CN112570488B - Spinning-reducing forming method of stepped pipe blank for small and medium-sized bulging forming automobile axle housing - Google Patents

Spinning-reducing forming method of stepped pipe blank for small and medium-sized bulging forming automobile axle housing Download PDF

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Publication number
CN112570488B
CN112570488B CN202011513965.2A CN202011513965A CN112570488B CN 112570488 B CN112570488 B CN 112570488B CN 202011513965 A CN202011513965 A CN 202011513965A CN 112570488 B CN112570488 B CN 112570488B
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China
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spinning
tube blank
blank
hinge
wall thickness
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CN112570488A (en
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王晓迪
王连东
李德玮
高明
金淼
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Qinhuangdao Tongqiao Technology Co ltd
Yanshan University
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Qinhuangdao Tongqiao Technology Co ltd
Yanshan University
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21CMANUFACTURE OF METAL SHEETS, WIRE, RODS, TUBES OR PROFILES, OTHERWISE THAN BY ROLLING; AUXILIARY OPERATIONS USED IN CONNECTION WITH METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL
    • B21C37/00Manufacture of metal sheets, bars, wire, tubes or like semi-manufactured products, not otherwise provided for; Manufacture of tubes of special shape
    • B21C37/06Manufacture of metal sheets, bars, wire, tubes or like semi-manufactured products, not otherwise provided for; Manufacture of tubes of special shape of tubes or metal hoses; Combined procedures for making tubes, e.g. for making multi-wall tubes
    • B21C37/15Making tubes of special shape; Making tube fittings
    • B21C37/16Making tubes with varying diameter in longitudinal direction
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21CMANUFACTURE OF METAL SHEETS, WIRE, RODS, TUBES OR PROFILES, OTHERWISE THAN BY ROLLING; AUXILIARY OPERATIONS USED IN CONNECTION WITH METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL
    • B21C1/00Manufacture of metal sheets, metal wire, metal rods, metal tubes by drawing
    • B21C1/16Metal drawing by machines or apparatus in which the drawing action is effected by other means than drums, e.g. by a longitudinally-moved carriage pulling or pushing the work or stock for making metal sheets, bars, or tubes
    • B21C1/22Metal drawing by machines or apparatus in which the drawing action is effected by other means than drums, e.g. by a longitudinally-moved carriage pulling or pushing the work or stock for making metal sheets, bars, or tubes specially adapted for making tubular articles
    • B21C1/24Metal drawing by machines or apparatus in which the drawing action is effected by other means than drums, e.g. by a longitudinally-moved carriage pulling or pushing the work or stock for making metal sheets, bars, or tubes specially adapted for making tubular articles by means of mandrels
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21DWORKING OR PROCESSING OF SHEET METAL OR METAL TUBES, RODS OR PROFILES WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21D22/00Shaping without cutting, by stamping, spinning, or deep-drawing
    • B21D22/14Spinning
    • B21D22/16Spinning over shaping mandrels or formers
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21DWORKING OR PROCESSING OF SHEET METAL OR METAL TUBES, RODS OR PROFILES WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21D22/00Shaping without cutting, by stamping, spinning, or deep-drawing
    • B21D22/14Spinning
    • B21D22/18Spinning using tools guided to produce the required profile
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21DWORKING OR PROCESSING OF SHEET METAL OR METAL TUBES, RODS OR PROFILES WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21D53/00Making other particular articles
    • B21D53/88Making other particular articles other parts for vehicles, e.g. cowlings, mudguards

Abstract

The invention discloses a spinning-reducing forming method of a stepped pipe blank for a small and medium-sized bulging forming automobile axle housing. The method comprises the steps of firstly placing the left side of an initial pipe blank into a hollow spindle box of a spinning machine, clamping the middle part of the pipe blank (11), utilizing an ejector rod (2) to prop against the left end part of the pipe blank (11), carrying out reverse spinning from a position with a certain length away from the right end of the pipe blank (11), carrying out variable wall thickness screwing, equal wall thickness spinning and variable wall thickness spinning to obtain a variable wall thickness pipe blank, completing spinning and thinning the left side of the pipe blank after taking a part and turning around, then carrying out free pushing and reducing on two sides of the pipe blank after spinning, and carrying out integral annealing to obtain the small and medium-sized bulging forming stepped pipe blank for the automobile axle housing. The wall thickness increment of the stepped pipe blank obtained by the method is reduced by 15-25% compared with the wall thickness increment of the stepped pipe blank obtained by free pushing and reducing, and the weight is reduced by 10-15% while the strength and the rigidity of the product are met; when the two sides of the tube blank are subjected to large deformation and diameter reduction, the middle part of the tube blank is not unstable; high production efficiency, low manufacturing cost and good forming quality.

