CN111829461B - Positioning target, vision measurement system and method for acquiring flatness - Google Patents

Positioning target, vision measurement system and method for acquiring flatness Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111829461B
CN111829461B CN202010719564.6A CN202010719564A CN111829461B CN 111829461 B CN111829461 B CN 111829461B CN 202010719564 A CN202010719564 A CN 202010719564A CN 111829461 B CN111829461 B CN 111829461B
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China
Prior art keywords
positioning target
light
quartz glass
glass sheet
vision
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CN111829461A (en
Inventor
游四清
黄科
游晓龙
白灵
黄菊芳
孔俊
陈平平
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Feishuo Yiwei Chongqing Technology Co ltd
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Feishuo Yiwei Chongqing Technology Co ltd
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B11/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means
    • G01B11/30Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means for measuring roughness or irregularity of surfaces
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B11/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means
    • G01B11/002Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means for measuring two or more coordinates

Abstract

The invention provides a positioning target, a vision measuring system and a method for acquiring flatness based on the positioning target and the vision measuring system; the positioning target comprises an active light-emitting lamp source, at least three high-precision spheres are arranged at the bottom of the lamp source, all the high-precision spheres are not on the same straight line, and a control main board is arranged on the lamp source and used for sending a measurement instruction according to set time; the vision measuring system adopts the positioning target; the method for acquiring the flatness comprises the following steps: fixing a vision measuring system; the positioning target is placed at a part to be detected, and the center coordinate of the positioning target is detected through a vision measuring system; the method comprises the following steps that a mobile positioning target collects m points at a part to be measured and fits to obtain a reference plane S'; and continuously moving the positioning target to acquire the ith point coordinate Pi, and calculating the vertical distance from the ith point coordinate Pi to the virtual plane S' to be used as the plane deviation of the current measuring point. The invention has the advantages of high repeatability, high precision, high efficiency, anti-interference, light volume, convenient carrying and operation, and the like.

Description

Positioning target, vision measurement system and method for acquiring flatness
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of vision measurement, and particularly relates to a positioning target, a vision measurement system and a method for acquiring flatness based on the positioning target and the vision measurement system.
Background
The marking point of vision measurement is a key technology in the field of machine vision, the marking point is arranged on an object to be measured or tracked, and the position and the posture of the object can be quickly and accurately acquired through an image processing technology. The marking points are generally divided into passive marking points which emit light by reflection and active marking points which emit light by self-luminescence, however, the precision of the two types of the existing marking points can not reach the micron level, and it is always a technical problem in the field that the positioning precision needs to be expanded to the micron level to realize ultra-precise positioning.
According to the GB/T11337-2004 standard, the existing flatness measurements are mainly direct (gap, indicator, optical axis, interferometry, level) and indirect (indirect methods such as level, autocollimator, stepper and surface bridge), and the main disadvantages of these measurements include: (1) the measured planar area is limited, generally not more than 1m by 1 m; (2) the coordinate of a measured point on the plane needs manual calculation or splicing; (3) the measurement efficiency is low, a large amount of preparation and adjustment work is needed, manual adjustment is needed in the measurement process, and the efficiency is low; (4) the method is not easy to digitize, can not automatically record all measured data, and can form a three-dimensional report form only by three-dimensional splicing.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a high-precision positioning target, a vision measuring system and a method for acquiring flatness based on the positioning target and the vision measuring system so as to quickly and conveniently measure the flatness of objects with various sizes.
In order to achieve the above object, the present invention adopts the following technical solutions.
