CN1127777C - Plane and double frequency aerial, radio frequency device using same - Google Patents

Plane and double frequency aerial, radio frequency device using same Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1127777C
CN1127777C CN00100912A CN00100912A CN1127777C CN 1127777 C CN1127777 C CN 1127777C CN 00100912 A CN00100912 A CN 00100912A CN 00100912 A CN00100912 A CN 00100912A CN 1127777 C CN1127777 C CN 1127777C
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China
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radiating element
operating frequency
conductive
pifa
slot
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CN00100912A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN1259775A (en
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S·塔瓦斯
J·米科拉
S·基维莱
A·伊索海泰莱
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菲尔特朗尼克Lk有限公司
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q9/00Electrically-short antennas having dimensions not more than twice the operating wavelength and consisting of conductive active radiating elements
    • H01Q9/04Resonant antennas
    • H01Q9/0407Substantially flat resonant element parallel to ground plane, e.g. patch antenna
    • H01Q9/0421Substantially flat resonant element parallel to ground plane, e.g. patch antenna with a shorting wall or a shorting pin at one end of the element
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q5/00Arrangements for simultaneous operation of antennas on two or more different wavebands, e.g. dual-band or multi-band arrangements
    • H01Q5/30Arrangements for providing operation on different wavebands
    • H01Q5/307Individual or coupled radiating elements, each element being fed in an unspecified way
    • H01Q5/342Individual or coupled radiating elements, each element being fed in an unspecified way for different propagation modes
    • H01Q5/357Individual or coupled radiating elements, each element being fed in an unspecified way for different propagation modes using a single feed point
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q5/00Arrangements for simultaneous operation of antennas on two or more different wavebands, e.g. dual-band or multi-band arrangements
    • H01Q5/40Imbricated or interleaved structures; Combined or electromagnetically coupled arrangements, e.g. comprising two or more non-connected fed radiating elements

Abstract

一种PIFA结构具有第一操作频率和第二操作频率。 One kind PIFA structure has a first operating frequency and second operating frequency. 其包括由基本上连续的边界线限定的导电区形成的且被非导电槽(802)分割的平面辐射元件(801,1002,1101,1203)。 Comprising forming of a substantially continuous border line and a conductive region defined by the planar radiating element (802) into a non-conductive slot (801,1002,1101,1203). 槽具有在基本连续边界线上的第一端和在导电区内的第二端。 The groove having a first end and a second end substantially continuous border line in the conductive region. 平面辐射元件包括馈入点(803,1206)和接地接点(804,1208),它们位于槽的第一端附近,使得在馈入点测量的由槽分割的导电区的电气长度等于在第一操作频率下波长的1/4,并且槽的电气长度等于在第二操作频率下的波长的1/4。 Planar radiating element comprises a feedpoint (803,1206) and a ground contact (804,1208), which are located near the first end of the slot, such that the electrical length of the conductive area divided grooves feeding point is equal to the first measured 1/4 of the wavelength at the operating frequency and the electrical length of the slot is equal to 1/4 wavelength at the second operating frequency.

Description

平面双频天线和使用平面天线的射频设备 Flat dual-band antenna and a radio apparatus using a planar antenna

技术领域 FIELD

本发明一般涉及一种平面天线的结构。 The present invention generally relates to a planar antenna structure. 具体地说,本发明涉及一种把两种不同的天线设计组合在一起,因而在两个完全不同的频率下操作的平面结构。 More specifically, the present invention relates to a combination of two different antenna designs together planar structure thus operating at two different frequencies. 此外,本发明涉及一种这种天线的的馈入装置,并涉及使用这种天线的射频设备。 Further, the present invention relates to an apparatus for feeding such an antenna, and to a radio apparatus using this antenna.

背景技术 Background technique

图1表示一公知的倒置的F形平面天线(PIFA)的基本结构100,其中包括一平面导电辐射元件101,和所述辐射元件平行的导电的接地平面102,以及用于互连这两个元件的基本上垂直于辐射元件和接地平面的接地接点103。 1 shows a known planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA) basic structure 100, which comprises a planar conductive radiating element 101, and the conductive radiating element is parallel to a ground plane 102, and means for interconnecting the two substantially perpendicular to the ground plane of the radiating element and the ground element 103 contacts. 所述结构还包括馈入电极104,其也基本上和辐射元件以及接地平面垂直,并且可以被耦联到一射频设备的天线端口(未示出)。 The structure further includes an antenna feed port electrode 104, and which is also substantially perpendicular to the radiating element and the ground plane, and may be coupled to a radio frequency device (not shown). 在图1的结构中,辐射元件101,接地接点103和馈入电极104通常通过把薄的金属板切割成具有两个被弯成直角的突出部分的合适的矩形进行制造。 In the configuration of FIG. 1, the radiating element 101, ground contact 103 and feed electrode 104 typically by a thin metal sheet into a suitable rectangular having two projecting portions are bent at right angles be manufactured. 接地平面102可以是印刷电路板的表面上的一个金属化区域,使得接地接点103和馈入电极容易连接在印刷电路板的孔上。 The ground plane 102 may be a metallized area on the surface of the printed circuit board so that the ground contact 103 and feed electrode easily connected in the hole of the printed circuit board. 天线100的电特性一般受其元件尺寸的影响,尤其受辐射元件101和其与接地平面102之间的距离的影响。 The electrical characteristics of the antenna element 100 is typically affected by the size, in particular its effect by the radiating element 101 and the distance between the ground plane 102.

