CN110748373B - Ventilation device for underground closed space - Google Patents

Ventilation device for underground closed space Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110748373B
CN110748373B CN201911022055.1A CN201911022055A CN110748373B CN 110748373 B CN110748373 B CN 110748373B CN 201911022055 A CN201911022055 A CN 201911022055A CN 110748373 B CN110748373 B CN 110748373B
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China
Prior art keywords
air
air inlet
dust removal
pipe
ultraviolet lamp
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CN201911022055.1A
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CN110748373A (en
Inventor
陈宝宝
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Chongqing Yixi Brand Planning Co Ltd
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Chongqing Yixi Brand Planning Co Ltd
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21FSAFETY DEVICES, TRANSPORT, FILLING-UP, RESCUE, VENTILATION, OR DRAINING IN OR OF MINES OR TUNNELS
    • E21F1/00Ventilation of mines or tunnels; Distribution of ventilating currents
    • E21F1/08Ventilation arrangements in connection with air ducts, e.g. arrangements for mounting ventilators
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21FSAFETY DEVICES, TRANSPORT, FILLING-UP, RESCUE, VENTILATION, OR DRAINING IN OR OF MINES OR TUNNELS
    • E21F1/00Ventilation of mines or tunnels; Distribution of ventilating currents
    • E21F1/04Air ducts
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21FSAFETY DEVICES, TRANSPORT, FILLING-UP, RESCUE, VENTILATION, OR DRAINING IN OR OF MINES OR TUNNELS
    • E21F17/00Methods or devices for use in mines or tunnels, not covered elsewhere
    • E21F17/18Special adaptations of signalling or alarm devices
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21FSAFETY DEVICES, TRANSPORT, FILLING-UP, RESCUE, VENTILATION, OR DRAINING IN OR OF MINES OR TUNNELS
    • E21F3/00Cooling or drying of air
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE - DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04DNON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
    • F04D25/00Pumping installations or systems
    • F04D25/16Combinations of two or more pumps ; Producing two or more separate gas flows
    • F04D25/166Combinations of two or more pumps ; Producing two or more separate gas flows using fans
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE - DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04DNON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
    • F04D27/00Control, e.g. regulation, of pumps, pumping installations or pumping systems specially adapted for elastic fluids
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE - DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04DNON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
    • F04D29/00Details, component parts, or accessories
    • F04D29/40Casings; Connections of working fluid
    • F04D29/403Casings; Connections of working fluid especially adapted for elastic fluid pumps
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE - DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04DNON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
    • F04D29/00Details, component parts, or accessories
    • F04D29/70Suction grids; Strainers; Dust separation; Cleaning
    • F04D29/701Suction grids; Strainers; Dust separation; Cleaning especially adapted for elastic fluid pumps
    • F04D29/703Suction grids; Strainers; Dust separation; Cleaning especially adapted for elastic fluid pumps specially for fans, e.g. fan guards

Abstract

A ventilation device for an underground closed space comprises an air inlet pipeline and an air outlet pipeline, wherein one end of the air inlet pipeline and one end of the air outlet pipeline are arranged in an underground air duct, and an air inlet bin and an air outlet bin are respectively arranged on the ends of the air inlet pipeline and the air outlet pipeline; the other ends of the air inlet pipeline and the air outlet pipeline are respectively arranged in the air exchange area, and one end of the air outlet pipeline arranged in the air exchange area is provided with an air outlet bin; the air inlet pipeline and the air outlet pipeline are respectively provided with an air inlet fan and an air outlet fan, and the air inlet fan and the air outlet fan are respectively used for forming air convection in the air inlet pipeline and the air outlet pipeline; the upper end parts of the air inlet bin, the air exhaust bin and the air exhaust bin are respectively separated by grids. The air exchange region is also provided with a washing device, the air inlet pipeline is also provided with a dust removal device, the dust removal device is provided with a differential pressure mechanism, the dust removal device, the air inlet pipeline and the exhaust pipeline are respectively provided with a rolling brush mechanism, and the mesh net, the first dust removal net and the second dust removal net are scrubbed and dredged through the rolling brush mechanism.

Description

Ventilation device for underground closed space
Technical Field
The invention relates to ventilation equipment such as underground and tunnels, in particular to a ventilation and air exchange device for an underground closed space.
Background
In the design of underground ventilation, although a special air duct is used for ventilation, the design can solve the ventilation problem of most roadways. However, for some newly developed mining areas, emergency refuge areas and the like, due to untimely arrangement of facilities or design of refuge space, ventilation of the part of the area is seriously delayed or even is not ventilated. However, the underground harmful gases such as carbon monoxide, methane, sulfur dioxide and the like have more germs, so in order to ensure the air circulation in the area, a ventilation and air exchange device for ventilating the underground closed space is generally required to be additionally arranged. The principle is that the air duct is communicated with the area through a ventilation fan or an air suction device, so that air in the area is pumped into the air duct, and then fresh air is sucked from the air duct. Therefore, on one hand, harmful gas and germs can be discharged in time, on the other hand, the oxygen content can be increased by ventilating in time, and the breathing health of workers is ensured.
However, such underground closed space ventilation and air exchange devices generally simply exchange air flow, but underground dust, dust and the like are relatively large, especially in an air duct, the wind force of the air duct can blow small stones, so that it is common that solid impurities block ventilation pipelines. In order to ensure the normal operation of the ventilation and air exchange device for the underground closed space, the air duct generally needs to be periodically overhauled, and the pipeline is easy to block, so that the overhauling frequency has to be higher, and sometimes more than three times a week is needed. This obviously increases the manpower input greatly, and needs to shut down in the maintenance process, once shut down, the area of taking a breath must shut down production, and this to the mining progress influence very big. Therefore, the inventor believes that if the problem of the pipe clogging is solved, the frequency of the inspection can be reduced to about 3 times per month, and the problem can be readily solved.
Disclosure of Invention
In view of the above-mentioned defects in the prior art, the technical problem to be solved by the present invention is to provide a ventilation device for an underground enclosed space, wherein a differential pressure mechanism of the ventilation device can timely find the blockage of a filter element and release pressure of a pipeline, so as to prevent an air intake fan from being burned out due to overload.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention provides a differential pressure mechanism which comprises a first air-entraining pipe, a second air-entraining pipe and a differential pressure shell, wherein a hollow differential pressure inner cavity is arranged in the differential pressure shell, a differential pressure piston is slidably and hermetically arranged in the differential pressure inner cavity, and the differential pressure inner cavities on two sides of the differential pressure piston are respectively communicated with one end of the first air-entraining pipe and one end of the second air-entraining pipe; the other ends of the first air guide pipe and the second air guide pipe are respectively communicated with the dust removal cavities on the two sides of the filter element;
the differential pressure shell is also provided with a detection exhaust groove which communicates one end face of the detection branch pipe with the differential pressure inner cavity, and the detection exhaust groove is closed by a differential pressure piston in an initial state; a pressure spring is arranged between the differential pressure piston and the end face of one end of the differential pressure inner cavity communicated with the second bleed air pipe;
the other end of the detection branch pipe is communicated with a detection cavity inside the detection shell, the detection cavity is communicated with one end of a pressure relief pipe, the other end of the pressure relief pipe is communicated with a second air entraining pipe, an impeller is installed in the detection cavity, and the impeller is coaxially installed on a detection shaft.
