete additives, in particular to an anti-segregation agent for concrete and a preparation method thereof.
Background
Concrete segregation is the phenomenon that cohesive force among concrete mixture components is not enough to resist the sinking of coarse aggregates, and concrete mixture components are separated from each other to cause non-uniform internal components and structures. It is common to present coarse aggregate separated from the mortar, such as dense particles deposited at the bottom of the mix, or coarse aggregate separated from the mix as a whole.
Concrete segregation can influence the pumping construction performance of concrete, cause tank sticking, pipe blocking, influence the time limit for a project and the like, reduce economic benefits, also can produce the phenomena of sand marks, exposed aggregate, exposed reinforcing steel bars and the like on the surface of the concrete, cause the strength of the concrete to be greatly reduced, seriously influence the bearing capacity of a concrete structure, destroy the safety performance of the structure, and seriously cause rework or huge economic loss. Moreover, the segregation of concrete causes poor homogeneity of concrete, so that shrinkage of each part of concrete is inconsistent, and concrete shrinkage cracks are easy to generate. Particularly, when a concrete floor slab is constructed, a cement slurry layer on the surface layer is thickened due to concrete segregation, shrinkage is rapidly increased, and a severe cracking phenomenon occurs. Greatly reducing the performances of concrete such as impermeability, frost resistance and the like.
In view of the above-described related art, the inventors consider that reducing the segregation rate of concrete is of great significance.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to reduce the segregation rate of concrete, the application provides an anti-segregation agent for concrete and a preparation method thereof.
In a first aspect, the application provides an anti-segregation agent for concrete, which adopts the following technical scheme:
an anti-segregation agent for concrete is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 5-15 parts of dispersing agent, 1-5 parts of polyaluminium chloride, 20-30 parts of water and 8-20 parts of cohesive material; the cohesive material comprises gelatin.
By adopting the technical scheme, because the oxhide gelatin is added into the concrete segregation resistance agent, the oxhide gelatin has the stability of a high-efficiency tackifier and can effectively increase the cohesiveness between the coarse aggregate and the fine aggregate after being used in concrete, so that the coarse aggregate and the fine aggregate are not easy to separate, and the segregation rate of the concrete is reduced. The dispersant is used for increasing the dispersibility of the cohesive material in the concrete and reducing the segregation rate of the concrete under the synergistic effect of the dispersant and the cohesive material.
Preferably, the cohesive material also comprises a water-retaining component, the mass ratio of the water-retaining component to the oxhide gelatin is (4-6): 1-3, and the water-retaining component comprises super absorbent resin or water-retaining body.
By adopting the technical scheme, the water retention component can effectively retain water of the mixed concrete, so that the components of the concrete raw material are not easy to separate from water, and the segregation rate of the concrete is further reduced.
Preferably, the water retention body comprises a silicon porous water retention body, and the silicon porous water retention body is prepared by adopting the following method:
(1) mixing and stirring 10-20 parts of water and 5-15 parts of hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, adding 4-8 parts of silica sol and 2-8 parts of silane coupling agent, and continuously stirring until a light blue solution is formed to obtain a reaction solution;
(2) and (2) mixing the reaction solution obtained in the step (1) with an ammonia water solution with the mass fraction of 2% -6% according to the mass ratio of (5-15): (1-6), stirring, and aging at 45-55 ℃ for 20-28h to obtain an aged body;
(3) and (3) drying the aged body in the step (2) at the temperature of 60-80 ℃ for 20-30min, and grinding to obtain the porous silicon water retention body.
Through adopting above-mentioned technical scheme, the porous body of protecting water of silicon has excellent guarantor's water performance, can make water get into simultaneously difficult outflow from porous structure. Through the step (1), partial raw materials for preparing the silicon porous water-retaining body can react to obtain reaction liquid. And (3) further treating the reaction liquid through the step (2), and ageing to obtain an aged body. And (4) finally, drying and grinding the aged body through the step (3) to obtain the powdery silicon porous water retention body.
Preferably, the rotation speed of the stirring treatment in the step (2) is 600-.
By adopting the technical scheme, the porous silicon water-retaining body with smaller particle size can be generated at the stirring speed, so that the water-retaining performance of the porous silicon water-retaining body is improved.
Preferably, the oxhide gelatin is a porous oxhide gelatin, the porosity of the porous oxhide gelatin is 40% -60%, and the oxhide gelatin is coated outside the water-retaining component to form a cohesive material with a core-shell structure.