图1所示的天线结构的一个缺点在于其弱的机械稳定性。 A disadvantage of the antenna structure shown in FIG. 1 in its mechanical stability in weak. 为解决这个问题提出了不同的结构。 To solve this problem presents a different structure. 欧洲专利文件EP484454披露了图2所示的一种PIFA结构,其中辐射元件201,接地平面202和用于互连这两个元件的接地接点203利用在固体介电体204的表面上涂镀金属来实现。 European Patent Document EP484454 discloses a PIFA structure shown in FIG. 2, wherein the radiating element 201, ground plane 202 and the ground contacts for interconnecting the two elements 203 using the coating on the metal surface 204 of the solid dielectric material to realise. 天线通过不和辐射元件201接触的耦联元件205馈入。 By coupling the antenna element and the radiating element 201 does not contact the feed 205. 在耦联元件205和辐射元件201之间存在电磁耦合,并且耦联元件通过介电体204的边缘延伸到可以和射频设备的天线端口耦联的一点。 Electromagnetic coupling exists between the coupling element 205 and radiating element 201, and extends into the coupling element can be coupled to the antenna port of the radio apparatus and that the edge 204 of the dielectric. 这种结构在机械上是稳定的,但是介电体块使得其相当重。 This structure is mechanically stable, but the dielectric body block makes it rather heavy. 此外,介电体减少了天线的阻抗带宽,并使得和空气绝缘的PIFA相比,辐射效率变劣。 Further, the dielectric reduces the impedance bandwidth of the antenna, and so that an air-insulated PIFA and compared to the radiation efficiency is deteriorated.

PIFA辐射元件不必是图1和图2所示的简单的矩形。 PIFA radiating element does not have to be a simple rectangle as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2. 图3表示一种已知的PIFA辐射元件301的结构。 FIG. 3 shows a known PIFA radiating element 301 of the structure. 矩形被槽302分割了,所述的槽在距馈入点303和接地接点304最远的那部分辐射元件中形成一条带。 That portion of the radiation element is divided into a rectangular groove 302, the groove away from the feedpoint 303 and ground contact 304 is formed in a zone furthest. 所述槽的用途一般是为了增加天线的电气长度,并因而影响天线的谐振频率。 The use of the grooves typically is to increase the electrical length of the antenna, and thereby affect the resonant frequency of the antenna.

上述的所有PIFA结构被这样设计,使得它们具有某个谐振频率和以所述谐振频率为中心的操作频带。 All the PIFA structures described above are designed such that they have a certain resonance frequency and the operating frequency band at the resonance frequency as a center. 不过,在一些情况下,最好射频设备的天线具有两个不同的谐振频率。 However, in some cases, the best antenna radio apparatus has two different resonant frequencies. 图4a和图4b表示一种已知的双频率PIFA辐射元件,见公开物“ Dual-Frequency PlanarInverted-F Antenna”,ZDLiu,PSHall,D.Wake,IEEETransactions on Antennas andPropagation,Vol.45,No.10,October 1997,pp.1451-1457。 Figures 4a and 4b show known dual-frequency PIFA radiating element, see the publication "Dual-Frequency PlanarInverted-F Antenna", ZDLiu, PSHall, D.Wake, IEEETransactions on Antennas andPropagation, Vol.45, No.10 , October 1997, pp.1451-1457. 在图4a中的天线包括矩形的第一辐射元件401和从两侧包围所述第一辐射元件的第二辐射元件402。 In Figure 4a the antenna comprises a rectangular first radiating element 401 and the second radiating element 402 surrounding said first radiating element from two sides. 第一辐射元件具有其自己的自由点403和接地接点404,第二辐射元件具有其自己的自由点405和接地接点406。 First radiating element has its own free point 403 and ground contact 404, a second radiating element has its own free point 405 and ground contact 406. 在图4b中的天线包括一个连续的辐射元件410,其被槽411分成两支。 In Figure 4b the antenna comprises a continuous radiating element 410 which is divided into two grooves 411. 馈入点412位于槽413的内端,即不终止在辐射元件的边缘的那一端之附近,使得这些分支相对于馈入点具有不同的方向。 Feedpoint 412 located at the inner end of the slot 413, i.e., does not terminate in the vicinity of that end of the edge of the radiating element, so that these branches with respect to the feed point in different directions. 两个分支具有其自己的相互明显不同的电气长度。 Two branches each with its own distinct electrical length. 接地接点413位于该结构的边缘附近。 Ground contacts 413 is located near the edge of the structure.

还已知一种如图5所示的双频PIFA辐射元件501,其以和图4b所示的相同的方式具有两个分支。 Also known a dual-frequency PIFA radiating element 501 shown in Figure 5, which is the same manner as shown in FIG. 4b and having two branches. 在图5中,两个分支的最外端延伸到用于支撑辐射元件的印刷电路板的边缘,在图中由虚线表示。 In FIG. 5, the outermost ends of both branches extend to the edge of the printed circuit board for supporting the radiating element, indicated by dashed lines in FIG. 这种结构提供了较宽的天线阻抗带,即围绕一个特定的谐振频率的频率范围,在这个范围内,天线阻抗和射频设备的天线端口的匹配良好。 This structure provides a wider antenna impedance band, i.e. frequency range around a particular resonant frequency, within this range, the antenna impedance matching of the antenna port of the radio apparatus is good. 然而,与此同时,表示由用户吸收的辐射量的SAR值变得相当高,尤其是在较高的频带下。 However, at the same time, the user indicates the amount of radiation absorbed by the SAR value becomes rather high, especially in the higher frequency band.

芬兰专利申请FI-982366披露了一种图6所示的PIFA辐射元件600,其中所示辐射元件被非导电槽601-602-603分割,它们把辐射元件分成第一分支和第二分支。 Finnish patent application FI-982366 discloses a PIFA radiating element shown in FIG. 6 600, wherein the radiating elements shown are divided non-conductive slot 601-602-603 which the radiating element into a first branch and a second branch. 馈入点604和接地接点605的位置靠近槽的内端。 Feedpoint 604 and ground contact 605 to a position close to the inner end of the slot. 因此,这种结构在一个并且是同一个平的表面上并且在一个并且是同一个接地平面606附近也具有两个相邻的PIFA辐射元件分支。 Therefore, this structure is one and the same, and a flat surface in the vicinity of one and the same ground plane 606 is also a PIFA radiating element having two adjacent branches. 该专利申请还披露了相应于较高的操作频率的分支的外端位于由第一分支围绕的辐射元件的边界线内,使得SAR值比图5的结构较小。 This patent application discloses also the inner boundary line corresponds to the higher operating frequency is located at the outer end of the branch radiating element surrounded by the first branch so that the SAR value smaller than the structure of Figure 5.