Description

Spinning-reducing forming method of stepped pipe blank for small and medium-sized bulging forming automobile axle housing
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of pipe fitting plastic forming, in particular to a spinning-reducing forming method of a stepped pipe blank for a small and medium-sized expansion-press formed automobile axle housing.
Background
The automobile axle housing belongs to large-size reducing special-shaped section pipe parts, is a bearing part and a force transmission part on an automobile, and requires higher strength and rigidity. At present, the automobile axle housing is mainly manufactured by a casting method and a stamping welding method, the strength and the rigidity of a casting are high, but the casting is high in material consumption, energy consumption and pollution in production, and a stamping welding part is light in weight but low in welding seam performance. The bulging forming process is a new method for manufacturing automobile axle housing, and includes the steps of reducing diameters of two ends of a seamless steel pipe with a certain specification to prepare a stepped pipe blank, performing hydraulic bulging on the middle portion of the stepped pipe blank, filling liquid into the stepped pipe blank, and performing compression forming by using a die.
The step-shaped tube blank for the automobile axle housing is formed by bulging, the outer diameter of the middle straight tube part is larger than that of the two side straight tubes, the outer diameters of the two side straight tubes are smaller, the ratio of the middle outer diameter to the outer diameters of the two sides is larger than 1.60, and the middle straight tube and the two side straight tubes are in tapered transition; the length dimension is large, typically greater than 1450 mm.
The step-shaped tube blank for the expansion-press formed automobile axle housing can be theoretically prepared by a shrinking warp or spinning method. Chinese patent (CN 201310019329.8) discloses an integral forming method of a light and medium truck weldless axle housing, which performs multi-pass large deformation free pressing reducing (the ratio of the external diameter of the tube blank before and after reducing is generally 1.6-2.0) on two ends of a weldless steel tube to obtain a stepped tube blank, but the wall thickness of the tube blank after reducing is increased by more than 50 percent, so that the weight of the tube after reducing is large. The Chinese patent (CN 201310191757.9) discloses a pipe blank bilateral reverse mandrel pushing and reducing die and a process, wherein a mandrel is arranged in a pipe blank before reducing, the mandrel is used for pushing and reducing the diameter of two ends of the pipe blank from outside to inside by using a reducing female die, and the mandrel arranged in the pipe blank moves from inside to outside.
The combined die for reducing and spinning the high-precision pipes disclosed in the Chinese patent (CN 201710538600.7) mainly comprises a fixed core die, a movable core die, a transition ring, a tail top disc and the like which are arranged in a pipe blank, wherein the movable core die is tightly sleeved outside the fixed core die, the fixed core die and the tail top disc clamp the movable core die through the transition ring, the combined die is suitable for reducing and spinning the stepped pipe blank with large outer diameters at two ends and small outer diameters in the middle, the spinning process is stable, and the forming quality of the spun pipe fitting is high. The seamless gas cylinder forward spinning wheel hot spinning closing-in method disclosed by Chinese patent (CN 201010288774.0) comprises the steps of heating a closing-in section (with a short length) of a steel pipe to 920-1050 ℃, performing 6-7-pass semi-ellipsoidal forward sealing spinning on the closing-in section of the steel pipe, performing 3-4-pass bottom thickening spinning on an obtained semi-ellipsoidal sealing head, and finally performing finish spinning on the surface of the sealing head.
The outer diameter of the middle part of the step-shaped tube blank for the automobile axle housing is large, the outer diameters of the two sides of the step-shaped tube blank are small, the length size is large, and the core mold structure in the Chinese patent CN201710538600.7 cannot be used; if the content disclosed in the chinese patent CN201010288774.0 is adopted, the large deformation reducing diameter forming is performed only by the external spinning wheel, multiple spinning is required, the forming time is long, the manufacturing cost is high, the wall thickness requirement and the forming quality of the tube blank are difficult to be ensured, and the surface of the tube blank after the large deformation spinning has the phenomena of unevenness and the like.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to overcome the defects in the prior art and provides a spinning-reducing forming method of a stepped pipe blank for a small and medium-sized bulging forming automobile axle housing. According to the method, after the left side and the right side of the stepped pipe blank are subjected to large deformation and reducing, the wall thickness increase value is reduced by 15% -25% compared with the wall thickness increase value of free pushing and reducing, and the weight is reduced by 10% -15% on the premise of meeting the strength and rigidity of a product; when the two sides of the tube blank are subjected to large deformation and diameter reduction, the middle part of the tube blank is not unstable; and the production efficiency is high, the manufacturing cost is low, and the forming quality is good.