By adopting the technical scheme, after water is added into concrete and the anti-segregation agent, the water enters the interior of the yellow gelatin through the porous structure of the yellow gelatin, the interior of the yellow gelatin is coated with the water retention component, and the water retention component is contacted with the water to realize water retention. The yellow gelatin is coated outside the water-retaining component, so that the yellow gelatin has a larger contact area with the other components of the concrete, the combination area of the yellow gelatin and the other components of the concrete is increased, the cohesive force between concrete raw materials is increased, and the segregation rate of the concrete is reduced.
Preferably, the dispersant comprises a cationic dispersant or a nonionic dispersant.
By adopting the technical scheme, the cationic dispersant has high water solubility and good stability. The nonionic dispersant also has good stability, so that the nonionic dispersant is added into concrete to improve the stability of the whole concrete.
Preferably, the dispersant comprises a cationic dispersant comprising cetyltrimethyl quaternary ammonium bromide or cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride.
By adopting the technical scheme, the cationic dispersant not only has good stability, but also has good water solubility, and after the cationic dispersant is dissolved in water, the cohesive material and the water enter gaps in the concrete together, so that the dispersibility of the cationic dispersant in the concrete is improved, the uniform and stable concrete is convenient to form, and the segregation rate of the concrete is further reduced.
In a second aspect, the application provides a preparation method of an anti-segregation agent for concrete, which adopts the following technical scheme:
a preparation method of an anti-segregation agent for concrete comprises the following preparation steps: according to the formula, the dispersant and the cohesive material are mixed at the temperature of 80-100 ℃ and the rotating speed of 200-300r/min and then stirred for 40-60min, thus obtaining the anti-segregation agent for concrete.
By adopting the technical scheme, the dispersing agent and the cohesive material are well combined by mixing and stirring, and the uniform and stable anti-segregation agent is finally obtained.
In summary, the present application has the following beneficial effects:
1. the yellow gelatin is added into the concrete segregation resistance agent, so that the yellow gelatin has the stability of the efficient tackifier and can effectively increase the cohesiveness between the coarse aggregate and the fine aggregate after being used in the concrete, the coarse aggregate and the fine aggregate are difficult to separate, the segregation rate of the concrete is reduced, and the dispersant is used for increasing the dispersibility of the cohering materials in the concrete and reducing the segregation rate of the concrete under the synergistic action of the cohering materials.
2. According to the application, the xanthic gelatin is preferably adopted as the porous xanthic gelatin, the xanthic gelatin is coated outside the water retention component to form a cohesive material with a core-shell structure, after water is added into concrete and the anti-segregation agent, the water enters the xanthic gelatin through the porous structure of the xanthic gelatin, the water retention component is coated inside the xanthic gelatin, the water retention component is contacted with the water to achieve water retention, and the xanthic gelatin is coated outside the water retention component to enable the xanthic gelatin to have a larger contact area with the rest components of the concrete, so that the combination area of the xanthic gelatin and the rest components of the concrete is increased, the cohesive force among concrete raw materials is increased, and the segregation rate of the concrete is reduced.
3. According to the method, the dispersing agent and the cohesive material are well combined through mixing and stirring, and the uniform and stable anti-segregation agent is finally obtained.
Detailed Description
The present application will be described in further detail with reference to examples.
In the examples of the present application, the drugs used are shown in table 1:
TABLE 1 pharmaceutical products of the examples of the present application
Figure DEST_PATH_IMAGE002
Preparation examples of Water-retaining component
Preparation example 1: the water-retaining component of the preparation example is prepared by the following method:
(1) weighing 10kg of water and 5kg of hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide according to parts by weight, mixing and stirring at the rotating speed of 120r/min for 10min, adding 4kg of silica sol and 2kg of silane coupling agent in the stirring process, and continuously stirring at the rotating speed of 120r/min until a light blue solution is presented to obtain a reaction solution;
(2) mixing 5kg of the reaction solution obtained in the step (1) with 1kg of 2% ammonia water solution by mass, stirring at a rotating speed of 600r/min for 40min, and aging at 50 ℃ for 24h to obtain an aged body;
(3) and (3) drying the aged body in the step (2) at 60 ℃ for 20min, and grinding to obtain a silicon porous water-retaining body, namely a water-retaining component.
Preparation example 2: the water-retaining component of the preparation example is prepared by the following method:
(1) weighing 15kg of water and 10kg of hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide according to parts by weight, mixing and stirring at the rotating speed of 120r/min for 10min, adding 6kg of silica sol and 5kg of silane coupling agent in the stirring process, and continuously stirring at the rotating speed of 120r/min until a light blue solution is presented to obtain a reaction solution;
(2) mixing 5kg of the reaction solution obtained in the step (1) with 1kg of 2% ammonia water solution by mass, stirring at a rotating speed of 600r/min for 40min, and aging at 50 ℃ for 24h to obtain an aged body;
(3) and (3) drying the aged body in the step (2) at 60 ℃ for 20min, and grinding to obtain a silicon porous water-retaining body, namely a water-retaining component.