发明内容 SUMMARY

本发明的目的在于提供一种平面双频天线结构,其容易制造和装配,并且对于所需的操作频率,可以容易地确定其尺寸。 Object of the present invention is to provide a planar dual-frequency antenna structure which is easy to manufacture and assemble, and for the desired operating frequency, the size can be easily determined. 本发明的另一个目的在于使天线的阻抗带宽相当大,并且其馈入阻抗可以按照所需的方式选择。 Another object of the present invention is that the impedance bandwidth of the antenna is relatively large, and which feed impedance can be selected in a desired manner. 本发明的另一个目的在于提供一种利用上述天线结构的射频设备。 Another object of the present invention is to provide a radio apparatus utilizing the antenna structure.

本发明的目的是通过PIFA辐射元件和有槽的辐射元件组合为单一结构而实现的。 Object of the present invention is achieved by a combination of PIFA radiating element and a slotted radiating element to achieve a single structure. 和阻抗带宽以及馈入阻抗有关的目的是通过提供一种和射频设备的天线端口的容性馈入相结合的辐射元件来实现的。 And related ends the impedance bandwidth and feed impedance are achieved by providing an apparatus and a capacitive RF radiating element feed ports of the antenna combination to achieve.

按照本发明的天线结构的特征在于其具有一个平面辐射元件,其中包括在分割槽的第一端附近的一个馈入点和一个接地接点,使得由所述槽划分的导电区的电气长度,当在馈入点测量时,等于在第一操作频率下的波长的四分之一,并且槽的电气长度等于在第二操作频率下的波长的四分之一。 An antenna structure according to the present invention in that it has a planar radiating element which comprises a feedpoint in the vicinity of the end of the first dividing groove and a ground contact, so that the electrical length of the conductive area divided by the slot, when when feeding point measurement, equal to a quarter wavelength at the first operating frequency and the electrical length of the slot is equal to a quarter wavelength at the second operating frequency.

按照本发明的射频设备的特征在于在其天线结构中的平面辐射元件包括,在某个槽的第一端附近,和射频设备的天线端口耦联的馈入点以及和射频设备的地电位耦联的接地接点,使得由所述槽分割的导电区域的电气长度,当在馈入点测量时,等于在第一操作频率下的波长的四分之一,并且槽的电气长度等于在第二操作频率下的波长的四分之一。 According to a feature of the radio apparatus according to the invention in that the planar radiating element in its antenna structure comprises, coupled in the potential of the antenna port coupled near the first end, and a radio frequency device slot and the feedpoint and ground radio apparatus associated ground contact, so that the electrical length of the conductive area divided by the slot, when measured at the feedpoint, equals a quarter wavelength at the first operating frequency and the electrical length of the slot is equal to the second a quarter wavelength at the operating frequency.

在按照现有技术的PIFA的天线结构中,两个操作频率是由具有公共的馈入点的两个PIFA分支实现的。 In the PIFA antenna structure according to the prior art, two operating frequencies are realized by two PIFA branches with a common feedpoint. 按照本发明,只在第一操作频率下使用PIFA结构作为辐射天线结构。 According to the present invention, only as a PIFA radiating structure of the antenna structure at a first operating frequency. 第二操作频率的天线是由PIFA辐射元件中的槽构成的所谓的四分之一波长孔辐射器。 A second operating frequency of the antenna is formed of a PIFA radiating element of the slot orifice so-called quarter wavelength radiator. 除了作为辐射元件之外,和没有槽的相同尺寸的PIFA相比,所述的槽还降低了PIFA辐射元件的操作频率,使得在某个预定的操作频率下,按照本发明的天线结构的尺寸比没有槽的现有技术的PIFA的尺寸小。 In addition, as the radiating element, and not the same size of the slot PIFA in comparison, the groove also reduces the operating frequency of the PIFA radiating element, so that at a certain predetermined operating frequency, the size of the antenna structure according to the invention smaller than the size of the prior art PIFA no groove.

可以通过在馈入点增加一个“额外”的串联电容使组合的PIFA和有槽的辐射元件的阻抗带宽变得较大。 By adding an "extra" series capacitance at the feedpoint impedance bandwidth of PIFA radiating element and a combination groove becomes larger. “额外”的意思是,这种电容通常是不用的:在已知的PIFA结构中,馈入点通常和射频设备的天线端口进行电连接。 "Extra" means that such a capacitance is usually not used: in known PIFA structure, the antenna feed point and generally radio apparatus is electrically connected to the port. 按照本发明,可以使用一种馈入销,其和作为PIFA辐射元件的平面导电图形不进行电连接,而是在所述馈入销的端部和辐射元件之间存在一个绝缘层。 According to the present invention, the use of a feed pin, a planar conductive pattern, and which PIFA radiating element is not electrically connected, but there is an insulating layer between the radiating element and the end portion of the feed pin. 绝缘物质例如可以是空气或者是印刷电路板材料。 Insulating substance may be e.g. air or printed circuit board material.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

下面结合附图并以举例方式参照本发明的优选实施例来说明本发明的细节,其中:图1说明已知的PIFA的基本结构;图2说明已知的PIFA结构;图3表示已知的平面辐射元件的结构;图4a和图4b表示已知的双频平面辐射元件的结构;图5表示第三种已知的双频平面辐射元件的结构;图6表示第四种已知的双频平面辐射元件的结构;图7表示已知的微带天线结构;图8表示按照本发明的平面辐射元件的结构;图9a-9f表示按照本发明的平面辐射元件的其它结构;图10说明按照本发明的馈入装置;图11a,11b说明图10所示的结构的另一种实施方式;图12表示在移动电台中的按照本发明的天线结构;以及图13表示电容PIFA馈入装置的等效电路。 DRAWINGS way of example and with reference to a preferred embodiment of the present invention will be explained details of the present invention, wherein: Figure 1 illustrates a basic structure of a known PIFA; FIG. 2 illustrates a known PIFA structure; FIG. 3 shows a known structure planar radiating element; Figures 4a and 4b show known dual-frequency planar radiating element configuration; Figure 5 shows a third known dual-frequency planar radiating structure element; FIG. 6 shows a fourth known dual structure frequency planar radiating element; FIG. 7 shows a known microstrip antenna structure; FIG. 8 shows the structure of planar radiating element according to the present invention; FIGS. 9a-9f represents a planar radiating element according to another configuration of the present invention; Figure 10 illustrates feeding apparatus according to the present invention; Figures 11a, 11b illustrate another embodiment of the structure shown in FIG. 10; FIG. 12 shows an antenna structure according to the invention in a mobile station; and Figure 13 shows capacitive PIFA feed means equivalent circuit.

