CN112008101A - Drilling method for ultra-deep long hole - Google Patents

Drilling method for ultra-deep long hole Download PDF

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Publication number
CN112008101A
CN112008101A CN202010685597.3A CN202010685597A CN112008101A CN 112008101 A CN112008101 A CN 112008101A CN 202010685597 A CN202010685597 A CN 202010685597A CN 112008101 A CN112008101 A CN 112008101A
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China
Prior art keywords
hole
drilling
deep
drill
ultra
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CN202010685597.3A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
程海林
杨有成
郭国强
王斌奇
何小飞
王玮
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Shanghai Space Precision Machinery Research Institute
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Shanghai Space Precision Machinery Research Institute
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Priority to CN202010685597.3A priority Critical patent/CN112008101A/en
Publication of CN112008101A publication Critical patent/CN112008101A/en
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23BTURNING; BORING
    • B23B35/00Methods for boring or drilling, or for working essentially requiring the use of boring or drilling machines; Use of auxiliary equipment in connection with such methods
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23PMETAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; COMBINED OPERATIONS; UNIVERSAL MACHINE TOOLS
    • B23P13/00Making metal objects by operations essentially involving machining but not covered by a single other subclass
    • B23P13/02Making metal objects by operations essentially involving machining but not covered by a single other subclass in which only the machining operations are important

Abstract

The invention provides a drilling method for an ultra-deep long hole, which comprises the following steps: milling a plane; drilling a centering hole; drilling a guide hole; drilling a guide hole in a deep hole; normal feed of deep hole drilling; deep hole drilling low-speed feed; retracting the deep hole drill; and (6) checking. According to the invention, in the whole process route, firstly, guide hole machining is carried out, then, the inner-cooling deep hole drill is adopted to continuously machine to the final depth at one time, and various measures such as selection of high-efficiency cutters, reasonable planning of the process route, calculation and optimization of process parameters and the like are adopted to ensure the machining quality of the superfine deep long hole, the stability of the machining process and the reliability of the process, the non-cutting time of pecking drill withdrawing cutters is cancelled, and the deep hole machining efficiency is improved. The method adopts the inner-cooling deep hole drilling tool to solve the problems of chip removal, cooling and lubrication in the machining of the closed space of the deep long hole, designs a reasonable process route to ensure the stability of the machining process and the reliability of the machining precision, realizes the one-time feed machining of the superfine deep long hole, and improves the machining efficiency of the deep hole.

Description

Drilling method for ultra-deep long hole
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of mechanical manufacturing, in particular to a drilling method for an ultra-deep long hole.
Background
Compared with general holes, the hole machining is an important component of machining, the hole diameter of the machining of the superfine deep long hole is smaller, the depth is longer, the length-diameter ratio is generally between 20 and 35, cooling lubrication and chip breaking and removal are more difficult in machining, the cutting temperature is higher, the rigidity of a machining cutter is very poor, the stability of the machining process of the superfine deep long hole is poorer, the difficulty in guaranteeing the machining precision of the deep long hole is higher, the pecking drilling process is adopted in the traditional machining mode, and the chip removal, cooling and lubricating effects in deep hole machining are improved through repeated tool withdrawal. However, the drilling pecking process has a number of disadvantages in the processing of the ultra-deep long hole: on one hand, with the continuous increase of the drilling depth, the cooling, lubricating and chip removal conditions of a drilling area become worse, and lower technological parameters are often selected for protecting a cutter and a workpiece, so that the processing efficiency is not high; on the other hand, the repeated tool retracting process occupies a large amount of valuable processing time, and the larger the hole depth is, the longer the tool retracting distance is, and the longer the non-cutting time is, so that the improvement of the deep hole processing efficiency is greatly limited; in addition, the pecking drill belongs to intermittent cutting, and tool catching marks are generated on the inner wall of the hole, so that the surface finish of the inner wall of the deep hole is influenced. Therefore, an efficient process method is urgently needed for processing the ultra-deep long holes, and the problems of weak rigidity, low efficiency, quality of the inner walls of the deep holes and the like in the processing process are solved.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a drilling method for an ultra-deep long hole, which solves the problems of weak rigidity, low efficiency, quality of the inner wall of the deep hole and the like in the processing process of the ultra-deep long hole from the aspects of process routes, process parameters, processing tools, process control and the like.