Preferably, one end of the detection shaft penetrates through the detection shell and then is assembled and fixed with the cam, and the detection shaft and the detection shell can be assembled in a circumferential rotating mode; the cam is provided with a long shaft end and a short shaft end, an elastic sheet is arranged under the cam, one end of the elastic sheet is fixed on the detection shell, the other end of the elastic sheet is an open end, and the bottom of the elastic sheet is opposite to the trigger end of the microswitch.
Preferably, the signal end of micro-gap switch is connected with PLC's signal end communication, and micro-gap switch passes through the switch fixed plate to be fixed on detecting the shell, and detection shell, differential pressure shell pass through the backup pad to be fixed on dust removal shell, and the flexure strip has elasticity.
The invention also discloses a ventilation and air exchange device for the underground closed space, which is applied with the differential pressure mechanism.
Preferably, the underground air conditioner also comprises an air inlet pipeline and an air outlet pipeline, wherein one ends of the air inlet pipeline and the air outlet pipeline are arranged in the underground air duct, and an air inlet bin and an air outlet bin are respectively arranged on the ends of the air inlet pipeline and the air outlet pipeline; the other ends of the air inlet pipeline and the air outlet pipeline are respectively arranged in the air exchange area, and one end of the air outlet pipeline arranged in the air exchange area is provided with an air outlet bin;
the air inlet pipeline and the air outlet pipeline are respectively provided with an air inlet fan and an air outlet fan, and the air inlet fan and the air outlet fan are respectively used for forming air convection in the air inlet pipeline and the air outlet pipeline; the upper end parts of the air inlet bin, the air exhaust bin and the air exhaust bin are respectively separated by grids, and a plurality of fine through holes are formed in the grids; the air inlet bin, the air exhaust bin and the air exhaust bin are respectively provided with a rolling brush mechanism on the parts outside the grid.
Preferably, a control box is installed in the ventilation area, a harmful gas concentration sensor and a PLC are installed in the control box, and the harmful gas concentration sensor is used for detecting the harmful gas concentration in the ventilation area;
the signal end of the harmful gas concentration sensor is in communication connection with the signal end of the PLC, the signal end of the PLC is also in communication connection with the control end of the contactor, a static contact of the contactor is in conductive connection with an external power supply, and a movable contact is in conductive connection with the power connection ends of the air inlet fan and the air exhaust fan respectively;
one end of the air inlet pipeline, which is arranged in the air exchange area, is provided with a one-way air valve, and the opening direction of the one-way air valve is from the air inlet bin to the air exchange area; one end of the exhaust pipeline close to the exhaust bin is provided with another one-way air valve, and the opening direction of the one-way air valve is from the ventilation area to the exhaust bin;
the opening of the air inlet bin is arranged in the direction opposite to the direction of air flow in the air duct, the inner section of the air inlet bin is gradually reduced from one end assembled with the grids to the end communicated with the air inlet pipeline, and the section at the minimum position is not smaller than the diameter of the air inlet pipeline; the opening of the exhaust bin and the direction of the air flow in the air duct are arranged in the same direction.
Preferably, a dust removal device is installed on the air inlet pipeline in series, the dust removal device comprises a dust removal shell, a hollow dust storage cavity is formed in the dust removal shell, a first dust removal net, a second dust removal net and a filter element are sequentially arranged in the dust removal cavity in the air flow direction, a plurality of penetrating meshes are formed in the first dust removal net and the second dust removal net, and the filter element is used for filtering large-particle impurities in the air flow;
the ultraviolet lamp module comprises an ultraviolet lamp mounting plate, two sides of the ultraviolet lamp mounting plate in the air flow direction are respectively fixed with an ultraviolet lamp pore plate, and a plurality of fine air-equalizing holes are formed in the ultraviolet lamp pore plate;
a plurality of groups of ultraviolet lamp choke plates are arranged between the two ultraviolet lamp pore plates, each group of ultraviolet lamp choke plates is composed of two ultraviolet lamp choke plates, and an included angle is formed between the two ultraviolet lamp choke plates; ultraviolet lamp tubes are arranged in included angles formed by the choke plates of each group of ultraviolet lamps, and the ultraviolet lamp tubes emit ultraviolet light after being electrified;
two sides of the filter element in the airflow direction are respectively provided with a filter pore plate, and the two filter pore plates clamp the filter element and are assembled and fixed with the filter element into a whole; the two filter pore plates are respectively clamped and assembled with the first fixing ring and the second fixing ring; two filter orifice plates, filter core bottom are provided with the filter core mounting groove, and the filter core mounting groove runs through the dust removal shell and seals through filter core closure plate, and filter core closure plate passes through the fix with screw on the dust removal shell.
Preferably, a cleaning interval is arranged between the first dust removing net and the second dust removing net, two first side plates and two second side plates are arranged in the cleaning interval, a first slag discharging pipe is arranged at the bottom of the cleaning interval, and the first slag discharging pipe is used for discharging solid waste slag between the cleaning intervals; a dust removal interval is arranged between the second dust removal net and the filter element, a second slag discharge pipe is arranged at the bottom of the dust removal interval, and the second slag discharge pipe is used for discharging solid waste slag between the dust removal intervals; another rolling brush mechanism is arranged between the cleaning intervals.
Preferably, the rolling brush mechanism comprises two first side plates and two second side plates, and the two first side plates are respectively assembled and fixed with at least one of the air inlet bin, the air exhaust bin and the dust removal shell; two ends of the two second side plates are respectively assembled and fixed with the two first side plates;
a guide chute is arranged on the second side plate, a guide shaft collar is slidably arranged in the guide chute, a rolling brush shaft is arranged in the guide shaft collar in a circumferential rotating manner, and steel brushes are arranged on the corresponding parts of the rolling shaft and the lattice net and are tightly attached to the lattice net;
the two ends of the rolling brush shaft respectively penetrate through the shaft collar and the driving block and then are assembled and fixed with the gear, the rolling brush shaft and the driving block can be assembled in a circumferential rotating mode, the driving block is sleeved outside the reciprocating screw rod, reciprocating threads are arranged on the reciprocating screw rod, a clamping convex shaft is arranged on the inner side of the driving block, and the clamping convex shaft is arranged in the reciprocating threads and can be assembled with the reciprocating threads in a clamping and sliding mode;
the reciprocating screw rods are respectively assembled with the two first side plates in a circumferential rotating mode, one end of each reciprocating screw rod penetrates through one of the first side plates and then is assembled and fixed with the chain wheel, and the chain wheels on the two reciprocating screw rods are connected through a chain to form a chain transmission mechanism; one reciprocating lead screw is also connected with an output shaft of the rolling brush motor; the gear is in meshing transmission with the rack, and the rack is fixed between the two first side plates; the power connection end of the rolling brush motor is in conductive connection with a normally open contact of the relay, a static contact of the relay is in conductive connection with an external power supply, a control end is in communication connection with the PLC, and the relay is installed in the control box.