具体实施方式 detailed description

上面关于现有技术的说明是参照图1-6作出的,下面参照图7-13说明本发明和本发明的优选实施例。 The above description of the prior art reference is made to FIGS. 1-6, the present invention will be described preferred embodiments of the present invention and with reference to Figures 7-13.

本发明利用所谓的孔辐射元件的原理,下面参照美国专利4692769和图7进行说明。 The present invention utilizes a so-called aperture radiating element principle, the following U.S. Patent No. 4,692,769 and described with reference to FIG. 7. 应当注意,美国专利4692769不涉及PIFA结构,但是涉及微带天线,其原理和PIFA不同,例如在确定操作频率下的尺寸方面,以及在微带天线中的辐射平面导电元件和与其平行的接地平面之间没有电连接。 It should be noted that U.S. Patent No. 4,692,769 does not involve the PIFA structure, but relates to a microstrip antenna which differ from the PIFA principle and, for example, in determining the dimensions of the operating frequency, and the radiating planar conductive element in a microstrip antenna and a ground plane parallel thereto there is no electrical connection between. 图7以从美国专利4692769得知的方式表示介电底板701,在其上表面具有平面辐射导电元件702,在其下表面具有接地平面703,图中只示出了一个边缘。 FIG. 7 shows the manner in U.S. Patent 4,692,769 that a dielectric plate 701 having a planar radiating conductive element 702 on its upper surface, the lower surface having a ground plane 703, of which only one edge is shown. 天线通过同轴电缆704被馈入,同轴电缆的护套705与接地平面耦联,同轴电缆的内部导体706和辐射导电元件耦联。 The antenna 704 is fed through a coaxial cable, the coaxial cable sheath 705 is coupled to the ground plane, the coaxial cable inner conductor 706 and coupled to the radiating conductive element. 辐射导电元件的形状基本上如同一个四边形(参考文件披露基本上呈圆形),并且其中具有一个槽707,其电气长度等于在某个较高的操作频率下的半个波长。 Radiating conductive element is basically shaped like a quadrangle (the reference document disclosure substantially circular), and having a slot 707, an electrical length equal to half the wavelength at a certain higher operating frequency. 平面辐射元件的电气长度等于在某个较低的操作频率下的半个波长。 Planar radiating element electrical length equal to half the wavelength at a certain lower operating frequency. 在所述文件中,较高的操作频率是1557MHz,较低的操作频率是1380MHz,这是以举例的方式给出的。 In said document the higher operating frequency is 1557MHz, lower operating frequency is 1380MHz, which is given by way of example.

孔辐射元件的操作基于这样的事实,即,电磁场的某个谐振波形可以在由导电材料包围的二维的介电空间中被激励。 Operation aperture radiating element is based on the fact that a certain resonant waveform of an electromagnetic field can be excited in a dielectric two-dimensional space surrounded by the conductive material. 如果所述空间被延长,则谐振波形成为驻波,从而在所述空间的纵向尺寸中包括一定数量的波节和波腹。 If the space is elongated, the resonant waveform becomes a standing wave, wave so as to include a number of nodes and antinodes in the longitudinal dimension of the space. 在其两端被封闭的槽中,谐振频率相应于在两端具有波节的驻波。 It is closed at both ends of the groove, having a resonant frequency corresponding to a standing wave having nodes at both ends. 最低的谐振频率是槽的长度等于半个波长时的谐振频率。 The lowest resonance frequency is the resonance frequency when the length of the slot equals half the wavelength. 如果槽的一端被封闭而另一端是敞开的,则谐振频率相应于在第一端(槽的封闭端)具有波节而在第二端(槽的敞开端)具有波腹的驻波。 If the slot is closed at one end and the other end is open, having a resonance frequency corresponding to a first end (the closed end of the slot) of the standing wave having nodes and antinodes at the second end (the open end of the slot). 在那种情况下,槽的长度等于在最低谐振频率下的波长的四分之一。 In that case, the length of the slot is equal to a quarter wavelength at the lowest resonant frequency.

图8表示按照本发明的平面辐射元件结构。 8 shows a planar radiating element structure according to the present invention. 所涉及的平面辐射元件旨在用于形成PIFA结构的一部分,这在下面将被详细说明。 Planar radiating element according to a portion intended for forming a PIFA structure, which will be described in detail below. 辐射元件包括由基本上连续的边界线限定的并被不导电的槽802分割的导电区域801。 Radiating element 801 comprises a conductive region defined by a substantially continuous border line and a non-conductive slot 802 divided. 槽的一端位于导电区域边缘的一点(被称为槽的外端),槽的另一端位于连续导电区域内的一点(槽的内端)。 One end of the conductive region of the groove edge point (referred to as an outer end of the slot), the other end of the groove located at a point (the end of the slot) within a continuous conductive region. 图中还示出了馈入点803和接地接点804,它们都位于槽的外端附近。 The figure also shows a feedpoint 803 and ground contact 804, which are located near the outer end of the slot.

和图4a-6所示的现有技术的双频PIFA辐射元件不同,按照图8的辐射元件没有两个单独的谐振分支,而只有一个相当长的PIFA分支。 And the prior art shown in FIGS. 4a-6 different dual-frequency PIFA radiating elements, not two separate resonant radiating branch element according to FIG. 8, but only one relatively long PIFA branch. 这是通过使馈入点和接地接点位于靠近槽的外端实现的。 This is achieved by feeding point and the ground contact located near an outer end of the slot. PIFA分支作为这种结构的较低操作频率的辐射元件而工作。 PIFA branch operates as a radiating element the lower operating frequency of the structure. 在较高操作频率下,辐射元件包括按照上述孔辐射元件的原理的不导电的槽。 At higher operating frequencies, the radiating element comprising a radiating element according to the principles of the hole is non-conductive slot. 这种两个天线原理组合成为一个单一的结构有些类似于图7所示的方案。 This principle two antennas combined into a single program structure is somewhat similar to FIG. 7 in FIG. 不过,接地接点使得这种结构成为一种PIFA结构而不是如同美国专利4692769中所述的微带天线。 However, such a configuration such that the ground contact becomes a PIFA structure and not a microstrip antenna as described in U.S. Patent 4,692,769. 此外,应当注意,本发明要求槽对着导电区域的边缘延伸。 Further, it should be noted that the present invention requires groove extending opposite edges of the conductive region. 按照图7的结构不能以所需的方式工作,除非在辐射元件中的槽的所有边由导电材料包围。 Not work in the desired manner in accordance with the structure of FIG. 7, all sides surrounded by a conductive material except in the grooves in the radiating element.