A location target, includes initiative luminous lamp source, its characterized in that:
at least three high-precision spheres are arranged at the bottom of the active light source, and all the high-precision spheres are not on the same straight line;
a control main board is arranged on the active light source and used for sending a measurement instruction according to set time;
the sphericity error of the high-precision sphere is less than 1 um;
the active light source comprises a frame base and a light-emitting lamp strip arranged along the inner wall of the frame base, an insulating plate, a circuit board, a reflective film, a light guide plate, a brightness enhancement film, a light homogenizing film, a shading film and a quartz glass sheet are sequentially arranged in the frame base in a superposed mode, and the edge of the light guide plate is opposite to the light-emitting lamp strip;
the quartz glass sheet is provided with a light-through part, and the periphery of the light-through part on the quartz glass sheet is provided with a coating or a film layer for blocking light from penetrating;
and a light-transmitting part is arranged on the light-shielding film, the light-transmitting part and the light-transmitting part are coaxially arranged, and the diameter D' of the light-transmitting part is D (1+2 h/a), wherein D is the diameter of the light-transmitting part, h is the thickness of the quartz glass sheet, and a is the refractive index of the quartz glass sheet.
Furthermore, the shading film can be clamped between the light homogenizing film and the quartz glass sheet, can be attached to the light homogenizing film, and can also be attached to the back of the quartz glass sheet;
the shading film is clamped between the light homogenizing film and the quartz glass sheet;
the active light-emitting lamp source further comprises a cover frame used for installing the quartz glass sheet, only two adjacent side walls on the cover frame are respectively provided with a mounting hole, an elastic limiting part is arranged in the mounting holes in a matched mode and used for abutting against the side walls of the quartz glass sheet, and all the elastic limiting parts are used for elastically limiting the quartz glass sheet from two mutually perpendicular directions.
Further, the light-passing part may adopt one or more marked circles, one or more squares, or one or more straight lines.
Further, a vision measuring system using the aforementioned positioning target comprises the positioning target and a camera for matching with the positioning target, the camera is connected with a computer device, the computer device comprises a memory, a processor and a program stored in the memory and capable of running on the processor, and the processor executes the program to realize the following steps:
receiving a measurement instruction sent by a control main board of the positioning target in real time, and executing capturing and recording an active light source center coordinate P of the positioning target;
calculating the flatness of the plane formed by all the center coordinates from the captured N center coordinates { Pi }, and outputting the numerical value,
or:
and fitting according to the previous m points measured in advance to obtain a virtual plane S ', and after obtaining the coordinate Pi of the ith point after the m points are measured, calculating and displaying the vertical distance from the coordinate Pi of the ith point to the virtual plane S', wherein the vertical distance is used for indicating the plane deviation of the current measuring point of the user.
In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the value of m is 3 or 4.
Further, a method for acquiring flatness by using the vision measuring system comprises the following steps:
step 1, fixing a vision measuring system according to measurement requirements;
step 2, placing the positioning target on a part to be measured, starting the positioning target to enable the positioning target to send a measurement instruction to a vision measurement system, and detecting a central coordinate O of the positioning target through the vision measurement system;
step 3, moving the positioning target to collect m points at the part to be measured, and fitting the points to obtain a reference plane S';
and 4, continuously moving the positioning target to acquire the ith point coordinate Pi, and calculating the vertical distance from the ith point coordinate Pi to the virtual plane S' to be used as the plane deviation of the current measuring point.
Alternatively, the first and second liquid crystal display panels may be,
the method for acquiring the flatness by adopting the vision measuring system comprises the following steps:
step 1, fixing a vision measuring system according to measurement requirements;
step 2, placing the positioning target on a part to be measured, starting the positioning target to enable the positioning target to send a measurement instruction to a vision measurement system, and detecting a central coordinate O of the positioning target through the vision measurement system;
and 3, moving the positioning target to collect N points at the part to be measured, and calculating the planeness of the surface formed by all the central coordinates.