Preferably, a PM2.5 sensor and a water washing device are installed in the ventilation area, and a signal end of the PM2.5 sensor is in communication connection with a signal end of the PLC;
the water washing device is communicated with a second outlet of the reversing valve through a water washing pipe, a first outlet of the reversing valve is communicated with the ventilation area, and the air inlet is communicated with the air inlet pipeline;
the washing device comprises a washing tank, the bottom of the washing tank is provided with a conical sewage discharge shell, and the inside of the washing tank is provided with a hollow inner tank; a water distribution plate, a first pore plate and a second pore plate are sequentially arranged in the inner tank from top to bottom, a water storage tank, water distribution holes and an overflow tank are arranged on the water distribution plate, and the water distribution holes are arranged at the bottom of the water storage tank and are used for discharging water in the water storage tank from top to bottom; the overflow groove is used for overflowing to the lower part of the water storage groove after the water storage groove is full of water; the water storage tank is communicated with a water inlet pipe, and the water inlet pipe introduces external clean water into the water storage tank;
pumice is filled between the first pore plate and the second pore plate, and the pumice floats in water; the water washing pipe is connected with one end of the air inlet pipe in a sealing and air guiding manner, and the other end of the air inlet pipe penetrates through the water distribution plate, the first pore plate and the second pore plate, then enters the lower part of the second pore plate and is assembled and fixed with the flow guide cover; the inner side of the air guide sleeve is provided with an air guide arc surface bent towards the sewage discharge shell;
the top of the inner tank is communicated with one end of a dehumidification cavity of the dehumidification device through an exhaust pipe; the dehumidification cavity and the air expansion cavity are respectively arranged in the dehumidification shell, two supporting disks are respectively fixed in the dehumidification cavity, the two supporting disks are coaxially assembled through a connecting cylinder, the connecting cylinder can rotate relative to the circumference of the supporting disks, the outer walls of the supporting disks are assembled and fixed with the inner wall of the dehumidification cavity, and a through air passing groove is formed in each supporting disk;
the part of the connecting cylinder, which is positioned between the two supporting disks, is coaxially provided with a dehumidifying wheel, the dehumidifying wheel is respectively provided with an inner ring, an outer ring and a spoke for fixedly connecting the inner ring and the outer ring, the inner ring is sleeved and fixed on the connecting cylinder, the outer wall of the inner ring is fixedly assembled with one end of a dehumidifying strip, the other end of the dehumidifying strip penetrates through the outer ring, and the penetrated end is a spin-drying part; a dehumidification gap is formed between every two adjacent dehumidification strips, and the dehumidification gap is in a non-perpendicular state with the end faces of the outer ring and the inner ring.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
1. the invention has simple structure, and can effectively intercept large-particle solid impurities by respectively additionally arranging grids at the end parts of the air inlet pipeline and the air outlet pipeline, thereby preventing the air inlet pipeline and the air outlet pipeline from being blocked. In addition, the rolling brush mechanism for brushing the grid is additionally arranged at the grid, so that the grid can be effectively brushed, solid impurities blocked on the grid can be timely removed, and smoothness of the air inlet pipeline and the air outlet pipeline is guaranteed. The rolling brush mechanism can be started at fixed time, so that the fixed-time cleaning is realized, the maintenance frequency of workers can be effectively reduced, and the smooth operation of an air inlet pipeline and an air outlet pipeline and the normal operation of the invention can be ensured.
2. The dust removal device provided by the invention is provided with the rolling brush mechanism, so that solid particles on the first dust removal net and the second dust removal net can be effectively brushed down, the smoothness of the first dust removal net and the second dust removal net is ensured, manual intervention is not needed in the whole process, and the labor cost is extremely low.
3. The invention also realizes the detection of the air pressure difference at the two sides of the filter element by arranging the differential pressure mechanism, thereby finding the blocking state of the filter element in time and avoiding the condition that air cannot be supplied and exchanged and even the burning out of the air inlet fan for supplying air inlet power due to overload.
4. The washing device washes the airflow by flowing water (water is continuously discharged from the water inlet pipe and water is continuously discharged from the sewage discharge pipe), so that tiny particles in the airflow can be greatly reduced. And the dehumidifying wheel is used for dehumidifying the air flow after washing, so that the mode has overlarge humidity and causes discomfort for people. In addition, the water washing device can stabilize the temperature of the discharged air flow basically within an interval value, because the temperature of the water in the underground water pipe is basically stabilized within an interval value. The design can achieve the effect similar to that of an air conditioner, because the temperature in a deep well is relatively higher, and the ventilation area is generally an area where the air duct can not supply air directly, the design can effectively stabilize the air temperature in the area.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a schematic structural view of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a schematic view of the one-way valve configuration of the present invention.
Fig. 3 is a schematic structural diagram of the rolling brush mechanism of the present invention.
Fig. 4 is a schematic structural diagram of the rolling brush mechanism of the present invention.
Fig. 5 is a schematic structural diagram of the dust removing device of the present invention.
Fig. 6 is an enlarged view at F1 in fig. 5.
FIG. 7 is a schematic view of the structure of the detecting housing, cam and microswitch of the present invention.
FIG. 8 is a schematic view of the structure of the water washing apparatus of the present invention.
Fig. 9 is a schematic sectional view taken along line a-a in fig. 8.
Fig. 10 is a schematic view of the dehumidifying wheel according to the present invention.
Fig. 11 is a schematic view of the dehumidifying wheel according to the present invention.
Detailed Description
The technical solution in the embodiments of the present invention will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the accompanying drawings in the embodiments of the present invention.
In the description of the present invention, it is to be understood that the terms "upper", "lower", "front", "rear", "left", "right", "top", "bottom", "inner", "outer", and the like, indicate orientations or positional relationships based on the orientations or positional relationships shown in the drawings, are merely for convenience in describing the present invention and simplifying the description, and do not indicate or imply that the device or element being referred to must have a particular orientation, be constructed and operated in a particular orientation, and thus, should not be construed as limiting the present invention.
Referring to fig. 1-11, a ventilation and air-exchange device for an underground enclosed space comprises an air inlet pipe 211 and an air outlet pipe 221, wherein one end of the air inlet pipe 211 and one end of the air outlet pipe 221 are installed in an underground air duct 110, and the end is respectively provided with an air inlet bin 210 and an air outlet bin 220; the other ends of the air inlet pipe 211 and the air outlet pipe 221 are respectively arranged in the air exchange area 120, and one end of the air outlet pipe 221 arranged in the air exchange area 120 is provided with an air outlet bin 230;
the air inlet duct 211 and the air outlet duct 221 are respectively provided with an air inlet fan 310 and an air outlet fan 320, and the air inlet fan 310 and the air outlet fan 320 are respectively used for forming air convection in the air inlet duct 211 and the air outlet duct 221. The air inlet fan 310 is used for pumping the air flow in the air duct into the air inlet duct 211 and entering the ventilation area 120; the exhaust fan 320 is used to pump air in the ventilation area to the air duct, thereby performing ventilation.
Install control box 330 in the district of taking a breath, install harmful gas concentration sensor, PLC in the control box 330, harmful gas concentration sensor is used for surveying the regional harmful gas concentration of taking a breath. In the present embodiment, the harmful gas concentration sensor mainly detects the concentrations of gases such as carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, sulfur dioxide, methane, etc. And the harmful gas concentration sensor is the corresponding sensor of gas direct purchase that surveys as required and installs can.
The signal end of the harmful gas concentration sensor is in communication connection with the signal end of the PLC, the signal end of the PLC is also in communication connection with the signal end of the manual button 340 and the control end of the contactor respectively, a static contact of the contactor is in conductive connection with an external power supply (a downhole cable or a standby battery), and a movable contact is in conductive connection with the power connection ends of the air inlet fan 310 and the air exhaust fan 320 respectively, so that the start and stop of the air inlet fan 310 and the air exhaust fan 320 can be controlled through the contactor.