In order to achieve the aim, the invention provides a spinning-reducing forming method of a stepped pipe blank for a small and medium-sized bulging forming automobile axle housing, which comprises the following steps:
step 1: selecting an outer diameter phid0Wall thickness t0Length L of0The initial seamless steel pipe blank of (1);
step 2: the tube blank is installed on a spinning machine, the left end of an initial tube blank is placed in a hollow spindle box of the spinning machine, the middle part of the initial tube blank is clamped by utilizing a chuck block I and a chuck block II of the spinning machine and clamping die blocks I, II, III, IV, V and VI arranged on the chuck block I and the chuck block II, a mandril driving system drives the mandril to prop against the left end surface of the tube blank, a mandril driving system drives the mandril to be placed into an inner cavity of the tube blank from the right end of the tube blank, and a spinning wheel driving system drives wheels I and II on the front side and the rear side of the tube blank to be placed at a distance L from the right end of the tube blank11The position of (a);
and step 3: the pipe blank is screwed in with variable wall thickness, a spindle box of a spinning machine drives a chuck block I and a chuck block II and clamping die blocks I, II, III, IV, V and VI to drive the pipe blank to rotate by n1The core rod positioned in the tube blank rotates synchronously with the tube blank, and the rotary wheels I and II on the front side and the rear side of the tube blank rotate at a speed v1Working from right to left along the axial direction at a speed v2The wall thickness is changed from t to t by working in the radial direction from outside to inside0Linear thinning to t1Satisfy t1=(0.75~0.85)t0Length L of screw-in section with variable wall thickness12=(0.18~0.23)φd0
And 4, step 4: spinning the pipe blank with the same wall thickness, stopping radial feeding of the spinning wheels I and II on the front side and the rear side of the pipe blank, and continuing to perform radial feeding at the speed v1Axially feeding to realize equal wall thickness reduction of the tube blank, wherein the length L of the section is13=(0.25~0.35)L0
And 5: the pipe blank is rotated out with variable wall thickness, and the rotating wheels I and II on the front side and the rear side of the pipe blank rotate at the speed v1Working axially at a speed v3Retreating from inside to outside along the radial direction to realize the screwing-out of the tube blank with the variable wall thickness so that the wall thickness of the tube blank is t1Linear thickening to t0The axial length L of the segment14=(0.18~0.23)φd0
Step 6: taking a workpiece, stopping the rotation of a main shaft of a spinning machine, driving a mandrel to longitudinally withdraw by a mandrel driving system, driving front and rear spinning wheel systems to radially withdraw by front and rear spinning wheels I and II, loosening a clamped tube blank by a clamping module I and II, driving an ejector rod to move rightwards by an ejector rod driving system, ejecting the tube blank, and unloading and taking the workpiece;
and 7: and (5) performing the steps (2) to (6) on the left side part of the tube blank to finish spinning of the left side part of the tube blank.
And 8: after spinning, the two sides of the tube blank are freely pushed and reduced in diameter, and the middle L of the tube blank is kept33The length part is not changed, two sides of the pipe are freely pushed and reduced to obtain a specific stepped pipe blank, and the outer diameters of the reduced parts at two sides of the middle part are reduced to phi d2=(0.60~0.75)φd0Wall thickness of t1Increase to t2=(1.05~1.15)t0The outer diameter of the end part is phi d0Reduced to phid3=(0.80~0.90)φd2Wall thickness of t0Increase to t3=(1.20~1.30)t0The conical surface between the middle tube blank and the reducing parts at two sides is in transition, and the half cone angle c1= 15-25 °, taper and outer diameter phi d2Part of a transitional arc R1= 90-150 mm, outer diameter phid3End and outer diameter phid of2Between parts of conical surface transition, half-cone angle c2= 15-25 °, taper and outer diameter phi d3Partial transition arc R2=45~65mm。
And step 9: and annealing, namely integrally annealing the formed stepped pipe blank at the annealing temperature T = 750-880 ℃, and obtaining the stepped pipe blank for the small and medium-sized bulging forming automobile axle housing after integral annealing.
When the spinning is thinned, the axial feeding speeds v of the spinning wheels I and II1Speed n of rotation of the main shaft1The ratio is f = 0.3-0.8 mm/r.
When the pipe blank is screwed in with the wall thickness changed, the axial working speed v of the rotary wheels I and II1With radial velocity v2Satisfy v between1/v2= 30-40; when the pipe blank is screwed out with the wall thickness changed, the axial working feed speed v of the rotary wheels I and II1With radial velocity v3Satisfy v1/v3=30~40。
A spinning machine for a spinning-reducing forming method of a stepped pipe blank of a small and medium-sized expansion-press formed axle housing is composed of a main shaft box, a base, a chuck driving system, a spinning wheel driving system, a core rod assembly, an ejector rod driving system and an ejector rod, wherein:
the spindle box is of a hollow structure, and a chuck driving system is arranged in the spindle box.