Preparation example 3: the water-retaining component of the preparation example is prepared by the following method:
(1) weighing 20kg of water and 15kg of hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide according to parts by weight, mixing and stirring at the rotating speed of 120r/min for 10min, adding 8kg of silica sol and 8kg of silane coupling agent in the stirring process, and continuously stirring at the rotating speed of 120r/min until a light blue solution is presented to obtain a reaction solution;
(2) mixing 5kg of the reaction solution obtained in the step (1) with 1kg of 2% ammonia water solution, stirring at a rotating speed of 600r/min for 40min, and aging at 50 ℃ for 24h to obtain an aged body;
(3) and (3) drying the aged body in the step (2) at 60 ℃ for 20min, and grinding to obtain a porous silicon water retention body, namely a water retention component.
Preparation example 4: the difference between the preparation example and the preparation example 1 is that:
the rotation speed in step (2) of this production example was 700 r/min.
Preparation example 5: the difference between the preparation example and the preparation example 1 is that:
the rotation speed in step (2) of this production example was 800 r/min.
Preparation example 6: the preparation example directly adopts super absorbent resin as the water retention component.
Preparation example of adhesive Material
Preparation example 7: the cohesive material of the preparation example is prepared by the following method:
(1) taking 4kg of cowhide, scraping off cowhide hair, washing with clear water, boiling at 100 deg.C for 10min, and removing dirt and residual hair to obtain clean cowhide;
(2) mixing the clean cowhide in the step (1) with 16kg of water, heating at 100 ℃ for 2h, and continuously heating at the pressure of 50Kpa and the temperature of 110 ℃ for 1h to obtain a colloid liquid;
(3) and (3) filtering the colloidal liquid obtained in the step (2), taking 2kg of filtrate, 0.2kg of pore-forming agent and 0.5kg of water-retaining component in the preparation example 1, stirring at the temperature of 100 ℃ and the rotating speed of 120r/min for 20min, cooling to room temperature, ageing for 4h, grinding into powder to obtain the cohesive material with the core-shell structure, wherein the core structure is the water-retaining component in the preparation example 1, the shell structure is the oxhide gelatin, the mass ratio of the oxhide gelatin to the water-retaining component is 1:4, and the porosity of the oxhide gelatin is 50%.
Preparation example 8: the cohesive material of the preparation example is prepared by the following method:
(1) taking 4kg of cowhide, scraping off cowhide hair, washing with clear water, boiling at 100 deg.C for 10min, and removing dirt and residual hair to obtain clean cowhide;
(2) mixing the clean cowhide in the step (1) with 16kg of water, heating at 100 ℃ for 2h, and continuously heating at the pressure of 50KPa and the temperature of 110 ℃ for 1h to obtain colloid liquid;
(3) filtering the colloid liquid obtained in the step (2), heating 2kg of filtrate and 0.2kg of pore-forming agent at 100 ℃ for 20min, cooling to room temperature, standing for 4h, and grinding into powder to obtain porous gelatin, wherein the porosity of the gelatin is 50%;
(4) and (3) mixing the oxhide gelatin in the step (3) with 0.5kg of the water-retaining component in the preparation example 1, and stirring at the rotating speed of 120r/min for 10min to obtain a cohesive material, wherein the mass ratio of the oxhide gelatin to the water-retaining component is 1: 4.
Preparation example 9: the difference between this preparation and preparation 7 is that:
in this preparation example, no cell opener was added.
Preparation examples 10 to 14: the cohesive materials of preparation examples 10-14 differed from preparation example 7 in the choice of the water retention component, as shown in Table 2.
TABLE 2 selection of Water-retaining Components in preparation example 7 and preparation examples 10 to 14
Figure DEST_PATH_IMAGE004
Examples
Example 1: a preparation method of an anti-segregation agent for concrete comprises the following steps:
weighing 5kg of hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium quaternary ammonium bromide serving as a dispersing agent, 8kg of the cohesive material of the preparation example 1, 1kg of polyaluminium chloride and 20kg of water; according to the formula, the dispersant and the cohesive material are mixed and stirred for 20min at the rotating speed of 350r/min, and the anti-segregation agent for concrete is obtained.