The manual button 340 is a push switch, and when triggered, the manual button inputs a start instruction to the PLC, and the PLC controls the contactor to be closed, so that the intake fan 310 and the exhaust fan 320 operate. In a normal state, the PLC starts the intake fan 310 and the exhaust fan 320 according to the built-in program. In this embodiment, the PLC compares the parameter value detected by the harmful gas concentration sensor with the threshold value of the built-in program, and controls the contactor to close for ventilation once exceeding the standard.
The upper ends of the air inlet bin 210, the air exhaust bin 220 and the air exhaust bin 230 are respectively separated by a grid 240, and the grid 240 is provided with a plurality of fine through holes which penetrate through the grid, so that large particle impurities which are required to enter the air inlet bin 210, the air exhaust bin 220 and the air exhaust bin 230 are intercepted by the grid.
The height of the exhaust air box 230 is at least one meter lower than the height of the end of the intake duct 211 that is installed in the ventilation zone 120. The design can effectively ventilate the air in the ventilating area when the air flow generated in the air inlet pipeline 211 and the air outlet pipeline 221 flows.
One end of the air inlet pipe 211, which is arranged in the air exchange area, is provided with a one-way air valve 400, and the opening direction of the one-way air valve is from the air inlet bin 210 to the air exchange area. This design prevents the reverse flow of air in the ventilation zone into the air inlet duct 211, which could cause turbulence in the air flow inside the air inlet duct 211 or blockage by the entering impurities.
The end of the exhaust duct 221 near the exhaust bin 220 is provided with another one-way air valve 400, and the opening direction of the one-way air valve is from the ventilation area to the exhaust bin 220. This design can prevent the air flow from flowing backward in the exhaust duct 221, which may cause turbulence in the air flow inside the exhaust duct 221 or affect the operation of the exhaust fan 320.
The one-way air valve 400 comprises a limiting ring 420 and a shell 410, wherein the limiting ring 420 is fixed in an inner cavity 411 of the shell 410, the position near the limiting ring 420 is hinged with one end of a valve plate 430 through a hinge pin 440, the valve plate 430 is provided with two valve plates 430, and one ends of the two valve plates 430, which are far away from the hinge pin 440, are mutually clamped to seal the inner cavity 411. The opening direction of the one-way air valve is the direction in which the valve plate rotates around the hinge pin 440 to open the inner cavity 411.
Preferably, the opening of the air inlet bin 210 is disposed in a direction opposite to the direction of air flow in the air duct 110, and this design enables air flow in the air duct to smoothly enter the air inlet bin 210 and then be delivered into the ventilation area through the air inlet duct. And the section of the interior of the air inlet bin 210 gradually becomes smaller from the end assembled with the grid 240 to the end communicated with the air inlet pipeline 211, and the section of the minimum position is not smaller than the diameter of the air inlet pipeline 211. This arrangement effectively converges the air flow within the inlet plenum 210, thereby increasing the flow of air into the inlet duct 211.
The opening of the air exhaust bin 220 is arranged in the same direction as the air flow in the air duct 110, and the design can form suction negative pressure at the air exhaust bin 220 through the air flow in the air duct, so that suction force is formed on the air exhaust pipeline, and the air in the ventilation area is exhausted.
The design can still perform a small amount of ventilation on the ventilation area when the air inlet fan and the air exhaust fan are not operated, thereby reducing the energy consumption.
Preferably, the rolling brush mechanisms are respectively installed on the parts of the air inlet bin 210, the air exhaust bin 220 and the air exhaust bin 230, which are located outside the grid 240, and each rolling brush mechanism comprises two first side plates 510 and two second side plates 520, and the two first side plates 510 are respectively assembled and fixed with the end parts of the air inlet bin 210, the air exhaust bin 220 or the air exhaust bin 230; two ends of the two second side plates 520 are respectively assembled and fixed with the two first side plates 510;
the second side plate 520 is provided with a guide sliding groove 521, a guide collar 550 is slidably mounted in the guide sliding groove 521, a rolling brush shaft 540 is circumferentially rotatably mounted in the guide collar 550, and a steel brush 530 is mounted on a portion of the rolling brush shaft 540 corresponding to the grid 240.
The steel brush 530 is tightly attached to the grid 240, two ends of the rolling brush shaft 540 penetrate through the shaft collar 550 and the driving block 560 respectively and then are assembled and fixed with the gear 620, the rolling brush shaft 540 and the driving block 560 can be assembled in a circumferential rotating mode, the driving block 560 is sleeved outside the reciprocating lead screw 610, reciprocating threads (two spiral grooves with opposite rotating directions) are arranged on the reciprocating lead screw 610, a clamping convex shaft 561 is arranged on the inner side of the driving block 560, and the clamping convex shaft 561 is installed in the reciprocating threads and clamped with the reciprocating threads in a sliding mode. The driving block 560 may be driven to reciprocate in its axial direction while the reciprocating lead screw 610 rotates in the same direction circumferentially. The reciprocating screw 610 is respectively assembled with the two first side plates in a circumferential rotating manner, one end of the reciprocating screw 610 penetrates through one of the first side plates 510 and then is assembled and fixed with the chain wheel 641, and the chain wheels 641 on the two reciprocating screw 610 are connected through a chain 640 to form a chain transmission mechanism. One of the reciprocating lead screws 610 is further connected with an output shaft of the roller brush motor 650 through a coupler, and the roller brush motor 650 can drive the reciprocating lead screw 610 to rotate in the circumferential direction after being electrified. The rolling brush motor 650 is fixed on the outer wall of the air inlet bin 210 or the air outlet bin 220 or the exhaust air bin 230 through a motor mounting plate 570.
The gear 620 is engaged with the rack 630 to form a rack-and-pinion mechanism, and the rack 630 is fixed between the two first side plates 510. The power connection end of the rolling brush motor 650 is in conductive connection with a normally open contact of the relay, a static contact of the relay is in conductive connection with an external power supply, a control end is in communication connection with the PLC, and the PLC can control the on-off of the relay. The relay of this embodiment may be a time relay that may be periodically closed according to a set period of time, thereby periodically activating the drum brush motor 650. After the rolling brush motor 650 is started, the reciprocating lead screw is driven to rotate circumferentially, the reciprocating lead screw 610 drives the driving block 560 to move in a reciprocating manner in the axial direction, so that the steel brush 530 and the rolling brush shaft 540 are driven to move synchronously, and the steel brush 530 can brush the outside of the grid 240. And the gear 620 is meshed with the rack 630 during the movement of the rolling brush shaft 540, so that the rolling brush shaft 540 rotates circumferentially, and the steel brush 530 is driven to brush the outside of the mesh 240 in a circumferential rolling manner, thereby increasing the brushing effect. The design can brush the sundries attached to the grid 240 off in time, so that the grid is prevented from being blocked.
Preferably, because the raised dust is relatively large during the underground mining process, in order to protect the health of personnel in a working area, the applicant also serially installs a dust removal device a on the air inlet pipe 211, wherein the dust removal device a is used for filtering the air flow entering the ventilation area through the air inlet pipe 211, so as to reduce the dust and particles in the air flow and protect the health of the personnel in the area.
Referring to fig. 3 to 7, the dust removing device a includes a dust removing housing a110, a hollow dust storage cavity a111 is disposed inside the dust removing housing a110, the dust storage cavity a111 is sequentially provided with a first dust removing net a210, a first dust removing net a220, a filter element a420, and an ultraviolet lamp module in an air flow direction (arrow direction in fig. 5), the first dust removing net a210 and the second dust removing net a220 are provided with a plurality of through mesh holes, the filter element a420 is used for filtering large particle impurities in an air flow, a filter cotton plate is commonly used at present, and a pleated air filter element may be adopted.