Chuck actuating system is by the main shaft, the pull rod, hinge I, II, the (holding) chuck, chuck piecemeal I, II and centre gripping module piecemeal I, II, III, IV, V, VI is constituteed, when chuck actuating system drive pull rod longitudinal movement, through hinge I, II drive chuck piecemeal I, II and centre gripping module piecemeal I, II, III, IV, V, VI along the longitudinal movement of (holding) chuck wedge face, make centre gripping module piecemeal I, II, III, IV, V, VI press from both sides tightly, loosen the pipe, the chuck actuating system drives the pipe of centre gripping when rotating and rotates together.
The rotary wheel driving system is horizontally arranged on the front side and the rear side and consists of rotary wheels I and II, longitudinal feeding assemblies I and II and radial feeding assemblies I and II which transversely move on the rotary wheels I and II, the rotary wheels I and II are arranged on the radial feeding assemblies I and II through bearings and driven by the radial feeding assemblies I and II to realize radial feeding and withdrawing, and the longitudinal feeding assemblies I and II are driven by motors through lead screws or hydraulic cylinders to realize longitudinal movement.
The mandrel driving system is driven by a motor through a gear rack mechanism to realize longitudinal movement, the mandrel component consists of a mandrel, a shaft stop snap spring, a bearing cover and a mandrel supporting shaft, and the mandrel component is arranged on the mandrel driving system through the mandrel supporting shaft.
The ejector rod driving system is driven by a motor through a lead screw or a hydraulic cylinder to realize longitudinal movement, the ejector rod is driven by the ejector rod driving system to move longitudinally, the ejector rod is used for propping against the left end face of the tube blank during spinning, and the ejector rod moves rightwards after spinning to eject the tube blank after spinning.
The clamping die blocks I, II, III, IV, V and VI for the spinning machine are composed of 6 sectors with the same structure, the included angle of the left side surface and the right side surface of each sector is 45 degrees, and the axial length L of each sector is L5=(1.00~1.20)φd0The outer surface and the inner surface are both cylindrical surfaces, and the diameter of the outer surface is phi D1=(1.30 ~1.50)φd0Inner surface diameter phi D2=(1.01 ~1.03)φd0
The right end of the mandrel for the spinning machine is provided with a stepped round hole for mounting a bearing and is supported on a mandrel supporting shaft through the bearing, and the mandrel can synchronously rotate along with a tube blank during spinning; diameter of core rod phidx1According to the outer diameter phid of the initial pipe blank0Wall thickness t0Determine, φdx1=φd0-(2.10~2.20)t0
The invention has the beneficial effects that: after the left side and the right side of the stepped pipe blank are subjected to large deformation and reducing, the wall thickness increase value is reduced by 15-25% compared with the free pushing and reducing, and the weight is reduced by 10-15% on the premise of meeting the strength and rigidity of a product; when the two sides of the tube blank are subjected to large deformation and diameter reduction, the middle part of the tube blank is not unstable. The invention has high production efficiency, low manufacturing cost and good forming quality.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is an initial seamless steel tube for a small and medium-sized bulging forming axle housing;
FIG. 2 is a variable wall thickness pipe blank obtained after the spinning of the right end of an initial pipe blank for a middle and small expansion-press forming axle housing is finished;
FIG. 3 is a variable wall thickness pipe blank obtained after the spinning of the initial pipe blank for the middle and small expansion-press axle housing is finished;
FIG. 4 is a specific stepped pipe blank obtained by spinning and reducing an initial pipe blank for a small and medium-sized bulging forming axle housing;
FIG. 5 is a schematic view of a spinning machine and a tool for spinning and thinning an initial pipe blank for a small and medium-sized bulging axle housing;
FIG. 6 is a mandrel assembly for spinning an initial tube blank for a small and medium sized bulging axle housing;
FIG. 7 is a core rod for spinning an initial tube blank for a middle-small expansion-press formed axle housing;
FIG. 8 is a front view of a clamping die block for spinning an initial tube blank for a small and medium-sized bulging axle housing;
FIG. 9 is a left side view of a clamping die block for spinning an initial tube blank for a medium and small sized bulging axle housing.
In the above drawings, 1, a main spindle box, 2, a mandril, 3, a main spindle, 4, a pull rod, 5 ', hinges I, II, 6 ', screws I, II, 7 ', screws III, IV, 8, chucks, 9a, 9b, chuck blocks I, II, 10a, 10b, 10c, 10d, 10e, 10f, clamping module blocks I, II, III, IV, V, VI, 11, tube blanks, 12 ', spinning wheels I, II, 13 ', spinning wheel radial feeding assemblies I, II, 14, a mandrel supporting shaft, 15 ', screws V, VI, 16 ' VII, spinning wheel longitudinal feeding assemblies I, II, 17, a base, 18, a mandrel driving system, 19, a mandrel, 20, a shaft blocking clamp spring, 21, a bearing, 22, a felt ring, 23, a screw oil seal, 24 and a bearing cover.