Example 2: a preparation method of an anti-segregation agent for concrete comprises the following steps:
weighing 10kg of hexadecyl trimethyl quaternary ammonium bromide serving as a dispersing agent, 14kg of the cohesive material of the preparation example 1, 3kg of polyaluminum chloride and 25kg of water; according to the formula, the dispersant and the cohesive material are mixed and stirred for 20min at the rotating speed of 350r/min, and the anti-segregation agent for concrete is obtained.
Example 3: a preparation method of an anti-segregation agent for concrete comprises the following steps:
weighing 15kg of hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium quaternary ammonium bromide serving as a dispersing agent, 20kg of the cohesive material of the preparation example 1, 5kg of polyaluminium chloride and 30kg of water; according to the formula, the dispersant and the cohesive material are mixed and stirred for 20min at the rotating speed of 350r/min, and the anti-segregation agent for the concrete is obtained.
Example 4: this example differs from example 1 in that it employs cetyltrimethylammonium chloride as the dispersant.
Examples 5 to 11: examples 5-11 differ from example 1 in the cohesive material selected, as shown in table 3.
TABLE 3 cohesive materials selected for examples 1 and 5-11
Figure DEST_PATH_IMAGE006
Comparative example
Comparative example 1: the comparative example differs from example 1 in that:
no dispersant was added in this comparative example.
Comparative example 2: the comparative example differs from example 1 in that:
no cohesive material was added in this comparative example.
Performance test
Crack resistance detection method
2kg of segregation resistance agent in the application is added into 10kg of concrete, and after the concrete is naturally aired for 7 days, the concrete is subjected to long-term performance and durability test method standard of GB T50082-2009 common concrete.
2kg of segregation-resistant agent in the application is added into 10kg of concrete, and after the concrete is naturally aired for 7 days, the strength of the concrete is tested according to the concrete strength test evaluation standard GB 50107-2010.
TABLE 4 Performance test Table
Figure DEST_PATH_IMAGE008
The concrete anti-segregation agent is prepared by comparing the following examples 1 to 3, wherein the examples 1 to 3 are different in the proportion of the raw materials of the concrete anti-segregation agent, and the example 2 has the lowest segregation resistance rate and the best proportion of the raw materials in the example 2 because the compression strength of the example 2 is the highest and the average cracked area of each crack is the lowest.
Example 4 was compared with example 1, and example 4 was different from example 1 in that example 1 and example 4 used cetyltrimethyl quaternary ammonium bromide and cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride as dispersants in this order. The total number of the cracks of the embodiment 1 and the embodiment 4 is the same, but the average cracking area of each crack of the embodiment 1 is smaller than that of the embodiment 4, the compression strength of the embodiment 1 is larger, and therefore the segregation rate of the embodiment 1 is lower, and the cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide is better to be used as the dispersing agent.
Example 5 was compared with example 1, and example 5 was different from example 1 in that example 1 and example 5 used the cohesive materials of preparation example 7 and preparation example 8, respectively, and preparation example 7 was different from preparation example 8 in that the method for preparing the cohesive material was different, example 1 prepared the cohesive material of core-shell structure in which xanthene gelatin was coated outside the water-retaining component, and example 5 in which xanthene gelatin was mixed with the water-retaining component as usual. Since the total number of cracks and the average cracking area per crack in example 1 are smaller than those in example 5, and the compressive strength of example 1 is larger, the segregation rate of example 1 is lower, and therefore, the method for preparing the cohesive material in example 1 is better, that is, the cohesive material with a core-shell structure formed by coating xanthene gelatin on the water-retaining component is better.
Example 6 was compared with example 1, and example 6 differs from example 1 in that no cell opener was added in example 6. Since the total number of cracks and the average cracking area of each crack in example 1 are smaller than those in example 6, and the compressive strength of example 1 is higher, the segregation rate of example 1 is lower, because the addition of the pore-forming agent in example 1 enables the oxhide gelatin to be a porous structure, so that water can enter the oxhide gelatin to contact with the water-retaining component for water retention, the concrete raw material is not easy to separate from water, and the segregation rate of concrete is reduced. Therefore, gelatin with a porous structure is more preferable.
Example 1 and examples 7 to 8 were compared, except that the cohesive materials in preparation examples 7, 10 and 11 were used in example 1 and examples 7 to 8, respectively. The cohesive materials in preparation examples 7, 10 and 11 were different in that the water-retaining components in preparation examples 1 to 3 were selected, respectively, and the water-retaining components in preparation examples 1 to 3 were different in the ratio of raw materials in the preparation of the water-retaining components. Since the total number of cracks in examples 1 and 7-8 are the same, but the average area of each crack in example 7 is the smallest, and the compressive strength of example 7 is the largest, the segregation rate of example 7 is the smallest, and the raw material ratio for preparing the water-retaining component in example 7 is the best.