The filter element A420 is respectively provided with one filter pore plate A410 on two sides in the air flow direction, and the two filter pore plates A410 clamp the filter element A420 tightly and are fixedly assembled with the filter element A420 into a whole, so that the filter element can be effectively supported, and the influence on the air permeability of the filter element can be avoided.
The two filter hole plates A410 are respectively and tightly assembled with the first fixing ring A131 and the second fixing ring A132, so that the filter element is fixed. The bottoms of the two filter pore plates A410 and the filter element A420 are provided with filter element mounting grooves, the filter element mounting grooves penetrate through the dust removal shell A110 and are sealed through the filter element plugging plate A140, and the filter element plugging plate A140 is fixed on the dust removal shell A110 through screws, so that the filter element plugging plate A140 can be directly opened and the filter element can be replaced when the filter element needs to be replaced.
The ultraviolet lamp module is used for emitting ultraviolet light to irradiate the air flow, so that germs in the air flow are killed. The ultraviolet lamp module comprises an ultraviolet lamp mounting plate A340, an ultraviolet lamp pore plate A310 is fixed on two sides of the ultraviolet lamp mounting plate A340 in the air flow direction respectively, and a plurality of small air equalizing holes are formed in the ultraviolet lamp pore plate A310. When the ultraviolet lamp hole plate is used, the air flow can be uniformly distributed on the section of the ultraviolet lamp hole plate A310 through the air equalizing holes.
A plurality of groups of ultraviolet lamp choke plates A320 are arranged between the two ultraviolet lamp pore plates A310, each group of ultraviolet lamp choke plates is composed of two ultraviolet lamp choke plates A320, an included angle is formed between the two ultraviolet lamp choke plates A320, specifically, the distance between the two ultraviolet lamp choke plates A320 is gradually reduced in the air flow direction, and an air passing groove A321 is formed at the minimum end; the design of the included angle of each group of ultraviolet lamp choke plates mainly increases the retention time of the air flow in the ultraviolet lamp choke plates, thereby increasing the ultraviolet irradiation time and increasing the sterilization effect. An ultraviolet lamp tube A330 is arranged in an included angle formed by each group of ultraviolet lamp choke plates, and the ultraviolet lamp tube A330 emits ultraviolet light after being electrified, so that the airflow is irradiated by the ultraviolet light to kill germs in the airflow.
Two ultraviolet lamp orifice plates A310 respectively with the solid fixed ring A132 of second, the solid fixed ring A133 chucking of third to realize the fixed of ultraviolet lamp module, the ultraviolet lamp module bottom is provided with the ultraviolet lamp mounting groove that enables its to take out, and the ultraviolet lamp mounting groove passes through ultraviolet lamp closure plate A150 and seals, and ultraviolet lamp closure plate A150 passes through the bolt and installs on dust removal shell A110. When the ultraviolet lamp module needs to be taken out, the ultraviolet lamp blocking plate A150 is opened.
The first fixing ring A131, the second fixing ring A132 and the third fixing ring A133 are respectively fixed on the inner wall of the dust removing cavity A111.
The first dust removing net A210 and the second dust removing net A220 are respectively installed and fixed on the inner wall of the dust removing cavity A111. And the mesh aperture of the first dust removal net a210 is larger than that of the second dust removal net a220, so that solid particles with different sizes can be intercepted by the first dust removal net a210 and the second dust removal net a 220.
Cleaning intervals are arranged between the first dust removing net A210 and the second dust removing net A220, two first side plates 510 and two second side plates 520 are installed in the cleaning intervals, a first slag discharging pipe A121 is arranged at the bottom of the cleaning intervals, and the first slag discharging pipe A121 is used for discharging solid waste residues between the cleaning intervals. And a dust removal interval is arranged between the second dust removal net A220 and the filter element, a second slag discharge pipe A122 is arranged at the bottom of the dust removal interval, and the second slag discharge pipe A122 is used for discharging solid waste residues between the dust removal intervals.
During the use, the air current gets into from first dust removal net A210 to carry out first filtration through first dust removal net A210, then carry out the second filtration through the second dust removal net, then filter through the filter core, export to the region of taking a breath after getting into ultraviolet lamp module at last and shining the sterilization through the ultraviolet lamp. Thereby reducing the amount of particles, and thus the amount of germs, in the airflow entering the ventilation zone.
Since the first and second dust-removing nets a210 and a220 are used for filtering large-sized foreign materials for a long time, the net holes thereof are more easily clogged. If the manual cleaning of the first dust removal net A210 and the second dust removal net A220 is obviously time-consuming and labor-consuming, the inventor sets another rolling brush mechanism on the first dust removal net A210 and the second dust removal net A220. The steel brush 530 of the rolling brush mechanism is tightly attached to the first dust removal net A210 and the second dust removal net A220, and bristles on the steel brush 530 can penetrate through meshes of the first dust removal net A210 and the second dust removal net A220, so that the steel brush 530 can clear and block the meshes.
During use, the rolling brush motor 650 is started to drive the reciprocating lead screw to rotate circumferentially, and the reciprocating lead screw 610 drives the driving block 560 to move in a reciprocating manner in the axial direction, so that the steel brush 530 and the rolling brush shaft 540 are driven to move synchronously, and the steel brush 530 can brush the outside of the first dust removal net A210. In the moving process of the rolling brush shaft 540, the gear 620 is meshed with the rack 630, so that the rolling brush shaft 540 rotates circumferentially, and the steel brush 530 is driven to brush the first dust-removing net a210 and the second dust-removing net a220 in a circumferential rolling manner, so as to increase the brushing effect. The design can timely brush the sundries attached to the first dust removal net A210 and the second dust removal net A220 off, so that the first dust removal net and the second dust removal net are prevented from being blocked.
Due to the fact that underground dust is large, the filter element A420 is prone to being blocked, the air inlet fan is prone to being overloaded after the filter element A420 is blocked, accordingly, the filter element A is burnt out, air exchange of an air exchange area can be seriously affected, and great potential safety hazards are caused. For the inventor, a differential pressure mechanism is adopted to find the problem in time, so that a manager is reminded to replace the filter element in time.
The differential pressure mechanism comprises a first air guide pipe A710, a second air guide pipe A720 and a differential pressure shell A730, a hollow differential pressure inner cavity A731 is arranged in the differential pressure shell A730, a differential pressure piston A740 is slidably and hermetically arranged in the differential pressure inner cavity A731, and the differential pressure inner cavities A731 on two sides of the differential pressure piston A740 are respectively communicated with one ends of the first air guide pipe A710 and the second air guide pipe A720; the other ends of the first air guide pipe A710 and the second air guide pipe A720 are respectively communicated with the dust removal cavities A111 on the two sides of the filter element;
the differential pressure shell A730 is further provided with a detection exhaust groove A732, the detection exhaust groove A731 is used for communicating one end face of the detection branch pipe A760 with the differential pressure inner cavity A731, in addition, the differential pressure piston A740 is used for sealing the detection exhaust groove A731 in the initial state, a pressure spring A750 is installed between the differential pressure piston A740 and the end face of the end, communicated with the second air guide pipe A720, of the differential pressure inner cavity A731, and the pressure spring A750 is used for providing elastic force for preventing the differential pressure piston A740 from moving towards the second air guide pipe A720.