Due to the adoption of the technical scheme, the invention has the following beneficial effects:
the three high-precision balls are fixed at the bottom of the target and are used for contacting a measured plane, under the stress perpendicular to the plane, the full contact between each ball and the measured plane can be always ensured, the high consistency of the contact point between the target and the measured plane can be ensured, and the high repeatability of flatness measurement is ensured;
the device has high precision, can realize micron-sized ultra-precise positioning precision, and can reach 5um flatness precision when measuring a 100mm object by combining a vision measurement system; when the object within 1000mm is measured, the precision can reach 20um, and when the object with the length of 10 meters is measured, the precision can reach 0.5 mm; the numerical value refers to the length of the measured plane; the measuring area is large, and the maximum measurable length is 10 meters;
when the flatness is measured, the plane coordinates of the measured point on the measured plane can be measured and recorded;
the positioning target is placed on a measuring point after a vision measuring system is started without any teaching and preparation, and the measurement can be completed within 1s after a measuring switch on the positioning target is pressed down or a measuring signal is triggered by other external controllers;
the positioning target has anti-interference performance, and the positioning target is provided with the control circuit, so that the delay is supported according to the specified time after the measuring switch is pressed down, and the measuring process is not influenced by measuring personnel;
the portable measuring instrument has the advantages of being light and small in size, convenient to carry and operate, capable of being triggered by the switch or the external switch, capable of taking and putting the measurement, free of professional knowledge, free of alignment and free of training.
The measurement result is obtained by real-time detection and calculation of a vision measurement system, and data can be automatically stored.
The quartz glass sheet has good anti-pollution capacity and abrasion resistance, and the precision cannot be influenced even if the quartz glass sheet is slightly impacted and touched on a light transmission part of the quartz glass sheet; the reflection bright spots caused by the coated mirror surface can be eliminated, the consistency of the brightness of the lamp source is ensured, and the lamp source cannot be blocked even if the mark is observed from different angles; the brightness can be kept consistent when the camera is faced at different angles without being irradiated by an external light source, and the brightness attenuation can be ignored along with the increase of the distance in the measuring range; the power consumption is low, and the measurement requirements of a plurality of days can be met by using one or two lithium batteries.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a first schematic view of an embodiment of a positioning target;
FIG. 2 is a second schematic view of an embodiment of a positioning target;
FIG. 3 is a schematic view of an embodiment of an active light-emitting marking device (disassembled state);
FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of a light shielding film of an active light emitting marker in an embodiment;
fig. 5 is a schematic view of a state where the flatness of the object is measured in the embodiment.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be further described with reference to the accompanying drawings and specific embodiments, but the following embodiments are only used for assisting understanding of the principle of the present invention and the core idea thereof, and do not limit the protection scope of the present invention. It should be noted that modifications to the invention as described herein, which do not depart from the principles of the invention, are intended to be within the scope of the claims which follow.
Example 1
The present embodiment focuses on the description of the positioning target and the active light source thereof.
Referring to fig. 1 and 2, a positioning target comprises an active light source, wherein at least three high-precision spheres 5 are arranged at the bottom of the active light source, and all the high-precision spheres 5 are not on the same straight line; a control main board 16 is arranged on the active light source and used for sending a measurement instruction according to set time; the sphericity error of the high-precision sphere 5 is less than 1um, and the diameter of the sphere is 2-10 mm.
Referring to fig. 3 and 4, the active light source includes a frame base 1 and a light bar 13 disposed along an inner wall of the frame base 1;
an insulating plate 2, a circuit board 3, a reflective film 4, a light guide plate 6, a brightness enhancement film 7, a light homogenizing film 8, a shading film 9 and a quartz glass sheet 10 are sequentially arranged in the frame base 1 in a superposed manner, and the edge of the light guide plate 6 is opposite to a light-emitting lamp strip 13;
a light-passing part 14 is arranged on the quartz glass sheet 10, and a coating or film layer for blocking light from penetrating is arranged on the periphery of the light-passing part 14 on the quartz glass sheet 10; the light-passing part 14 can be a circle, three circles or four circles, or can be a combination of other circles, or can be a line combination or a rectangle combination, and the three circles are only schematically shown in fig. 1;
a light-transmitting portion 15 is provided on the light-shielding film 9, the light-transmitting portion 15 is arranged coaxially with the light-transmitting portion 14, and a diameter D' of the light-transmitting portion 15 is D (1+2 h/a), where D is a diameter of the light-transmitting portion 14, h is a thickness of the quartz glass sheet, and a is a refractive index of the quartz glass sheet.