此外,按照图8的结构基于和美国专利4962769披露的不同的原理来确定尺寸。 Further, according to the structure of FIG. 8 determines the size and based on different principles disclosed in U.S. Patent No. 4,962,769. 起点是没有槽的PIFA辐射元件的操作频率。 The starting point is the operating frequency of the PIFA radiating element without a slot. 这相应于没有槽的PIFA辐射元件的电气长度等于波长的四分之一时的频率。 This corresponds to a PIFA radiating element electrical length of the groove is not equal to a quarter of the wavelength of the frequency. 槽使PIFA辐射元件的操作频率减小,因为其电气长度增加了:减少的频率是图8所示的辐射元件的较低的操作频率。 That the groove of the operating frequency PIFA radiating elements is reduced, since it increases the electrical length: decrease the frequency shown in FIG. 8 is a lower operating frequency of the radiating element. 在另一方面,当馈入点和接地接点位于紧靠槽的外端时,槽成为一个槽辐射器,其电气长度等于在远大于较低的操作频率的第二频率时的波长的四分之一。 On the other hand, when the feedpoint and ground contact positioned against the outer end of the slot, the slot becomes a slot radiator the electrical length equal to the wavelength at a second frequency much greater than the lower operating frequency of the quarter one. 所述第二频率是图8的辐射元件的较高的操作频率。 The second frequency is the higher operating frequency of the radiating element 8 of FIG.

本发明不规定槽的外端和馈入点以及接地接点之间的距离,但是为了使这种结构根据需要而工作,要求馈入点和接地接点的位置距离槽的外端比距离槽的内端较近。 The distance between the inner and outer ends of the feedpoint and ground contact of the present invention does not specify grooves, but in order to make this arrangement operates in accordance with needs, requirements and the outer end of the feedpoint from the ground contact groove position of the groove than a distance end close. 此外,关于电气长度和谐振特性,如果从馈入点和接地接点向槽的外端设置线路,则要求只在线路的一侧上具有大部分的导电区域。 Further, regarding the electrical length and resonance characteristics, if the line to the outer end of the groove is provided, it is required from the feedpoint and ground contact only a majority of the conductive regions on one side of the line. 记住这些限制便可以通过实验找到馈入点和接地接点的合适的位置。 Remember that these restrictions will be able to find a suitable location of the feed point and ground contact through experimentation.

图8还表示平面辐射元件结构的具体细节:PIFA分支从某个较窄的点向着外端平滑地变宽,所述外端即距离馈入点和接地接点最远的一端。 8 illustrates the details of the planar radiating element structure: PIFA branch smoothly toward the outer end widens from a certain narrower point, i.e., farthest away from the feedpoint and ground contact end of the outer end. 这种结构能够使天线的总尺寸减少一些而辐射或阻抗带宽却没有显著减少,因为在较低的操作频率下,辐射天线元件在其电场最强的最宽处工作,即在分支的开口端。 This configuration enables the overall size of the antenna while reducing some of the radiation or impedance bandwidth was not significantly reduced, because a lower operating frequency the radiating antenna element operating in its widest strongest electric field, i.e., the open end of the branch .

图9a-9f表示具有一个PIFA分支和作为孔辐射器的槽的平面辐射元件之优选变型。 FIGS. 9a-9f represents a preferred variant of the planar radiating element having a PIFA branch and a slot aperture radiator. 其中虚线限定了一个可以有利地设置馈入点和接地接点的区域。 Wherein the dotted line defines a region can advantageously be provided feedpoint and ground contact. 这些图表示槽可以包括均匀宽度的直的部分,这些部分也可以相互垂直(图9a);在另一方面,槽也可以包括非均匀宽度的部分,这些部分也可以平滑地变窄或变宽(图9b);此外,槽可以全部或部分地弯曲(图9c,d)或曲折(图9e),或者可以包括均匀宽度的部分和逐渐变宽或变窄的部分(图9f)。 These figures show grooves may comprise straight portions of uniform width, these parts may be perpendicular to each other (FIG. 9A); In another aspect, the grooves may include a portion of a non-uniform width, these parts can be narrowed or widened smoothly (FIG. 9B); in addition, the grooves may be wholly or partially bent (FIG. 9c, d), or meander (FIG. 9E), or may include a uniform width portion and gradually widened or narrowed portion (FIG. 9f).

图10是说明电容PIFA馈入的纵截面图,电容馈入是一种实现按照本发明的天线结构的馈入的有利方式。 FIG 10 is a longitudinal sectional view of a capacitive PIFA's feed, feed capacitance is advantageous embodiment according to one implementation, the antenna feed structure according to the present invention. 纵截面图表示接地平面1001,平面辐射元件1002,馈入销1003和接地接点1004。 A longitudinal sectional view showing a ground plane 1001, planar radiating element 1002, feed pin 1003 and a ground contact 1004. 为了使馈入装置完好地工作,重要的是馈入销1003(其和射频设备的天线端口耦联,未示出)和接地平面1001或接地接点1004不进行直接电接触。 In order to work perfectly feeding means, it is important to feed pin 1003 (and which is coupled to the antenna port of the radio apparatus, not shown) and the ground plane 1001 or ground contact 1004 without direct electrical contact. 在另一方面,对于电容馈入,还有重要的一点是在馈入销1003和平面辐射元件1002之间没有电连接而通过绝缘层实现电容耦合。 On the other hand, to feed capacitor, important point is between the feed pin 1003 and the planar radiating element 1002 is not electrically connected to capacitive coupling through the insulating layer. 图10表示对绝缘层没有特殊要求,例如其可以是空气或者其它已知的绝缘材料。 Figure 10 shows no special requirements on the insulating layer, for example it may be air or another known insulating material.