The other end of the detection branch pipe A760 is communicated with a detection cavity A771 in the detection shell A770, the detection cavity A771 is communicated with one end of a pressure relief pipe A780, the other end of the pressure relief pipe A780 is communicated with a second air guide pipe or is communicated with air in an air exchange area, an impeller A830 is installed in the detection cavity A771, the impeller A830 is coaxially installed on a detection shaft A820, one end of the detection shaft A820 penetrates through the detection shell A770 and then is assembled and fixed with a cam A840, and the detection shaft A820 and the detection shell A770 can be assembled in a circumferential rotating mode;
cam A840 is provided with major axis end A841, minor axis end A842, and install flexure strip A850 under cam A840, flexure strip A850 one end is fixed on detecting shell A770, the other end is open end, and flexure strip A850 bottom is just right with micro-gap switch A860's trigger end, can trigger micro-gap switch when flexure strip A850's open end is decurrent, micro-gap switch's signal end and PLC's signal end communication connection, micro-gap switch passes through switch fixed plate A790 to be fixed on detecting shell A770, detect shell A770, differential pressure shell A730 passes through backup pad A810 to be fixed on dust removal shell A110, flexure strip A850 has the elasticity.
When the filter element is blocked, the air pressure on two sides of the filter element can generate larger pressure difference, so that the differential pressure piston overcomes the elasticity of the pressure spring and moves towards the direction of the second air guide pipe until the differential pressure inner cavity is communicated with the detection branch pipe A760, and at the moment, the airflow on one side of the dust removal interval enters the detection cavity A771 to drive the impeller to rotate, so that the coating cam synchronously and circumferentially rotates.
When the cam rotates circumferentially, short shaft end A842 can not contact elastic piece A850, and long shaft end A841 can be connected with elastic piece A850 and drive the open end thereof to rotate downwards so as to trigger the microswitch. The micro-gap switch can be to PLC input signal after being triggered, and PLC judges that filter core department blocks up to remind the operator in time to overhaul through predetermineeing procedure or device, warn if start audible-visual annunciator.
In this embodiment, to avoid false alarm, whether the filter element is clogged can be determined by the frequency and duration of the output signal of the micro switch, for example, the frequency of the output signal of the micro switch is 2-3 times/second and is maintained for more than 1 minute.
Referring to fig. 1, 8-11, in actual use, although most of large particle impurities can be removed by the dust removing device, PM10, PM2.5, etc. in the air flow cannot be effectively removed, and workers are still easily affected by upper respiratory diseases and even pneumoconiosis after working in this environment for a long time. Therefore, in underground non-mining areas, such as temporary rest areas, emergency escape areas, construction command or planning areas and the like, a device for removing tiny particles in the airflow needs to be added, so that the physical health of workers is guaranteed to the maximum extent.
In this embodiment, a water washing device is added, and the water washing device B is communicated with the second outlet of the reversing valve 350 through the water washing pipe 212, the first outlet of the reversing valve 350 is communicated with the ventilation area, and the air inlet is communicated with the air inlet pipe 211. In this implementation, the switching-over valve is the solenoid directional valve, and its control end is connected with PLC's signal end communication, and its alternative switch-on its import and the intercommunication of first export, second export, and during initial condition, the import and the regional default intercommunication of taking a breath of switching-over valve.
And a PM2.5 sensor is installed in the ventilation area, and the signal end of the PM2.5 sensor is in communication connection with the signal end of the PLC. During the use, once the parameter that PM2.5 detected is higher than the threshold value that presets in the PLC, the PLC starts the switching-over valve for the switching-over valve is with its import and first export intercommunication, thereby introduces the gas flow in washing device B through washing pipe 212, and drives dehumidification motor B510.
The water washing device B comprises a water washing tank B110, the bottom of the water washing tank B110 is a conical sewage discharge shell B150, and the interior of the water washing tank B110 is a hollow inner tank B111; a water distribution plate B120, a first pore plate B131 and a second pore plate B132 are sequentially arranged in the inner tank B111 from top to bottom, a water storage tank B122, a water distribution hole B121 and an overflow tank B123 are arranged on the water distribution plate B120, and the water distribution hole B121 is arranged at the bottom of the water storage tank B122 and is used for discharging water in the water storage tank B122 from top to bottom; the overflow tank B123 is used for overflowing to the lower part after the water storage tank B122 is full of water, and the overflow tank is also convenient for air flow to pass through. The reservoir B122 is communicated with the water inlet pipe 210, and the water inlet pipe 210 introduces clean external water into the reservoir B122.
Pumice B310 is filled between the first pore plate B131 and the second pore plate B132, and the pumice floats in the water. When the air-washing dust remover is used, the pumice is mainly used for increasing the contact area of the air flow and water and dividing the air flow into countless bubbles so as to increase the washing dust removal effect. In addition, the pumice can also effectively reduce the water convection velocity of the upper side and the lower side of the pumice, thereby preventing the sewage below the pumice from being mixed with the clean water above the pumice in a large area, and increasing the washing and dedusting effects.
The water washing pipe 212 is connected with one end of the air inlet pipe B250 in a sealing and air guiding manner, and the other end of the air inlet pipe B250 penetrates through the water distribution plate B120, the first pore plate B131 and the second pore plate B132, then enters the lower part of the second pore plate B132 and is assembled and fixed with the flow guide cover B140; the inner side of the air guide sleeve B140 is provided with an air guide arc surface B141 which is bent towards the sewage discharge shell B150. When the water heater is used, air flow is discharged from the air inlet pipe B250, and then is discharged and ascends along the diversion arc surface B141, so that the water heater is fully contacted with water. In addition, under the guiding action of the airflow, the water flow at the diversion arc surface B141 can impact and flow towards the inner wall of the sewage discharge shell B150, so that the probability of upward mixed flow of the water at the sewage discharge shell B150 can be greatly reduced, and the sludge on the inner wall of the sewage discharge shell can be timely washed away so as to be input into the sewage discharge pipe B220 to be discharged. In this embodiment, the blow-off pipe B220 is connected to the water pipe of the mining area, so that the water pipe can be used for water spraying, dust removal or cooling of the mining area.