Detailed Description
Examples
The present invention will be described in further detail with reference to the following drawings and examples, which are illustrative of the present invention and are not to be construed as being limited thereto.
Examples
Aiming at an axle housing formed by expanding and pressing a certain axle load of 5t, the spinning-reducing forming method of the stepped tube blank of the small and medium-sized expanding and pressing axle housing comprises the following steps:
step 1: selecting an outer diameter phid0= 203mm, wall thickness t0=6mm, length L0An initial seamless steel pipe blank 11 of 1520 mm. The initial seamless steel pipe blank is shown in fig. 1.
Step 2: installing a tube blank 11 on a spinning machine, placing the left end of an initial tube blank 11 into a hollow main spindle box 1 of the spinning machine, clamping the middle part of the initial tube blank 11 by utilizing a chuck block I, a chuck block II (9 a, 9 b) of the spinning machine and clamping die blocks I, II, III, IV, V, VI (10 a, 10b, 10c, 10d, 10e and 10 f) arranged on the chuck block I, the chuck block II and the clamping die blocks II, 10c, 10d, 10e and 10 f), driving an ejector rod 2 to push against the left end surface of the tube blank 11 by an ejector rod driving system, driving a core rod 19 to be placed into the inner cavity of the tube blank 11 from the right end of the tube blank 11 by a core rod driving system, and driving rotary wheels I, II (12 and 12') on the front side and the back side of the tube blank 11 to be placed at a length L away from the right end of the tube blank 11 by the rotary wheel driving system11Position of =30 mm. The variable wall thickness tube blank obtained after the spinning of the right end of the initial tube blank is shown in figure 2.
And step 3: the tube blank 11 is screwed in with variable wall thickness, the spindle box 1 of the spinning machine drives the chuck blocks I and II (9 a and 9 b) and the clamping die blocks I, II, III and IV,V, VI (10 a, 10b, 10c, 10d, 10e, 10 f) drive the tube blank 11 with n1A rotation speed of =4r/sec, the mandrel 19 positioned inside the tube blank 11 rotates synchronously with the tube blank 11, and the rotary wheels i and ii (12 and 12') on the front and rear sides of the tube blank 11 rotate at a speed v1=1.6mm/sec is fed from right to left in the axial direction at a speed v2The wall thickness of the tube blank 11 is changed from t by screwing in from outside to inside along the radial direction by =0.048mm/sec0Linear thinning to t of =6mm1=4.8mm, length L of wall thickness variable screw-in segment12=40 mm. The variable wall thickness tube blank obtained after the initial tube blank spinning is completed is shown in fig. 3.
And 4, step 4: spinning the tube blank 11 with the same wall thickness, stopping radial feeding of the spinning rollers I and II (12 and 12') at the front side and the rear side of the tube blank 11, and continuing to perform spinning at the speed v1The axial feed is carried out for 1.6mm/sec, the equal wall thickness of the tube blank 11 is reduced, and the length L of the section is equal to that of the tube blank13=440mm。
And 5: the tube blank 11 is rotated out with variable wall thickness, and the rotary wheels I and II (12 and 12') at the front side and the rear side of the tube blank 11 are rotated at a speed v1In the axial direction at a speed v of 1.6mm/sec3Withdraw from inside to outside along the radial direction of =0.048mm/sec, realize that the wall thickness becomes and screw out, make the wall thickness of pipe 11 from t1Linear thickening of =4.8mm to t0=6mm, axial length L of the segment14=45 mm. The specific stepped tube blank obtained by reducing the initial tube blank after spinning is shown in fig. 4.
Step 6: and (3) taking a workpiece, stopping the rotation of the main shaft 3 of the spinning machine, driving a mandrel 19 to longitudinally withdraw by a mandrel driving system, driving front and rear spinning wheel systems to radially withdraw front and rear spinning wheels I and II (12 and 12'), loosening the clamped tube blank 11 by clamping die blocks I, II, III, IV, V and VI (10 a, 10b, 10c, 10d, 10e and 10 f), driving a mandrel 2 to move rightwards by a mandrel driving system, ejecting the tube blank 11, and unloading and taking the workpiece.
And 7: and (4) performing steps 2-6 on the left side part of the tube blank 11 to finish spinning the left side part of the tube blank 11.
And 8: after spinning, the two sides of the tube blank 11 are freely pushed and reduced, the part with the length of 460mm in the middle of the tube blank 11 is kept unchanged, the two sides are freely pushed and reduced to obtain a specific stepped tube blank 11, and the two sides in the middle are reducedThe outer diameter of the diameter part is reduced to phi d2= 125mm, wall thickness from t1Increase to t =4.8mm2=6.6mm, and the outer diameter of the end part is phi d0= 203mm to phid3= 107mm, wall thickness is given by t0=6mm increasing to t3=7.4mm, the middle tube blank 11 and the reducing parts on both sides are in conical transition, and the half cone angle c1=20 °, cone and outer diameter phid2= 125mm partial transition circular arc R1=120mm, outer diameter phid3End and outer diameter phid of = phi 107mm2Conic transition between portions of = 125mm, half cone angle c2=20 °, cone and outer diameter phid3= 107mm partially-transitional circular arc R2=60mm。
And step 9: and annealing, namely integrally annealing the formed stepped pipe blank 11 at the annealing temperature T = 750-880 ℃, and obtaining the stepped pipe blank for the small and medium-sized bulging forming automobile axle housing after integral annealing.