在实际上,图10的结构例如可以利用这种方式来实现,平面辐射元件1002是一块金属板,其例如借助于沿着板的边缘设置的支撑框架,或者借助于将其固定在射频设备的壳体的绝缘部分上而被固定在射频设备的其它部分上,并且接地板1001包括金属化部分,其或者在属于射频设备的印刷电路板的表面上,或者在射频设备的壳体结构某个部分内。 In fact, the structure of FIG. 10, for example, may be achieved this way, a planar radiating element 1002 is a metal plate, for example by means of a support frame provided along an edge of the panel, or by means of which the fixed radio apparatus portion of the insulating housing is fixed to the other parts of the radio apparatus, and the ground plane 1001 comprises a metallization, which belongs to or on a surface of the printed circuit board of the radio apparatus or in a radio apparatus casing structure section inside. 馈入销和接地接点可以被制成金属带,或者被制成例如通过塑料或其它绝缘材料制成的单独的支撑结构支撑的销。 Feed pin and ground contact may be made of a metal tape, such as a pin or is formed by a separate support structure made of plastic or other insulating material of the support. 在这种结构的纵截面图中,这种结构和图10所示的示意方案没有大的区别。 In the longitudinal cross-sectional view of such a structure, a schematic configuration of this embodiment shown in FIG. 10 and FIG no big difference.

图11a和11b说明用于实现按照图10的结构的原理的第二种方法。 11a and 11b illustrate a second method for realizing the structural principle according to FIG. 10. 参见这些图,平面辐射元件1101被形成在印刷电路板1102的第一表面上,所述第一表面是图中的上表面。 Referring to these figures, a planar radiating element 1101 is formed on the first surface of the printed circuit board 1102, said first surface is an upper surface in FIG. 用于馈入和接地的耦联垫片1103和1104被形成在同一个印刷电路板的第二表面上(图中的下表面)。 Coupling pad 1103 and ground for feeding and 1104 are formed on the same surface of a second printed circuit board (the lower surface in the drawing). 通过印刷电路板1102以电容方式进行馈入,但是为了实现接地,在接地耦联垫片1104和平面辐射元件1101之间必须提供电连接,这或者通过镀有金属的孔1105或者通过沿着印刷电路板的边缘之金属化部分1106来实现。 The printed circuit board 1102 by capacitively fed, but in order to achieve the ground, an electrical connection must be provided between the ground coupling pad 1104 and the planar radiating element 1101, either through plated hole 1105 or by metal printing along metallization of the edge of the circuit board 1106 implemented. 在这种结构中,接地板1107也可以是在另一个印刷电路板的表面上的金属化部分,或者可以通过对射频设备的壳体结构的给定部分进行金属化来实现。 In this structure, the ground plate 1107 may be on the surface of another printed circuit board metallization, or may be realized by a given portion of the casing structure of the radio apparatus metallized. 图11a和11b利用第一种替代的方法,从而使馈入销1108可以被焊到接地印刷电路板的孔上(在孔的周围并在面向接地平面的表面上具有不导电的区域,其使馈入销和接地平面绝缘),并且接地接点1109可用金属带或金属销制成,其被焊接到或用其它方法固定在接地平面上。 11a and 11b utilize the first alternative method, so that the feed pin 1108 can be soldered to a printed circuit board ground hole (having a non-conductive region and on a surface facing the ground plane around the hole, which makes feed pin and a ground plane insulated), and ground contacts 1109 can be used or a metal pin made of a metal strip which is welded or otherwise secured to the ground plane. 代替简单的金属销或者除了简单的金属销之外,可以使用各种已知的可弯曲的销结构,其沿纵向(垂直于平面辐射元件和接地平面)弯曲,从而在最终的结构中,由可弯曲性引起的弹簧力对着放置销但不是其它方式连接销的表面至少挤压销的一端。 Instead of a simple metal pin or in addition to simple metal pins, possible to use various known flexible pin structures, which is the longitudinal direction (perpendicular to the planar radiating element and ground plane) is bent so that the final structure by spring force against the surface caused by bending of the pin is placed but not otherwise attached to at least one end of the pin of the pressing pin.

图12表示射频设备中的天线结构的一种有利的布置,其中辐射元件是PIFA和按照本发明的有槽的辐射元件的组合。 An advantageous arrangement of the antenna structure of FIG. 12 shows a radio frequency device, wherein the radiating element is a PIFA radiating element and combined with grooves according to the invention. 示例的射频设备是移动电话1200,图中示出了打开的外壳体,移动电话的已知的元件,键盘、显示器和扬声器位于下方因而图中没有示出。 An example of radio apparatus 1200 is a mobile phone, is shown in FIG open outer housing, known mobile phone device, a keyboard, a display, and speakers are located below and therefore not shown in FIG. 第一印刷电路板1201或者移动电话内部的另一个基本上平的表面包括接地平面1202,其是一个基本上连续的导电区域。 Another inside the mobile phone 1201, or the first printed circuit board surface comprises a substantially planar ground plane 1202, which is a substantially continuous electrically conductive area. 形成在印刷电路板上的接地平面可以位于电路板的表面上或者位于电路板的中间层内。 A ground plane formed on a printed circuit board may be located on the surface of the circuit board or within the intermediate layer of the circuit board. 平面辐射元件1203被形成在第二印刷电路板1204的表面上,第二电路板通过框架1205被固定在第一印刷电路板上。 Planar radiating element 1203 is formed on the surface of the second printed circuit board 1204, second circuit board is fixed to the frame by a first printed circuit board 1205. 馈入点1206和射频设备的天线端口1209以这样的方式相连,使得通过印刷电路板1204和连接器块1207的耦联是电容性的,并从此处继续由包括在连接器块的表面上之微带的馈入销提供连接。 The feeding point 1206 and the antenna port of the radio apparatus 1209 is connected in such a manner that the coupling through the printed circuit board 1204 and the connector block 1207 is capacitive, and from there continues to the upper surface of the connector includes a block of microstrip feed provide a connection pin. 在这个实施例中,同一个连接器块提供接地接点1208和接地平面1202之间的连接。 In this embodiment, there is provided a connection between the ground contact 1208 and ground plane 1202 with a connector block.