In order to solve the technical problems, the technical scheme of the invention is as follows: the drilling method for the ultra-deep long hole comprises the following steps:
10. clamping by a horizontal machining center;
20. milling a plane;
30. drilling a centering hole;
40. drilling a guide hole with the depth of 1.5 d-2 d, wherein d is the diameter of the drill bit;
50. drilling a guide hole in a deep hole, wherein the distance between a tool nose and the bottom of the hole is 3-5 mm;
60. normally feeding the deep hole drill until the distance from the end point is 1-2 mm;
70. the deep hole drill is fed at a low speed to the end point;
80. retracting the deep hole drill;
90. and (6) checking.
Further, in the step 20, a milling method is adopted to process the drilling plane, so that the drilling plane is perpendicular to the hole center line, and inclined plane or curved surface drilling is avoided, thereby ensuring the position accuracy of the drilling center.
Further, in step 30, a centering hole is machined by using a center drill.
Further, in the step 40, a guide drill is adopted to process a guide hole, the cutting linear speed is controlled to be 15-20 m/min, the feeding speed is controlled to be 0.03-0.05 mm/r, and the pecking drill is stepped by 1-2 mm; the cooling mode does not adopt high-pressure internal cooling so as to prevent the cutter from fluttering due to the reaction force of water flow.
Further, in the step 50, the deep hole drill enters the guide hole at a low rotating speed, the distance between the tool tip and the hole bottom is 3-5 mm, the rotating speed of the main shaft is controlled to be 1000r/min, the feeding speed is controlled to be 300mm/min, and meanwhile cooling is kept closed to prevent the tool from fluttering due to cooling water flow impact.
Further, in the step 60, high-pressure internal cooling is opened, and the pressure is not less than 40 bar; and (3) normally feeding the deep hole drill, controlling the cutting linear speed to be 70-75 m/min, controlling the feeding speed to be 0.08-0.1 mm/r, and discontinuously processing to the final depth of 1-2 mm.
Further, in the step 70, the deep hole drilling is carried out at a low rotating speed for feeding, the cutting linear speed is controlled to be 20-25 m/min, the feeding speed is controlled to be 0.03-0.05 mm/r, the deep hole is processed to the final depth discontinuously, the cutting force is reduced, and the processing quality of the hole outlet or the bottom is improved.
Further, the method is characterized in that in the step 80, the deep hole drill retracts, the main shaft is controlled to rotate reversely, the rotating speed is 1000r/min, the feeding speed is 300mm/min, the main shaft can not only avoid scratching the hole wall due to forward rotation in the retracting process, but also can improve the surface quality of the hole wall by utilizing the rear cutter face of the cutter to perform secondary rolling on the processed surface.
Furthermore, the method is suitable for machining ultra-fine deep and long holes with the aperture of phi 4-6 mm, the length-diameter ratio of 20-35 and the precision level IT9 of the aluminum alloy member, and the machining time of a single deep hole is less than 2 min.
The drilling method for the ultra-deep long hole provided by the invention ensures the processing quality, the stability of the processing process and the reliability of the process of the ultra-deep long hole by various measures such as reasonable planning of a process route, optimized calculation of process parameters, selection of a high-efficiency cutter and the like. One of the characteristics of the process method is that a reasonable process route is designed, firstly, a guide hole is processed, then, an inner-cooling deep hole drill is adopted to continuously process to the final depth in one step, and the advantages of the high-efficiency drilling process are exerted to the maximum extent; the second characteristic is that the inner-cooling deep hole drilling tool is adopted, and the three core problems of chip removal, cooling and lubrication in the drilling of the closed space of the deep long hole are solved; the method is characterized in that the technological parameters are optimized through theoretical calculation, and the balance of drilling force, torque and the like is realized through the accurate control of the technological parameters, so that the matching of the cutting load and the cutter is improved, the weak rigidity problem of the slender cutter is solved, and the stability and the reliability of the cutter in the high-efficiency drilling process are ensured; the method is characterized in that a reliability test is carried out on the process method, the precision error change rule under the condition of batch processing of the ultra-deep long holes and the service life of a main cutter are evaluated, the technical maturity of the process method is improved, and a basis is provided for engineering application.