A spinning machine for a spinning-reducing forming method of a stepped tube blank for a small and medium-sized expansion-press formed automobile axle housing is composed of a main shaft box 1, a base 17, a chuck driving system, a spinning wheel driving system, a mandrel driving system 18, a mandrel component, a mandrel driving system and a mandrel 2. The main spindle box 1 is of a hollow structure, and a chuck driving system is arranged in the main spindle box. The chuck driving system is composed of a main shaft 3, a pull rod 4, hinges I, II (5, 5 '), a chuck 8, chuck blocks I, II (9 a, 9 b) and clamping module blocks I, II, III, IV, V, VI (10 a, 10b, 10c, 10d, 10e, 10 f), when the chuck driving system drives the pull rod 4 to move longitudinally, the hinges I, II (5, 5') drive the chuck blocks I, II (9 a, 9 b) and the clamping module blocks I, II, IV, V, VI (10 a, 10b, 10c, 10d, 10e, 10 f) to move longitudinally along the wedge-shaped surface of the chuck 8, so that the clamping module blocks I, II, III, IV, V, VI (10 a, 10b, 10c, 10d, 10e, 10 f) clamp and release 11, and when the driving system rotates, the clamped tube blank 11 rotates together. The rotary wheel driving system is horizontally arranged on the front side and the rear side and consists of rotary wheels I and II (12 and 12 '), longitudinal feeding assemblies I and II (16 and 16 ') and radial feeding assemblies (13 and 13 ') transversely moving on the rotary wheels I and II, the rotary wheels I and II (12 and 12 ') are mounted on the radial feeding assemblies I and II (13 and 13 ') through bearings and driven by the radial feeding assemblies I and II (13 and 13 ') to realize radial feeding and withdrawing, and the longitudinal feeding assemblies I and II (16 and 16 ') are driven by motors through lead screws or hydraulic cylinders to realize longitudinal movement. The mandrel driving system 18 is driven by a motor through a gear rack mechanism to realize longitudinal movement, the mandrel component comprises a mandrel 19, a shaft stop snap spring 20, a bearing 21, a bearing cover 24, a mandrel supporting shaft 14 and the like, and the mandrel component is installed on the mandrel driving system 18 through the mandrel supporting shaft 14. The ejector rod driving system is driven by a motor through a lead screw or a hydraulic cylinder to realize longitudinal movement, the ejector rod 2 is driven by the ejector rod driving system to longitudinally move, and is used for propping against the left end face of the tube blank 11 during spinning, and moves to the right after spinning to eject the tube blank 11 after spinning. A spinning machine and a tool for spinning and thinning an initial pipe blank for a small and medium-sized bulging axle housing are shown in figure 5.
The right end of the core rod 19 for the spinning machine is provided with a stepped round hole for mounting the bearing 21 and is supported on the core rod supporting shaft 14 through the bearing 21, the core rod 19 can synchronously rotate along with the tube blank 11 during spinning, and the diameter phi d of the core rod 19x1= 190.3 mm. The clamping die blocks I, II, III, IV, V and VI (10 a, 10b, 10c, 10d, 10e and 10 f) for the spinning machine are composed of 6 segments with the same structure, the included angle of the left side surface and the right side surface of each segment is 45 degrees, and the axial length L of each segment is L5=210mm, the outer surface and the inner surface are both cylindrical surfaces, and the diameter of the outer surface phi D1Phi 265mm, inner surface diameter phi D2=φ210mm。

Claims (6)

1. A spinning-reducing forming method of a stepped pipe blank for a small and medium-sized bulging forming automobile axle housing is characterized by comprising the following steps of: the forming method comprises the following steps:
step 1: selecting an outer diameter phid0Wall thickness t0Length L of0The initial seamless steel pipe blank (11);
step 2: the method comprises the steps of installing and clamping a tube blank (11) on a spinning machine, placing the left end of the initial tube blank (11) into a hollow spindle box (1) of the spinning machine, and utilizing a chuck of the spinning machine to divide blocks I and II (9 a and 9 b) and a clamping die arranged on the chuckBlocks I, II, III, IV, V and VI (10 a, 10b, 10c, 10d, 10e and 10 f) clamp the middle part of an initial tube blank (11), an ejector rod driving system drives an ejector rod (2) to prop against the left end face of the tube blank (11), a mandrel driving system (18) drives a mandrel (19) to be placed into the inner cavity of the tube blank (11) from the right end of the tube blank (11), and a spinning wheel driving system drives spinning wheels I, II (12 and 12') on the front side and the rear side of the tube blank (11) to be placed at a distance L from the right end of the tube blank (11)11The position of (a);