图13是说明电容PIFA馈入装置的特性的等效电路。 FIG 13 is an equivalent circuit of capacitive PIFA feed apparatus described characteristics. 在电路中的节点1301相应于射频设备的天线端口,节点1302相应于PIFA中的接地接点,节点1303相应于PIFA的敞开端,节点1304相应于接地平面。 Node 1301 in the circuit corresponds to the antenna port of the radio apparatus, node 1302 corresponds to the ground contact in the PIFA, node 1303 corresponds to the open end of the PIFA, node 1304 corresponds to the ground plane. 电感1305代表馈线的电感,或者代表在射频设备的天线端口和容性耦合馈入点之间线路的电感,电容1306代表电容馈入的电容,电感1307代表天线馈入点和接地接点之间的电感,电感1308代表PIFA元件的电感,电容1309代表PIFA元件的敞开端和接地平面之间的电容。 Representative feedline inductance 1305 inductance or inductance between the lines represents the antenna port of the radio apparatus and the capacitively coupled feedpoint, capacitance 1306 represents the capacitance of the capacitive feed, inductance 1307 between the representative antenna feed point and ground contact inductance, 1308 on behalf of the inductance of the inductance element PIFA, representative of the capacitance between the capacitor 1309 and the open end of the PIFA element of the ground plane. 该图表示馈线电感1305和馈入点电容1306在射频设备的天线端口和天线馈入点之间形成一个串联谐振电路。 The figure shows feedline inductance 1305 and the feedpoint capacitance 1306 form a series resonant circuit between the antenna port of the radio apparatus and the antenna feedpoint.

电容1306的值可以通过以下方式被调整:改变馈入点耦联垫片(图11中的1103)的尺寸,并选择用于支撑辐射天线元件的印刷电路板的厚度和介电常数,电容值C的粗略计算可按下式进行:C=εoεrA/d其中εo是真空介电常数,εr是印刷电路板材料的相对介电常数,A是耦联垫片的面积,d是印刷电路板材料的厚度。 The capacitance value of 1306 may be adjusted by: changing the feedpoint coupling pad (1103 in FIG. 11) the size, thickness and dielectric constant and selected for supporting the printed circuit board radiating antenna element, the capacitance value C depressible rough calculation equation: C = εoεrA / d where εo is the permittivity of vacuum, εr is the relative permittivity of the printed circuit board material, a is the area of ​​the coupling pad, d is a printed circuit board material thickness of. 电容1306的值影响所述串联谐振电路的谐振频率。 1306 affects the capacitance value of the series resonant frequency of the resonant circuit. 通过选择合适的尺寸,可以把该频率设置为接近于PIFA本身的谐振频率或操作频率,从而使天线的阻抗带宽增加到电馈入PIFA的阻抗带宽的两倍。 By selecting an appropriate size, it can be set to the frequency close to the resonant frequency of the PIFA itself or the operating frequency, so that the impedance bandwidth of the antenna is increased to twice the electrical feeding impedance bandwidth of a PIFA. 在双频天线结构中,串联谐振使带宽增加的效果可以按照需要而获得较高或较低的操作频率,一般地说,在天线结构中串联谐振的作用是通过使用较大的电容馈入垫片使操作频率从较高的值改变为较低的值。 In the dual-frequency antenna structure, the series resonance effect of increasing the bandwidth needed may be higher or lower operating frequencies, in general, the series resonance effect in the antenna structure by using a larger capacitance feed pad sheet so that the operating frequency is changed from a higher value to a lower value. 一般地说,在双频或多频天线中,具有一个操作频率,在此操作频率下,其阻抗带宽固有地比其它操作频率窄,因而电容馈入的增加带宽的效果最好针对那一特定的操作频率。 In general, the dual-band or multi-frequency antenna having an operating frequency, operating at this frequency, the impedance bandwidth inherently narrower than the other operating frequencies, thus increasing the bandwidth of the capacitance fed best for that particular operating frequency.

上述的本发明的实施例是作为例子而给出的,并不限制本发明。 The above-described embodiments of the present invention is given by way of example and do not limit the present invention. 例如,平面辐射元件和接地平面不一定是绝对的平面,其形状可以是弯曲的,如图2所示的现有技术的天线结构那样。 For example, the planar radiating element and the ground plane need not be absolutely planar, the shape may be curved, the prior art antenna structure as shown in Fig. 在图12中示出的框架1205是连续的,但也可以包括分开的部分,并且如果只借助于把边缘的某些部分设置在射频设备的其它部分上便能达到足够的机械稳定性,则不一定盖住印刷电路板1204的边缘的整个长度。 In the frame shown in FIG. 12 of 1205 is continuous, but may comprise separate parts, and if only some of the means of the edge portion is provided on the other parts of the radio apparatus can achieve a sufficient mechanical stability, the It does not necessarily cover the entire length of the edge of the printed circuit board 1204.

Claims (12)