The method is suitable for deep hole machining of an aluminum alloy member with the aperture of phi 4-6 mm, the length-diameter ratio of 20-35 and the precision level IT9, the machining time of a single deep hole is within 2min, the method is simple in technological process, stable in machining quality and high in deep hole machining efficiency, the method is an efficient and low-cost drilling method for the ultra-fine deep long hole, and a method and an idea are provided for solving the similar machining problems.
Drawings
The invention is further described with reference to the accompanying drawings:
fig. 1 is a schematic step view of a drilling method for ultra-deep long holes according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a schematic view of a design process of a drilling process for an ultra-deep long hole according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Detailed Description
The method for drilling ultra-deep long holes according to the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings and specific embodiments. Advantages and features of the present invention will become apparent from the following description and from the claims. It is to be noted that the drawings are in a very simplified form and are all used in a non-precise ratio for the purpose of facilitating and distinctly aiding in the description of the embodiments of the invention.
The core idea of the invention is that the high-efficiency drilling method for the ultra-fine deep long hole provided by the invention comprises the steps of firstly processing a guide hole in the whole process route, and then continuously processing the guide hole to the final depth at one time by adopting an inner-cooling deep hole drill. The method adopts the inner-cooling deep hole drilling tool to solve the problems of chip removal, cooling and lubrication in the machining of the closed space of the deep long hole, overcomes the problem of weak rigidity of the long and thin tool through theoretical calculation and accurate control of technological parameters, effectively reduces the deflection error of the tool by a reasonably designed technological route so as to ensure the stability of the machining process and the reliability of the machining precision, realizes the one-time feed machining of the superfine deep long hole, and greatly improves the machining efficiency of the deep hole. The method is suitable for deep hole machining of an aluminum alloy member with the aperture of phi 4-6 mm, the length-diameter ratio of 20-35 and the precision level IT9, the machining time of a single deep hole is within 2min, the method is simple in technological process, stable in machining quality and high in deep hole machining efficiency, and the method is an efficient and low-cost drilling machining method for the ultra-fine deep long hole.
Fig. 1 is a schematic flow chart illustrating steps of a method for efficiently drilling ultra-deep long holes according to an embodiment of the present invention. Referring to fig. 1, a method for efficiently drilling ultra-deep long holes is provided, which comprises the following steps:
10. clamping by a horizontal machining center;
20. milling a plane;
30. drilling a centering hole;
40. drilling a guide hole with the depth of 1.5-2 d;
50. drilling a guide hole in a deep hole, wherein the distance between a tool nose and the bottom of the hole is 3-5 mm;
60. normally feeding the deep hole drill until the distance from the end point is 1-2 mm;
70. the deep hole drill is fed at a low speed to the end point;
80. retracting the deep hole drill;
90. and (6) checking.