The light shielding film 9 can be clamped between the light equalizing film 8 and the quartz glass plate 10, can be attached to the light equalizing film 8 (the light shielding film 9 and the light equalizing film 8 are integrated), and can be attached to the back surface of the quartz glass plate 10 (the light shielding film 9 and the quartz glass plate 10 are integrated). In this embodiment: the light shielding film 9 is clamped between the light uniformizing film 8 and the quartz glass plate 10 as shown in fig. 2.
The active light source further comprises a cover frame 12 for mounting the quartz glass sheet 10, mounting holes 11 are respectively formed in two adjacent side walls on the cover frame 12 (the left side wall and the top side wall of the cover frame 12 can be respectively provided with the mounting holes 12, the left side wall and the bottom side wall of the cover frame 12 can be respectively provided with the mounting holes 12, the right side wall and the fixed side wall of the cover frame 12 can be respectively provided with the mounting holes 12), elastic limiting parts are arranged in the mounting holes 11 in a matched mode and used for tightly abutting against the side walls of the quartz glass sheet 10, the side wall of the quartz glass sheet 10 which is not in contact with the elastic limiting parts abuts against the inner wall of the cover frame 12, and all the elastic limiting parts are used for elastically limiting the quartz glass sheet 10 from two mutually perpendicular directions.
Wherein the same side wall of the cover frame 12 is provided with at least two mounting holes 11, and fig. 1 only schematically shows that the same side wall of the cover frame 12 is provided with two mounting holes 11.
Wherein, the light guide plate 6 adopts a scattering type light guide plate, and four side surfaces of the light guide plate are provided with 90-degree light guide teeth; the light reflection rate of the light reflection film 4 is not lower than 98%; the brightness enhancement film 7 is a prism-type brightness enhancement film. In other embodiments, the angle of the light directing teeth may be selected within the range of 60-120 degrees.
Wherein, the film layer on the quartz glass sheet 10 is a coating film prepared by a magnetron sputtering process.
The light-emitting lamp strips 13 are near-infrared LED lamp strips, and the LED lamp strips are arranged around four sides of the light guide plate 6.
Wherein, the light equalizing film 8 is a high haze light equalizing film, the haze is 80-100%, the light transmittance is 80-100%, and the specific values are directly balanced by the technicians in the field according to the application requirements, such as a better scheme: haze 90% and light transmittance 80%.
The frame base 1 is made of aluminum alloy, so that the rigidity and the portability of the lamp source are ensured, and the base can be provided with fixing holes so as to fix the lamp source to other physical structures by using screws, clamps, magnets and the like; the insulating plate 2 is made of nylon or other insulating plastics, has a supporting function on the circuit board, fixes the wire interface and has an insulating protection function on the circuit and the frame seat 1; a light source circuit structure, light source circuit protection and welding support LED light bars are arranged on the circuit board 3; the cover frame 12 is made of aluminum alloy, is provided with screw holes and is matched with the frame base 1 through a fastening piece to fix the internal structure of the lamp source.