The top of the inner tank B111 is communicated with one end of a dehumidifying cavity B411 of a dehumidifying device through an exhaust pipe B230, so that airflow after washing is introduced into the dehumidifying cavity B411, an air expanding cavity B412 is arranged at the end, communicated with the exhaust pipe B230, of the dehumidifying cavity B411, and the sectional area of the air expanding cavity B412 is gradually increased from one end, communicated with the exhaust pipe B230, to the other end, so that the airflow output from the exhaust pipe B230 is expanded;
the dehumidification cavity B411 and the air expansion cavity B412 are respectively arranged inside the dehumidification shell B410, two supporting discs B420 are respectively fixed in the dehumidification cavity B411, the two supporting discs B420 are coaxially assembled through a connecting cylinder B460, the connecting cylinder B460 can rotate relative to the supporting discs B420 in a circumferential mode, the outer walls of the supporting discs B420 are fixedly assembled with the inner wall of the dehumidification cavity B411, and a through air passing groove B421 is formed in each supporting disc B420;
a dehumidifying wheel B440 is coaxially mounted on a part of the connecting cylinder B460, which is located between the two supporting discs B420, the dehumidifying wheel B440 is respectively provided with an inner ring B442, an outer ring B443 and a spoke B441 which connects and fixes the inner ring B442 with the outer ring B443, the inner ring B442 is sleeved and fixed on the connecting cylinder B460, the outer wall of the inner ring B442 is fixedly assembled with one end of a dehumidifying strip B450, the other end of the dehumidifying strip B450 penetrates through the outer ring B443, and the penetrating end of the dehumidifying strip B451 is a spin-drying part;
a dehumidifying gap B452 is formed between every two adjacent dehumidifying strips B450, the dehumidifying gap B452 is not vertical to the end faces of the outer ring B443 and the inner ring B442, and the dehumidifying strips B450 are made of high-water-absorption and flexible materials, such as cotton cloth. When the dehumidifier is used, the air flow enters the dehumidifying gap B452, and the dehumidifying wheel B440 rotates circumferentially at the moment, so that the air flow collides with the dehumidifying strip B450, and mist and water drops in the air flow are condensed on the dehumidifying strip B450 and then enter the dehumidifying gap B450; the centrifugal force moves toward the spin drying section B451, and finally the dehumidifying strip B450 is spun off by the spin drying section B451, thereby performing basic dehumidification. Because the humidity of the air flow after washing is very large, the humidity can generally reach more than 80%. This moisture can make breathing difficult and extremely uncomfortable for the worker. However, after dehumidification is carried out through the dehumidifying wheel, the humidity can be reduced to be below 65%, the comfort level of workers can be greatly improved, and the dehumidifying wheel is different from a traditional dehumidifier, is simpler in design structure and higher in efficiency, and can adapt to the severe underground environment.
The connecting cylinder B460 is sleeved and fixed on the output shaft B511, the output shaft B511 is arranged in the dehumidifying motor B510, and the dehumidifying motor B510 can drive the output shaft to rotate circularly, so that the dehumidifying wheel is driven to rotate circularly. The dehumidification motor B510 is fixed on the fixed disk B430, the fixed disk B430 is fixed on the inner wall of the dehumidification chamber B411, and the fixed disk B430 is provided with a penetrating exhaust groove B431.
Preferably, a drainage groove B414 is formed on a portion of the inner wall of the dehumidifying chamber B411 between the two support trays B420, a through drainage hole B413 is formed at the bottom of the drainage groove B414, and a drainage hole B431 is communicated with a sewage drain through a drainage pipe B240. When in use, the water thrown on the drainage groove B414 is gathered to the drainage hole B413 and then is input into the sewage draining pipe through the drainage pipe B240 to be drained.
The invention is not described in detail, but is well known to those skilled in the art.
The foregoing detailed description of the preferred embodiments of the invention has been presented. It should be understood that numerous modifications and variations could be devised by those skilled in the art in light of the present teachings without departing from the inventive concepts. Therefore, the technical solutions available to those skilled in the art through logic analysis, reasoning and limited experiments based on the prior art according to the concept of the present invention should be within the scope of protection defined by the claims.

Claims (5)

1. The utility model provides a ventilation device in airtight space in pit which characterized by: the underground air supply system comprises an air inlet pipeline, an air outlet pipeline, a differential pressure mechanism and an ultraviolet lamp module, wherein one end of the air inlet pipeline and one end of the air outlet pipeline are installed in an underground air duct, and an air inlet bin and an air outlet bin are respectively installed on the ends of the air inlet pipeline and the air outlet pipeline; the other ends of the air inlet pipeline and the air outlet pipeline are respectively arranged in the air exchange area, and one end of the air outlet pipeline arranged in the air exchange area is provided with an air outlet bin;
the air inlet pipeline and the air outlet pipeline are respectively provided with an air inlet fan and an air outlet fan, and the air inlet fan and the air outlet fan are respectively used for forming air convection in the air inlet pipeline and the air outlet pipeline; the upper end parts of the air inlet bin, the air exhaust bin and the air exhaust bin are respectively separated by grids, and a plurality of fine through holes are formed in the grids; the air inlet bin, the air exhaust bin and the air exhaust bin are respectively provided with a rolling brush mechanism on the parts positioned outside the grids;
the differential pressure mechanism comprises a first air guide pipe, a second air guide pipe and a differential pressure shell, a hollow differential pressure inner cavity is arranged in the differential pressure shell, a differential pressure piston is slidably and hermetically arranged in the differential pressure inner cavity, and the differential pressure inner cavities on two sides of the differential pressure piston are respectively communicated with one end of the first air guide pipe and one end of the second air guide pipe; the other ends of the first air guide pipe and the second air guide pipe are respectively communicated with the dust removal cavities on the two sides of the filter element;
the differential pressure shell is also provided with a detection exhaust groove which communicates one end face of the detection branch pipe with the differential pressure inner cavity, and the detection exhaust groove is closed by a differential pressure piston in an initial state; a pressure spring is arranged between the differential pressure piston and the end face of one end of the differential pressure inner cavity communicated with the second bleed air pipe;
the other end of the detection branch pipe is communicated with a detection cavity in the detection shell, the detection cavity is communicated with one end of a pressure relief pipe, the other end of the pressure relief pipe is communicated with a second air entraining pipe, an impeller is arranged in the detection cavity, and the impeller is coaxially arranged on a detection shaft;
the dust removal device is installed on the air inlet pipeline in series and comprises a dust removal shell, a hollow dust storage cavity is formed in the dust removal shell, a first dust removal net, a second dust removal net and a filter element are sequentially arranged in the dust removal cavity in the air flow direction, a plurality of penetrating meshes are formed in the first dust removal net and the second dust removal net, and the filter element is used for filtering large-particle impurities in air flow;
the ultraviolet lamp module comprises an ultraviolet lamp mounting plate, two sides of the ultraviolet lamp mounting plate in the air flow direction are respectively fixed with an ultraviolet lamp pore plate, and a plurality of fine air-equalizing holes are formed in the ultraviolet lamp pore plate;
a plurality of groups of ultraviolet lamp choke plates are arranged between the two ultraviolet lamp pore plates, each group of ultraviolet lamp choke plates is composed of two ultraviolet lamp choke plates, and an included angle is formed between the two ultraviolet lamp choke plates; ultraviolet lamp tubes are arranged in included angles formed by the choke plates of each group of ultraviolet lamps, and the ultraviolet lamp tubes emit ultraviolet light after being electrified;
two sides of the filter element in the airflow direction are respectively provided with a filter pore plate, and the two filter pore plates clamp the filter element and are assembled and fixed with the filter element into a whole; the two filter pore plates are respectively clamped and assembled with the first fixing ring and the second fixing ring;
the two filter pore plates and the bottom of the filter element are provided with filter element mounting grooves, the filter element mounting grooves penetrate through the dust removal shell and are sealed by filter element blocking plates, and the filter element blocking plates are fixed on the dust removal shell through screws; the distance between the two ultraviolet lamp choke plates of each group of ultraviolet lamp choke plates is gradually reduced in the airflow direction, and an air passing groove is formed at the minimum end;