In the embodiment of the invention, in 20, a drilling plane is processed by adopting methods such as milling and the like to be vertical to the central line of the hole, so that inclined plane or curved surface drilling is avoided, and the position precision of the center of the drilling hole is ensured; at 30, machining a centering hole using a center drill; in 40, a guide drill is adopted to process a guide hole, the depth (1.5-2) d is adopted, the cutting linear speed is controlled to be 15-20 m/min, the feeding speed is 0.03-0.05 mm/r, the pecking drill is adopted, the step is 1-2 mm, and the cooling mode does not adopt high-pressure internal cooling so as to prevent the cutter from generating flutter due to the reaction force of water flow; in 50, a deep hole is drilled into a guide hole at a low rotating speed, the distance between a tool tip and the bottom of the hole is 3-5 mm, the rotating speed of a main shaft is controlled to be 1000r/min, the feeding speed is 300mm/min, cooling is switched off, and the tool is prevented from fluttering due to cooling water flow impact; in 60, high-pressure internal cooling is opened, normal feed of a deep hole drill is carried out, the cutting linear speed is controlled to be 70-75 m/min, the feeding speed is 0.08-0.1 mm/r, and non-interrupted machining is carried out until the final depth is 1-2 mm; in 70, deep hole drilling is carried out at a low rotating speed for feeding, the cutting linear speed is controlled to be 20-25 m/min, the feeding speed is 0.03-0.05 mm/r, and the deep hole is processed to the final depth in a non-interrupted mode, so that the cutting force is reduced, and the processing quality of a hole outlet (or the bottom) is improved; in 80, the deep hole drill retracts, the main shaft is controlled to rotate reversely, the rotating speed is 1000r/min, the retracting speed is 300mm/min, the main shaft rotates reversely in the retracting process, the situation that positive rotation scratches the hole wall can be avoided, and the surface quality of the hole wall can be improved by utilizing the rear cutter face of the cutter to perform secondary rolling on the machined surface.
Fig. 2 is a schematic flow chart of the process design for the processing method in the embodiment of the present invention. Referring to fig. 2, step S1 is to design a process scheme, define a process route, a tool, process parameters, etc.; step S2, simulating the technological process, and calculating the drilling force, the drilling temperature, the torque and the like; step S3, optimizing the process scheme, and determining process parameters according to the process simulation result; step S4, carrying out a feasibility test of the process scheme; step S5, developing a reliability test of the technical scheme, developing a plurality of tests, checking the stability of the processing quality and testing the service life of the main cutter; and step S6, processing and researching the product of the process scheme, processing the ultra-fine deep and long hole processing sample piece according to the specific product requirement, and checking.
Example one
In the first embodiment of the invention, the inner diameter of the deep hole is phi 6mm, the length is 198mm, the precision level is IT9 level, the part material is forged aluminum alloy, the number is 8, and the processing time of a single deep hole is required to be within 2 min. The embodiment is completed on a horizontal four-axis machining center, and the specific process flow is as follows:
1) clamping fixture
A horizontal four-axis machining center is used, the workbench rotates along an axis B, and a workpiece is clamped;
2) milling plane
And (3) milling by adopting a phi 6mm end mill, wherein one edge of a bottom edge passes through the center, feeding is carried out in the Z direction, the rotating speed of a main shaft is 1000r/min, the feeding speed is 40mm/min, and the milling is carried out.
3) Drilling centering hole
Drilling to the depth of 1.5mm by using a central drill with the diameter of phi 2mm, the handle diameter of phi 6mm, the rotating speed of a main shaft of 1000r/min and the feeding speed of 100 mm/min.
4) Drill guide hole
A standard drill bit with the diameter of 6mm is adopted, the rotating speed of a main shaft is 1000r/min, the feeding speed is 50mm/min, the emulsion is cooled externally, and the depth of a drilled hole is 12 mm.
5) Low-speed guiding hole of deep hole drill
An inner-cooling deep hole drill is adopted, the diameter phi is 6mm, the length is 250mm, the rotating speed of a main shaft is 1000r/min, the feeding speed is 300mm/min, and the tool nose is fed to the depth of 8 mm.
6) Normal feed for deep hole drill
And (5) opening internal cooling (the internal cooling pressure is not less than 40bar), accelerating the main shaft to 4000r/min, feeding at a speed of 400r/min, and continuously cutting to a depth of 196 mm.
7) Low-speed feed for deep hole drilling
The spindle is decelerated to 1200r/min, the feeding speed is decelerated to 60mm/r, and the cutting is continuously carried out to the depth of 198 mm.
8) Deep hole drill retracting tool
The main shaft rotates reversely, the rotating speed is 1000r/min, the tool retracting speed is 300mm/min, and the tool is retracted continuously to a safe plane.
9) Examination of
The aperture and depth were measured using a standard mandrel and the wall quality of the hole was measured using an endoscope.