and 3, step 3: the wall thickness of the pipe blank (11) is changed to screw in, the spindle box (1) of the spinning machine drives the chuck blocks I, II (9 a, 9 b) and the clamping die blocks I, II, III, IV, V, VI (10 a, 10b, 10c, 10d, 10e, 10 f) to drive the pipe blank (11) to rotate by n1The mandrel (19) positioned in the tube blank (11) and the tube blank (11) rotate synchronously, and the rotary wheels I and II (12 and 12') on the front side and the rear side of the tube blank (11) rotate at a speed v1Working from right to left along the axial direction at a speed v2The wall thickness is changed by working in from outside to inside along the radial direction, so that the tube blank (11) is screwed in from t0Linear thinning to t1Satisfy t1=(0.75~0.85)t0Length L of screw-in section with variable wall thickness12=(0.18~0.23)φd0
And 4, step 4: the tube blank (11) is spun with equal wall thickness, the spinning wheels I and II (12 and 12') on the front side and the rear side of the tube blank (11) stop radial working, and the radial working is continued at a speed v1The axial feed is carried out to realize the equal wall thickness reduction of the tube blank (11), and the length L of the section13=(0.25~0.35)L0
And 5: the wall thickness of the tube blank (11) is changed and the spinning wheels I and II (12 and 12') at the front side and the rear side of the tube blank (11) are spun out at a speed v1Working axially at a speed v3Radially retreats to realize the screwing-out of the wall thickness to change the wall thickness of the tube blank (11) from t1Linear thickening to t0The axial length L of the segment14=(0.18~0.23)φd0
And 6: taking a workpiece, stopping the rotation of a main shaft (3) of a spinning machine, driving a mandrel (19) to longitudinally withdraw by a mandrel driving system, driving front and rear spinning wheel systems to radially withdraw front and rear spinning wheels I and II (12 and 12'), loosening a clamped tube blank (11) by clamping module blocks I, II, III, IV, V and VI (10 a, 10b, 10c, 10d, 10e and 10 f), driving an ejector rod (2) to move rightwards by an ejector rod driving system, ejecting the tube blank (11), and unloading and taking the workpiece;
and 7: performing the steps (2) to (6) on the left part of the tube blank (11) to finish spinning the left part of the tube blank (11);
and 8: after spinning, the two sides of the tube blank (11) are freely pushed and reduced in diameter, and the middle L of the tube blank (11) is kept33The length part is not changed, the two sides of the pipe are freely pushed and reduced to obtain a specific stepped pipe blank (11), and the outer diameter of the reduced part at the two sides of the middle part is reduced to phi d2=(0.60~0.75)φd0Wall thickness of t1Increase to t2=(1.05~1.15)t0The outer diameter of the end part is phi d0Reduced to phid3=(0.80~0.90)φd2Wall thickness of t0Increase to t3=(1.20~1.30)t0The conical surface between the middle tube blank (11) and the reducing parts at the two sides is in transition, and the half cone angle c1= 15-25 °, cone and outer diameter phid2Partial transition arc R1= 90-150 mm, outer diameter phid3End and outer diameter phid of2Between parts of conical surface transition, half-cone angle c2= 15-25 °, cone and outer diameter phid3Partial transition arc R2=45~65mm;
And step 9: and annealing, namely integrally annealing the formed stepped pipe blank (11), wherein the annealing temperature T = 750-880 ℃, and integrally annealing to obtain the stepped pipe blank (11) for the small and medium-sized bulging forming automobile axle housing.
2. The spinning-reducing forming method of the stepped pipe blank for the small and medium-sized swelling-pressing forming automobile axle housing as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that: when the spinning is thinned, the axial feeding speed v of the spinning wheels I and II (12 and 12') is1With the rotational speed n of the main shaft (3)1The ratio is f = 0.3-0.8 mm/r.