1.一种PIFA结构,其具有第一操作频率和第二操作频率,并且其包括由基本上连续的边界线限定的导电区域形成的平面辐射元件(801,1002,1101,1203),所述区域被非导电槽(802)分割,所述非导电槽具有在所述基本上连续的边界线上的第一端和在导电区域内部的第二端,其特征在于,所述平面辐射元件包括馈入点(803,1206)和接地接点(804,1208),它们位于槽的第一端附近,使得在馈入点测量的由槽分割的导电区域的电气长度等于在第一操作频率下波长的四分之一,并且分割槽的电气长度等于在第二操作频率下的波长的四分之一。 A PIFA structure which has a first operating frequency and second operating frequency, and the planar radiating element (801,1002,1101,1203) which is defined by comprising a substantially continuous conductive region formed by the boundary line, the region (802) dividing the non-conductive slot, the non-conductive groove having the first and second ends substantially continuous border line in the inside of the conductive region, characterized in that said planar radiating element comprises feeding point (803,1206) and a ground contact (804,1208), which are located near the first end of the slot, such that the electrical length of the conductive area divided grooves measured feeding point equal to the wavelength at the first operating frequency quarter, and the electrical length of the dividing slot equals a quarter of the wavelength at the second operating frequency.
2.如权利要求1所述的PIFA结构,其特征在于,其包括一个电容馈入装置,其中设置得馈入点和馈入销(1003,1108)通过电容耦联。 2. The PIFA structure according to claim 1, characterized in that it comprises a capacitive feed means, wherein the feeding point and the set feed pin (1003,1108) by capacitive coupling.
3.如权利要求2所述的PIFA结构,其特征在于,其包括具有第一表面和第二表面的第一印刷电路板(1102,1204),并且在所述第一印刷电路板的第一表面上设置所述平面辐射元件(1101,1203),在所述第二表面上设置用于提供和所述馈入销连接的耦联垫片(1103),借此设置得馈入点和馈入销通过第一印刷电路板以电容方式耦联。 3. The PIFA structure according to claim 2, characterized in that it comprises a first surface and a first printed circuit board (1102,1204) a second surface, and the first printed circuit board in a first provided on a surface of the planar radiating element (1101,1203) disposed on the second surface, and for providing said feed coupling pad (1103) connected to the pin, whereby the feedpoint set and the feed capacitively coupling the pin through the first printed circuit board.
4.如权利要求3所述的PIFA结构,其特征在于,其包括接地销(1004,1109),和在第一印刷电路板内的导电通孔(1105),其用于提供接地接点和接地销之间的电连接。 4. The PIFA structure according to claim 3, characterized in that it comprises a ground pin (1004,1109) and conductive vias (1105) in the first printed circuit board, for providing a ground contact and ground electrically connected between the pin.
5.如权利要求3所述的PIFA结构,其特征在于,其包括接地销(1004,1109)和围绕第一印刷电路板的边缘从第一表面向第二表面延伸的电导体(1106),用于提供在接地接点和接地销之间的电连接。 The PIFA structure according to claim 3, characterized in that it comprises a ground pin (1004,1109) and an electrical conductor (1106) around the edge of the first printed circuit board extending from the first surface to the second surface, to provide an electrical ground contact between the pin and the ground connection.
6.如权利要求2所述的PIFA结构,其特征在于,所述平面辐射元件基本上是平的导电板(1002),并且所述结构包括在馈入点的馈入销(1003),其基本上垂直于平面辐射元件并和平面辐射元件仅电容耦合。 6. The PIFA structure according to claim 2, characterized in that said planar radiating element is substantially planar electrically conductive plate (1002), and the structure comprises a feeding pin (1003) at the feed point, which substantially perpendicular to the planar radiating element and the capacitive coupling and the planar radiating element only.
7.如权利要求1所述的PIFA结构,其特征在于,所述分割槽包括宽度均匀直的部分。 7. The PIFA structure according to claim 1, wherein said dividing grooves comprises straight portions of uniform width.
8.如权利要求1所述的PIFA结构,其特征在于,所述分割槽包括非均匀宽度的部分。 The PIFA structure according to claim 1, wherein the dividing groove portion comprises a non-uniform width.
9.如权利要求1所述的PIFA结构,其特征在于,所述分割槽至少是部分弯曲。 The PIFA structure according to claim 1, wherein the dividing groove is at least partially curved.
10.一种射频设备(1200),其具有第一操作频率和第二操作频率,并且其包括一个天线端口(1209,1301)和作为天线的PIFA结构,所述PIFA结构具有第一操作频率和第二操作频率,它们相应于射频设备的第一操作频率和第二操作频率,并且所述PIFA结构包括平面辐射元件(801,1002,1101,1203),所述平面辐射元件是一个由基本上连续的边界线限定的并且由非导电槽(802)分割的导电区域,所述非导电槽具有位于所述基本上连续的边界线上的第一端和位于导电区域内的第二端,其特征在于,所述平面辐射元件包括和射频设备的天线端口耦联的馈入点(803,1206)以及和射频设备的地电位耦联的接地接点(804,1208),它们位于槽的第一端附近,使得由槽分割的导电区域的电气长度,当在馈入点测量时,等于在第一操作频率下的波长的四分之一,并且所述槽的电气长度等于在第 10. A radio apparatus (1200) having a first operating frequency and second operating frequency and which comprises an antenna port (1209,1301) and the PIFA antenna structure as a PIFA structure has a first operating frequency and a second operating frequency which correspond to the first radio apparatus operating frequency and a second operating frequency, and the PIFA structure comprising a planar radiating element (801,1002,1101,1203), said planar radiating element is of a substantially defining a continuous border line and divided by a non-conductive slot (802) conductive regions, said non-conductive slot having a first end and located substantially within the second end of the conductive region continuous border line, which characterized in that said planar radiating element comprises a feedpoint and antenna port coupled radio apparatus (803,1206) and the radio apparatus and a ground potential coupled to a ground contact (804,1208), which are located in the first groove near the end, so that the electrical length of the conductive area divided by the grooves, when measured at the feedpoint, equals a quarter wavelength at the first operating frequency and the electrical length of the slot is equal to 操作频率下的波长的四分之一。 A quarter wavelength at the operating frequency.
11.如权利要求10所述的射频设备,其特征在于,在平面辐射元件的馈入点和射频设备的天线端口之间的耦联是电容性的。 11. The radio apparatus according to claim 10, characterized in that the coupling between the antenna port of the radio apparatus and the feed point of the planar radiating element is capacitive.
12.如权利要求10所述的射频设备,其特征在于,其包括绝缘框架(1205),用于在射频设备的机械结构上支撑平面辐射元件的边缘。 12. A radio apparatus according to claim 10, characterized in that it comprises an insulating frame (1205), for supporting the edge of the planar radiating element on the mechanical structure of the radio apparatus.
CN00100912A 1999-01-05 2000-01-05 Plane and double frequency aerial, radio frequency device using same CN1127777C (en)

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EP1018779A3 (en) 2003-08-06
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US6252552B1 (en) 2001-06-26
FI990006A (en) 2000-07-06
FI990006A0 (en) 1999-01-05

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