Example 1 and examples 9 to 10 were compared, except that the cohesive materials in preparation examples 7, 12 and 13 were used in example 1 and examples 9 to 10, respectively. The cohesive materials in production examples 7, 12, and 13 were different in that the water-retentive components in production examples 1 and 4 to 5 were selected, respectively, and the water-retentive components in production examples 1 and 4 to 5 were different in the rotation speed in step (2) in the preparation of the water-retentive components. Since the total number of cracks was the same in examples 1 and 9 to 10, but the average area of each crack was the smallest in example 9 and the compressive strength was the largest in example 9, the segregation rate of example 9 was the smallest and the rotation speed in step (2) was the best when the water-retaining component was prepared in example 9.
Example 1 and example 11 were compared, and example 11 was different from example 1 in that example 11 directly used a super absorbent resin as a water retention component. Since the total number of cracks and the average area of each crack in example 1 are small, and the compressive strength of example 1 is large, the segregation rate of example 1 is the smallest, and therefore, it is better to use the porous silicon water retention body as the water retention body in example 1.
Example 1 was compared with comparative example 1, and comparative example 1 was different from example 1 in that no dispersant was added in comparative example 1. Since the total number of cracks and the average area of each crack in the example 1 are smaller, and the compressive strength of the example 1 is larger, the segregation rate of the example 1 is smaller, so the dispersing agent added in the example 1 increases the dispersibility of the cohesive material in the concrete.
Finally, example 1 is compared with comparative example 2, comparative example 2 differing from example 1 in that no cohesive material was added to comparative example 2. Since the total number of cracks and the average area of each crack in example 1 are small, and the compressive strength of example 1 is large, the segregation rate of example 1 is small, and thus the segregation rate of concrete is reduced by adding the cohesive material in example 1.
The specific embodiments are only for explaining the present application and are not limiting to the present application, and those skilled in the art can make modifications to the embodiments without inventive contribution as required after reading the present specification, but all the embodiments are protected by patent law within the scope of the claims of the present application.

Claims (6)

1. The anti-segregation agent for the concrete is characterized by being prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight:
5-15 parts of a dispersing agent;
1-5 parts of polyaluminum chloride;
20-30 parts of water;
8-20 parts of cohesive material; the cohesive material comprises oxhide gelatin;
the cohesive material also comprises a water-retaining component, the mass ratio of the water-retaining component to the oxhide gelatin is (4-6) to (1-3), and the water-retaining component comprises super absorbent resin or a water-retaining body;
the yellow gelatin is of a porous structure, the porosity of the yellow gelatin of the porous structure is 40% -60%, and the yellow gelatin is coated outside the water-retaining component to form a cohesive material of a core-shell structure.
2. The segregation reducing agent for concrete according to claim 1, wherein: the water-retaining body comprises a silicon porous water-retaining body, and the silicon porous water-retaining body is prepared by adopting the following method:
(1) mixing and stirring 10-20 parts of water and 5-15 parts of hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, adding 4-8 parts of silica sol and 2-8 parts of silane coupling agent, and continuously stirring until a light blue solution is formed to obtain a reaction solution;
(2) and (2) mixing the reaction solution obtained in the step (1) with an ammonia water solution with the mass fraction of 2% -6% according to the mass ratio of (5-15): (1-6), stirring, and aging at 45-55 ℃ for 20-28h to obtain an aged body;
(3) and (3) drying the aged body in the step (2) at 60-80 ℃ for 20-30min, and grinding to obtain the silicon porous water retention body.
3. An anti-segregation agent for concrete according to claim 2, wherein: the rotating speed of the stirring treatment in the step (2) is 600-800 r/min.
4. The segregation reducing agent for concrete according to claim 1, wherein: the dispersant includes a cationic dispersant or a nonionic dispersant.
5. The segregation reducing agent for concrete according to claim 4, wherein: the dispersant comprises a cationic dispersant comprising cetyltrimethyl quaternary ammonium bromide or cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride.
6. A method for preparing an anti-segregation agent for concrete according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein: the preparation method comprises the following preparation steps: according to the formula, the dispersant and the cohesive material are mixed at the temperature of 80-100 ℃ and the rotating speed of 200-300r/min and then stirred for 40-60min, thus obtaining the anti-segregation agent for concrete.
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