Example two
In the second embodiment of the invention, the inner diameter of the deep hole is phi 4mm, the length is 80mm, the precision grade is IT9 grade, the part material is forged aluminum alloy, the number is 8, and the processing time of a single deep hole is required to be within 2 min. The embodiment is completed on a horizontal four-axis machining center, and the specific process flow is as follows:
1) clamping fixture
A horizontal four-axis machining center is used, the workbench rotates along an axis B, and a workpiece is clamped;
2) milling plane
And (3) milling by adopting a phi 4mm end mill, wherein one edge of a bottom edge passes through the center, feeding is carried out in the Z direction, the rotating speed of a main shaft is 1000r/min, the feeding speed is 40mm/min, and the milling is carried out.
3) Drilling centering hole
Drilling to the depth of 1.5mm by using a central drill with the diameter of phi 2mm, the handle diameter of phi 6mm, the rotating speed of a main shaft of 1000r/min and the feeding speed of 100 mm/min.
4) Drill guide hole
A standard drill bit with the diameter of 4mm is adopted, the rotating speed of a main shaft is 1500r/min, the feeding speed is 50mm/min, the emulsion is cooled externally, and the depth of a drilled hole is 8 mm.
5) Low-speed guiding hole of deep hole drill
An inner-cooling deep hole drill is adopted, the diameter phi is 4mm, the length is 150mm, the rotating speed of a main shaft is 1000r/min, the feeding speed is 300mm/min, and the tool nose is fed to the depth of 5 mm.
6) Normal feed for deep hole drill
And (5) opening internal cooling (the internal cooling pressure is not less than 40bar), accelerating the main shaft to 5500r/min, feeding at the speed of 450r/min, and continuously cutting to the depth of 78 mm.
7) Low-speed feed for deep hole drilling
The main shaft is decelerated to 2000r/min, the feeding speed is decelerated to 80mm/r, and the cutting is continuously carried out until the depth is 80 mm.
8) Deep hole drill retracting tool
The main shaft rotates reversely, the rotating speed is 1000r/min, the tool retracting speed is 300mm/min, and the tool is retracted continuously to a safe plane.
9) Examination of
The aperture and depth were measured using a standard mandrel and the wall quality of the hole was measured using an endoscope.
The method is used for realizing the high-efficiency machining of the ultra-fine deep long holes, the ultra-fine deep long holes are applied to the deep hole machining of phi 4mm and phi 6mm of aluminum alloy members, the drilling depth reaches 198mm and 80mm respectively, the machining time of a single deep hole is controlled within 2min, after detection, the indexes of the ultra-fine deep long holes machined by the method, such as precision, straightness, inner wall quality and the like, meet the design requirements, and the service lives of deep hole machining cutters are respectively 340 and 300 according to the process reliability test.
By the method, the problem of high-efficiency processing of the ultra-fine deep long hole of the aluminum alloy member with the aperture of phi 4-6 mm, the length-diameter ratio of 20-35 and the precision requirement of IT9 grade is solved, the processing time of a single deep hole is within 2min, and the efficiency is improved by more than 15 times compared with the pecking drilling process efficiency. One of the characteristics of the process method is that a reasonable process route is designed, firstly, a guide hole is processed, then, an inner-cooling deep hole drill is adopted to continuously process to the final depth in one step, and the advantages of the high-efficiency drilling process are exerted to the maximum extent; the second characteristic is that the inner-cooling deep hole drilling tool is adopted, and the three core problems of chip removal, cooling and lubrication in the drilling of the closed space of the deep long hole are solved; the method is characterized in that the technological parameters are optimized through theoretical calculation, and the balance of drilling force, torque and the like is realized through the accurate control of the technological parameters, so that the matching of the cutting load and the cutter is improved, the weak rigidity problem of the slender cutter is solved, and the stability and the reliability of the cutter in the high-efficiency drilling process are ensured; the method is characterized in that a reliability test is carried out on the process method, the precision error change rule under the condition of batch processing of the ultra-deep long holes and the service life of a main cutter are evaluated, the technical maturity of the process method is improved, and a basis is provided for engineering application.