3. The stepped pipe blank for small and medium sized bulging forming automobile axle housing according to claim 1The spinning-reducing forming method is characterized in that: when the tube blank (11) is screwed in with the wall thickness changed, the axial working speed v of the rotary wheels I and II (12 and 12') is1With radial velocity v2Satisfy v between1/v2= 30-40; when the pipe blank (11) is screwed out with variable wall thickness, the axial working speed v of the rotary wheels I and II (12 and 12') is1With radial velocity v3Satisfy v between1/v3=30~40。
4. The spinning machine of the spinning-reducing forming method of the stepped pipe blank for the small and medium-sized swelling-pressing forming automobile axle housing according to claim 1 is characterized in that: the spinning machine comprises headstock (1), base (17), chuck actuating system, spinning wheel actuating system, plug actuating system (18), plug subassembly, ejector pin actuating system and ejector pin (2), wherein:
the spindle box (1) is of a hollow structure, and a chuck driving system is arranged in the spindle box;
the chuck driving system consists of a main shaft (3), a pull rod (4), hinges I, II (5, 5'), a chuck (8), chuck blocks I, II (9 a, 9 b) and clamping module blocks I, II, III, IV, V and VI (10 a, 10b, 10c, 10d, 10e and 10 f), when the chuck driving system drives the pull rod (4) to move longitudinally, the clamping device is characterized in that a hinge I, a hinge II (5, 5') drives a chuck block I, a chuck block II (9 a, 9 b) and a clamping module block I, a hinge II, a hinge III, a hinge IV, a hinge V, a hinge VI (10 a, a hinge 10b, a hinge 10c, a hinge 10d, a hinge 10e, a hinge chuck block II, a hinge chuck block III, a hinge chuck block IV, a hinge chuck block V, a hinge chuck block VI (10 a, a hinge 10c, a hinge 10d, a hinge 10e, a hinge 10 f) and a hinge clamping module block II, a hinge chuck block III, a hinge chuck block IV, a hinge chuck block V, a hinge chuck block VI (10 a) V, a hinge 10c, a hinge 10e, a hinge 10 f) and a hinge 10 f) to clamp and loosen a tube blank (11), and drive a clamped tube blank (11) to rotate together;
the rotary wheel driving system is horizontally arranged on the front side and the rear side and consists of rotary wheels I, II (12, 12 '), longitudinal feeding assemblies I, II (16, 16') and radial feeding assemblies I, II (13, 13 ') transversely moving on the rotary wheels I, II (12, 12'), the rotary wheels I, II (13, 13 ') are mounted on the radial feeding assemblies I, II (13, 13') through bearings, the radial feeding assemblies I, II (13, 13 ') drive the radial feeding assemblies I, II to realize radial feeding and withdrawing, and the longitudinal feeding assemblies I, II (16, 16') are driven by motors through lead screws or hydraulic cylinders to realize longitudinal movement;
the mandrel driving system (18) is driven by a motor through a gear rack mechanism to realize longitudinal movement, the mandrel component consists of a mandrel (19), a shaft stop clamp spring (20), a bearing (21), a bearing cover (24) and a mandrel supporting shaft (14), and the mandrel component is arranged on the mandrel driving system (18) through the mandrel supporting shaft (14);
the ejector rod driving system is driven by a motor through a lead screw or a hydraulic cylinder to realize longitudinal movement, the ejector rod (2) is driven by the ejector rod driving system to move longitudinally, the ejector rod driving system is used for propping against the left end surface of the tube blank (11) during spinning, and the ejector rod driving system moves rightwards after spinning to eject the tube blank (11) after spinning.
5. The spinning machine of the spinning-reducing forming method for the stepped pipe blank for the small and medium-sized swelling press forming automobile axle housing as claimed in claim 4, is characterized in that: the clamping module sub-blocks I, II, III, IV, V and VI (10 a, 10b, 10c, 10d, 10e and 10 f) are composed of 6 segments with the same structure, the included angle of the left side surface and the right side surface of each segment is 45 degrees, and the axial length L of each segment is L5=(1.00~1.20)φd0The outer surface and the inner surface are both cylindrical surfaces, and the diameter of the outer surface is phi D1=(1.30 ~1.50)φd0Inner surface diameter phi D2=(1.01 ~1.03)φd0
6. The spinning machine of the spinning-reducing forming method for the stepped pipe blank for the small and medium-sized swelling press forming automobile axle housing as claimed in claim 4, is characterized in that: the right end of the core rod (19) is provided with a stepped round hole for mounting a bearing (21) and a core rod supporting shaft (14), the core rod (19) can synchronously rotate along with the pipe blank (11) during spinning, and the diameter phi d of the core rod (19)x1According to the outer diameter phid of the initial pipe blank (11)0Wall thickness t0Determine, φdx1=φd0-(2.10~2.20)t0
CN202011513965.2A 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 Spinning-reducing forming method of stepped pipe blank for small and medium-sized bulging forming automobile axle housing Active CN112570488B (en)

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CN1048523A (en) * 1990-05-23 1991-01-16 周宗扬 Abnormal tyre pressure alarm device and electric switch
JPH06210385A (en) * 1993-01-19 1994-08-02 Bridgestone Cycle Co Manufacture of frame pipe for bicycle
JPH0839178A (en) * 1994-08-02 1996-02-13 Izumi Kogyo Kk Production of tubular product having window hole in intermediate bulging part
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