the two ultraviolet lamp pore plates are respectively clamped with the second fixing ring and the third fixing ring, an ultraviolet lamp installation groove capable of enabling the ultraviolet lamp module to be taken out is formed in the bottom of the ultraviolet lamp module, the ultraviolet lamp installation groove is sealed through an ultraviolet lamp blocking plate, and the ultraviolet lamp blocking plate is installed on the dust removal shell through bolts;
a cleaning interval is arranged between the first dust removing net and the second dust removing net, two first side plates and two second side plates are arranged in the cleaning interval, a first slag discharging pipe is arranged at the bottom of the cleaning interval, and the first slag discharging pipe is used for discharging solid waste slag between the cleaning intervals; a dust removal interval is arranged between the second dust removal net and the filter element, a second slag discharge pipe is arranged at the bottom of the dust removal interval and used for discharging solid waste slag between the dust removal intervals, and a rolling brush mechanism is arranged between the cleaning intervals;
a PM2.5 sensor and a washing device are installed in the ventilation area, and a signal end of the PM2.5 sensor is in communication connection with a signal end of the PLC; the water washing device is communicated with a second outlet of the reversing valve through a water washing pipe, a first outlet of the reversing valve is communicated with the ventilation area, and the air inlet is communicated with the air inlet pipeline; the washing device comprises a washing tank, the bottom of the washing tank is provided with a conical sewage discharge shell, and the inside of the washing tank is provided with a hollow inner tank; a water distribution plate, a first pore plate and a second pore plate are sequentially arranged in the inner tank from top to bottom, a water storage tank, water distribution holes and an overflow tank are arranged on the water distribution plate, and the water distribution holes are arranged at the bottom of the water storage tank and are used for discharging water in the water storage tank from top to bottom; the overflow groove is used for overflowing to the lower part of the water storage groove after the water storage groove is full of water; the water storage tank is communicated with a water inlet pipe, and the water inlet pipe introduces external clean water into the water storage tank;
pumice is filled between the first pore plate and the second pore plate, and the pumice floats in water; the water washing pipe is connected with one end of the air inlet pipe in a sealing and air guiding manner, and the other end of the air inlet pipe penetrates through the water distribution plate, the first pore plate and the second pore plate, then enters the lower part of the second pore plate and is assembled and fixed with the flow guide cover; the inner side of the air guide sleeve is provided with an air guide arc surface bent towards the sewage discharge shell;
the top of the inner tank is communicated with one end of a dehumidification cavity of the dehumidification device through an exhaust pipe; the dehumidification cavity and the air expansion cavity are respectively arranged in the dehumidification shell, two supporting disks are respectively fixed in the dehumidification cavity, the two supporting disks are coaxially assembled through a connecting cylinder, the connecting cylinder can rotate relative to the circumference of the supporting disks, the outer walls of the supporting disks are assembled and fixed with the inner wall of the dehumidification cavity, and a through air passing groove is formed in each supporting disk;
the part of the connecting cylinder, which is positioned between the two supporting disks, is coaxially provided with a dehumidifying wheel, the dehumidifying wheel is respectively provided with an inner ring, an outer ring and a spoke for fixedly connecting the inner ring and the outer ring, the inner ring is sleeved and fixed on the connecting cylinder, the outer wall of the inner ring is fixedly assembled with one end of a dehumidifying strip, the other end of the dehumidifying strip penetrates through the outer ring, and the penetrated end is a spin-drying part; a dehumidification gap is formed between every two adjacent dehumidification strips, and the dehumidification gap is in a non-perpendicular state with the end faces of the outer ring and the inner ring;
the connecting cylinder is sleeved and fixed on an output shaft, the output shaft is arranged in the dehumidifying motor, and the dehumidifying motor can drive the output shaft to rotate circumferentially; the dehumidification motor is fixed on the fixed disk, the fixed disk is fixed on the inner wall of the dehumidification cavity, and the fixed disk is provided with a through exhaust groove; the inner wall of the dehumidification cavity is provided with a drainage groove on the part between the two supporting disks, the bottom of the drainage groove is provided with a through drainage hole, and the drainage hole is communicated with a drain pipe through a drainage pipe.
2. The downhole confined space ventilation apparatus as set forth in claim 1, wherein: one end of the detection shaft penetrates through the detection shell and then is assembled and fixed with the cam, and the detection shaft and the detection shell can be circumferentially and rotatably assembled; the cam is provided with a long shaft end and a short shaft end, an elastic sheet is arranged under the cam, one end of the elastic sheet is fixed on the detection shell, the other end of the elastic sheet is an open end, and the bottom of the elastic sheet is opposite to the trigger end of the microswitch.
3. The downhole confined space ventilation apparatus as set forth in claim 2, wherein: the signal end of the microswitch is in communication connection with the signal end of the PLC, the microswitch is fixed on the detection shell through the switch fixing plate, the detection shell and the differential pressure shell are fixed on the dust removal shell through the supporting plate, and the elastic sheet has elasticity.
4. The downhole confined space ventilation apparatus as set forth in claim 1, wherein: a control box is installed in the ventilation area, a harmful gas concentration sensor and a PLC are installed in the control box, and the harmful gas concentration sensor is used for detecting the harmful gas concentration in the ventilation area;
the signal end of the harmful gas concentration sensor is in communication connection with the signal end of the PLC, the signal end of the PLC is also in communication connection with the control end of the contactor, a static contact of the contactor is in conductive connection with an external power supply, and a movable contact is in conductive connection with the power connection ends of the air inlet fan and the air exhaust fan respectively;
one end of the air inlet pipeline, which is arranged in the air exchange area, is provided with a one-way air valve, and the opening direction of the one-way air valve is from the air inlet bin to the air exchange area; one end of the exhaust pipeline close to the exhaust bin is provided with another one-way air valve, and the opening direction of the one-way air valve is from the ventilation area to the exhaust bin;
the opening of the air inlet bin is arranged in the direction opposite to the direction of air flow in the air duct, the inner section of the air inlet bin is gradually reduced from one end assembled with the grids to the end communicated with the air inlet pipeline, and the section at the minimum position is not smaller than the diameter of the air inlet pipeline; the opening of the exhaust bin and the direction of the air flow in the air duct are arranged in the same direction.
5. The downhole confined space ventilation apparatus as set forth in claim 1, wherein: the rolling brush mechanism comprises two first side plates and two second side plates, and the two first side plates are respectively assembled and fixed with at least one of the air inlet bin, the air exhaust bin and the dust removal shell; two ends of the two second side plates are respectively assembled and fixed with the two first side plates;
a guide chute is arranged on the second side plate, a guide shaft collar is slidably arranged in the guide chute, a rolling brush shaft is arranged in the guide shaft collar in a circumferential rotating manner, and a steel brush is arranged on the corresponding part of the rolling brush shaft and the grid net and is tightly attached to the grid net;
the two ends of the rolling brush shaft respectively penetrate through the shaft collar and the driving block and then are assembled and fixed with the gear, the rolling brush shaft and the driving block can be assembled in a circumferential rotating mode, the driving block is sleeved outside the reciprocating screw rod, reciprocating threads are arranged on the reciprocating screw rod, a clamping convex shaft is arranged on the inner side of the driving block, and the clamping convex shaft is arranged in the reciprocating threads and can be assembled with the reciprocating threads in a clamping and sliding mode;
the reciprocating screw rods are respectively assembled with the two first side plates in a circumferential rotating mode, one end of each reciprocating screw rod penetrates through one of the first side plates and then is assembled and fixed with the chain wheel, and the chain wheels on the two reciprocating screw rods are connected through a chain to form a chain transmission mechanism; one reciprocating lead screw is also connected with an output shaft of the rolling brush motor; the gear is in meshing transmission with the rack, and the rack is fixed between the two first side plates; the power connection end of the rolling brush motor is in conductive connection with a normally open contact of the relay, a static contact of the relay is in conductive connection with an external power supply, a control end is in communication connection with the PLC, and the relay is installed in the control box.
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