Example 2
Referring to fig. 5, a vision measuring system comprises the positioning target of embodiment 1 and a camera 22 for matching with the positioning target, the camera is connected with a computer device (not shown), the computer device comprises a memory, a processor and a program stored on the memory and running on the processor, the processor executes the program to realize the following steps:
receiving a measurement instruction sent by a control main board 16 of the positioning target in real time, and executing capturing and recording an active light source center coordinate P of the positioning target; the central coordinate P of the active light source in the embodiment refers to a certain geometric feature point, such as a geometric center, of a geometric figure formed by a single circle center or a circle center of the light-passing portion 14;
calculating the flatness of a plane formed by all the central coordinates according to the captured N central coordinates { Pi }, and outputting a numerical value, wherein the flatness calculating method comprises a minimum accommodation area method, a least square method, a diagonal plane method and a three-distant point plane method;
or:
and fitting according to the previous m points measured in advance to obtain a virtual plane S ', and after obtaining the coordinate Pi of the ith point after the m points are measured, calculating and displaying the vertical distance from the coordinate Pi of the ith point to the virtual plane S', wherein the vertical distance is used for indicating the plane deviation of the current measuring point of the user.
Example 3
It should be noted that, three high-precision spheres 5 which are not in the same straight line are fixed on the active light source, the spheres are point contacts when contacting with the plane, under the stress perpendicular to the plane, the measured surface contacts with three spheres respectively, and the relative positions of the three contact points are kept unchanged all the time. Assuming that the contact points of any plane S with the three spheres are P1, P2 and P3, and S is tangent to the three spheres at the same time, the P1, P2 and P3 have only one solution, so the distances of the P1, P2 and P3 relative to any plane S are the same and constant. Assuming that the central point of the active light source is O, because the active light source and the three high-precision spheres 5 are a rigid body, the distance h from the point O to the plane S is constant, and when the positioning target moves on the measured plane to measure different points, the distance h from the point O to the measured plane is always the same. Therefore, the curved surface S 'formed by a series of O points measured at different positions is obtained by translating S by a distance h in the O direction along the normal vector of the local part of S, and the flatness of the S' plane is measured by using the O points, which is equivalent to the flatness of the S plane.
A method for obtaining flatness using the vision measuring system of embodiment 2, comprising the steps of:
step 1, fixing a vision measuring system according to measurement requirements;
step 2, placing the positioning target at a part to be measured of a measured object 3, starting the positioning target to send a measurement instruction to a vision measurement system, and detecting a central coordinate O of the positioning target through the vision measurement system;
step 3, moving the positioning target to collect m points at the part to be measured, and fitting the points to obtain a reference plane S';
and 4, continuously moving the positioning target to acquire the ith point coordinate Pi, and calculating the vertical distance from the ith point coordinate Pi to the virtual plane S' to be used as the plane deviation of the current measuring point.
Example 4
A method for obtaining flatness using the vision measuring system of embodiment 2, comprising the steps of:
step 1, fixing a vision measuring system according to measurement requirements;
step 2, placing the positioning target on a part to be measured of a measured object 3, starting the positioning target to enable the positioning target to send a measurement instruction to a vision measurement system, and detecting a central coordinate O of the positioning target through the vision measurement system;
and 3, moving the positioning target to collect N points at the part to be measured, and calculating the planeness of the surface formed by all the central coordinates.

Claims (7)

1. A location target, includes initiative luminous lamp source, its characterized in that:
at least three high-precision spheres are arranged at the bottom of the active light source, and all the high-precision spheres are not on the same straight line;
a control main board (16) is arranged on the active light source and used for sending a measurement instruction according to set time;
the sphericity error of the high-precision sphere is less than 1 um;
the active light source comprises a frame base (1) and a light-emitting lamp strip (13) arranged along the inner wall of the frame base (1), an insulating plate (2), a circuit board (3), a reflective film (4), a light guide plate (6), a brightness enhancement film (7), a light homogenizing film (8), a shading film (9) and a quartz glass sheet (10) are sequentially arranged in the frame base (1) in a superposed mode, and the edge of the light guide plate (6) is opposite to the light-emitting lamp strip (13);
a light-transmitting part (14) is arranged on the quartz glass sheet (10), and a coating or a film layer for blocking light from penetrating is arranged on the periphery of the light-transmitting part (14) on the quartz glass sheet (10);
a light-transmitting part (15) is arranged on the light shielding film (9), the light-transmitting part (15) and the light-passing part (14) are coaxially arranged, and the diameter D' = D (1+2 h/a) of the light-transmitting part (15), wherein D is the diameter of the light-passing part (14), h is the thickness of the quartz glass sheet, and a is the refractive index of the quartz glass sheet.