Those not described in detail in this specification are within the skill of the art. It will be evident to those skilled in the art that the invention is not limited to the details of the foregoing illustrative embodiments, and that the present invention may be embodied in other specific forms without departing from the spirit or essential attributes thereof. The present embodiments are therefore to be considered in all respects as illustrative and not restrictive, the scope of the invention being indicated by the appended claims rather than by the foregoing description, and all changes which come within the meaning and range of equivalency of the claims are therefore intended to be embraced therein.

Claims (9)

1. The drilling method for the ultra-deep long hole is characterized by comprising the following steps of:
10. clamping by a horizontal machining center;
20. milling a plane;
30. drilling a centering hole;
40. drilling a guide hole with the depth of 1.5 d-2 d, wherein d is the diameter of the drill bit;
50. drilling a guide hole in a deep hole, wherein the distance between a tool nose and the bottom of the hole is 3-5 mm;
60. normally feeding the deep hole drill until the distance from the end point is 1-2 mm;
70. the deep hole drill is fed at a low speed to the end point;
80. retracting the deep hole drill;
90. and (6) checking.
2. The drilling method for extra long and ultra thin holes as claimed in claim 1, wherein in said step 20, a milling method is used to process the drilling plane so that the drilling plane is perpendicular to the hole center line, thereby avoiding the drilling of the inclined or curved surface and ensuring the position accuracy of the drilling center.
3. The ultra long and slender hole drilling method of claim 1, wherein in said step 30, a centering hole is drilled using a center drill.
4. The method for drilling ultra-fine deep long holes according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein in the step 40, the pilot hole is drilled by pilot drilling, the linear cutting speed is controlled to be 15-20 m/min, the feeding speed is controlled to be 0.03-0.05 mm/r, the pecking drill is controlled to step by 1-2 mm; the cooling mode does not adopt high-pressure internal cooling so as to prevent the cutter from fluttering due to the reaction force of water flow.
5. The method of drilling extra long and ultra fine holes in claim 1, wherein in step 50, the deep hole drill is fed into the pilot hole at a low speed, the tip is 3-5 mm from the bottom of the hole, the main spindle speed is controlled to be 1000r/min, the feed speed is controlled to be 300mm/min, and the cooling is kept off to prevent the tool from fluttering due to the impact of cooling water.
6. The long ultra-deep hole drilling method of claim 1 or 5, wherein in step 60, the high pressure internal cooling is opened, the pressure is not less than 40 bar; and (3) normally feeding the deep hole drill, controlling the cutting linear speed to be 70-75 m/min, controlling the feeding speed to be 0.08-0.1 mm/r, and discontinuously processing to the final depth of 1-2 mm.
7. The method for drilling an ultra-long and ultra-long hole as claimed in claim 6, wherein in the step 70, the deep hole drill is fed at a low rotation speed, the linear cutting speed is controlled to be 20 to 25m/min, the feeding speed is controlled to be 0.03 to 0.05mm/r, the deep hole drill is processed to the final depth discontinuously, the cutting force is reduced, and the processing quality at the hole outlet or the bottom is improved.
8. The method as claimed in claim 1 or 7, wherein in said step 80, the deep hole drill is retracted, the main shaft is controlled to rotate reversely at a rotation speed of 1000r/min and a feed speed of 300mm/min, and the main shaft is rotated reversely during retraction to avoid scratching the hole wall by forward rotation and to improve the surface quality of the hole wall by secondary rolling of the machined surface with the tool flank.
9. The method for drilling the ultra-fine deep long holes as claimed in any one of claims 1, 5 or 7, wherein the method is suitable for the ultra-fine deep long hole drilling with the hole diameter of the aluminum alloy member being 4-6 mm or so, the length-diameter ratio being 20-35 and the precision grade IT9, and the time for drilling a single deep hole is less than 2 min.
CN202010685597.3A 2020-07-16 2020-07-16 Drilling method for ultra-deep long hole Pending CN112008101A (en)

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