2. The positioning target of claim 1, wherein:
the shading film (9) can be clamped between the light homogenizing film (8) and the quartz glass sheet (10), can be attached to the light homogenizing film (8), and can also be attached to the back surface of the quartz glass sheet (10);
the shading film (9) is clamped between the light homogenizing film (8) and the quartz glass sheet (10);
the active light-emitting lamp source further comprises a cover frame (12) used for installing the quartz glass sheet (10), installation holes (11) are formed in two adjacent side walls of the cover frame (12) respectively, an elastic limiting part is arranged in the installation holes (11) in a matched mode and used for abutting against the side walls of the quartz glass sheet (10), and all the elastic limiting parts are used for conducting elastic limiting on the quartz glass sheet (10) from two mutually perpendicular directions.
3. The positioning target of claim 1, wherein: the light-passing part (14) adopts one or more marked circles.
4. A vision measurement system employing the positioning target of claim 1, 2 or 3, wherein: the positioning target and the camera matched with the positioning target are included, the camera is connected with computer equipment, the computer equipment comprises a memory, a processor and a program which is stored on the memory and can run on the processor, and the processor executes the program to realize the following steps:
receiving a measurement instruction sent by a control main board of the positioning target in real time, and executing capturing and recording of a center coordinate P of an active light source of the positioning target;
calculating the flatness of the plane formed by all the center coordinates from the captured N center coordinates { Pi }, and outputting the numerical value,
or:
and fitting according to the previous m points measured in advance to obtain a virtual plane S ', and after obtaining the coordinate Pi of the ith point after the m points are measured, calculating and displaying the vertical distance from the coordinate Pi of the ith point to the virtual plane S', wherein the vertical distance is used for indicating the plane deviation of the current measuring point of the user.
5. The vision measurement system of claim 4, wherein: the value of m is 3 or 4.
6. A method of obtaining flatness using the vision measuring system of claim 4 or 5, the steps comprising:
step 1, fixing a vision measuring system according to measurement requirements;
step 2, placing the positioning target on a part to be measured, starting the positioning target to enable the positioning target to send a measurement instruction to a vision measurement system, and detecting a central coordinate O of the positioning target through the vision measurement system;
step 3, moving the positioning target to collect m points at the part to be measured, and fitting the points to obtain a reference plane S';
and 4, continuously moving the positioning target to acquire the ith point coordinate Pi, and calculating the vertical distance from the ith point coordinate Pi to the virtual plane S' to be used as the plane deviation of the current measuring point.
7. A method of obtaining flatness using the vision measuring system of claim 4 or 5, the steps comprising:
step 1, fixing a vision measuring system according to measurement requirements;
step 2, placing the positioning target on a part to be measured, starting the positioning target to enable the positioning target to send a measurement instruction to a vision measurement system, and detecting a central coordinate O of the positioning target through the vision measurement system;
and 3, moving the positioning target to collect N points at the part to be measured, and calculating the planeness of the surface formed by all the central coordinates.
CN202010719564.6A 2020-07-23 2020-07-23 Positioning target, vision measurement system and method for acquiring flatness Active CN111829461B (en)

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CN112945068A (en) * 2021-03-24 2021-06-11 深圳市道通科技股份有限公司 Positioning target and four-wheel positioning system
CN113137941A (en) * 2021-04-29 2021-07-20 荣旗工业科技(苏州)股份有限公司 Method for testing product flatness based on point laser
CN113639635A (en) * 2021-08-09 2021-11-12 温州市工业科学研究院 Part measuring method based on image recognition technology

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