CN110692500B - Tidal seedling culture calibration and irrigation device and method - Google Patents

Tidal seedling culture calibration and irrigation device and method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110692500B
CN110692500B CN201910958328.7A CN201910958328A CN110692500B CN 110692500 B CN110692500 B CN 110692500B CN 201910958328 A CN201910958328 A CN 201910958328A CN 110692500 B CN110692500 B CN 110692500B
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seedling
seedlings
evaporation
unit
water consumption
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CN110692500A (en
Inventor
赵倩
温江丽
郭文忠
贾冬冬
陈红
林森
徐凡
王晨健
贾海遥
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Beijing Research Center of Intelligent Equipment for Agriculture
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Beijing Research Center of Intelligent Equipment for Agriculture
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G25/00Watering gardens, fields, sports grounds or the like
    • A01G25/16Control of watering
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F17/00Digital computing or data processing equipment or methods, specially adapted for specific functions
    • G06F17/10Complex mathematical operations
    • G06F17/11Complex mathematical operations for solving equations, e.g. nonlinear equations, general mathematical optimization problems

Abstract

The invention provides a tide seedling raising calibration and irrigation device and method, which are characterized in that seedling water consumption is obtained according to weight change of a seedling raising unit, a seedling water consumption rule model is established according to evaporation unit evaporation capacity and seedling water consumption in a plurality of preset time periods, evaporation capacity of the evaporation unit in any time period is input into the seedling water consumption rule model to output seedling water consumption in any time period, then irrigation is carried out on seedlings, irrigation on the seedlings is stopped until the weight change of the seedling raising unit is the product of the seedling water consumption in any time period and a target substrate water holding rate of the seedlings, and the substrate of the seedlings reaches the target substrate water holding rate. The invention can accurately calibrate the water consumption for the substrates with different water-holding characteristics, and accurately irrigate based on the calibrated water consumption, thereby providing a reasonable period, improving the calibration of the water consumption of different seedlings and the stability and reusability of an irrigation water system, and providing technical support for the industrialized and standardized development of tidal seedling culture.

Description

Tidal seedling culture calibration and irrigation device and method
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of tidal irrigation, in particular to a tidal seedling calibration and irrigation device and method.
Background
When tide seedling is irrigated, the seedling tray is filled with clear water or nutrient solution and is retained for a certain time, so that crops can absorb water through the drain holes at the bottom of the culture medium by virtue of capillary action. The irrigation water is then discharged out of the cultivation bed or collected for reuse or directly discharged to local sewer pipes.
Because the mode of bottom water supply has effectively reduced air humidity, has weakened the plant diseases and insect pests, and losing weight subtracts medicine, water utilization efficiency is high, consequently has promoted by a large scale in recent years, but its irrigation means is comparatively simple, only utilizes the combination of ball valve and water pump, and manual water supply or timer are regularly supplied water. In fact, the tidal seedling is inevitably developed towards large-scale, centralized and industrialized direction, and an intelligent water supplementing method matched with the planting characteristics is needed. The current commonly used facility agriculture intelligent irrigation methods mainly comprise three methods: the first is regular and quantitative irrigation, namely irrigation starting time and single irrigation quantity can be set respectively, but the sensitivity of seedlings to the environment is extremely high, the shortage of water can lead to poor growth potential and low strong seedling rate of crops, and the excessive supply of water can lead to excessive growth of seedlings, so that the regular and quantitative irrigation is not suitable for tidal seedling. The second method is that irrigation is started according to a set moisture threshold value, and irrigation is stopped according to an irrigation amount corresponding to a target moisture content, but the set moisture threshold value and the target moisture content are not necessarily the same as the water consumption of crops, so that the irrigation amount is not accurate, meanwhile, a conventional substrate moisture content measuring probe cannot be completely embedded into a substrate due to instability of substrate components and shallow depth of a seedling raising plug tray, and a fed-back moisture content value cannot truly reflect the water holding condition of the substrate. The third method is irrigation based on environmental simulation of crop water consumption, namely, the most suitable irrigation quantity is estimated in a self-adaptive mode according to the actual growth environment of crops and the water and fertilizer demand mechanism, but a large number of basic experiments need to be carried out in the method, the types of greenhouses are different, the seedling conditions are different, the crops are different in growth, the simulation is complex, and the establishment period of an irrigation system is long.
Therefore, the three agricultural intelligent irrigation methods cannot be well applied to tidal seedling, and a suitable tidal seedling calibration and irrigation device and method are urgently needed to be provided, and the method is widely applied to tidal seedling, so that the bottleneck problem of the field of tidal seedling is solved, and technical support is provided for further development of the tidal seedling industry.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to solve the problem that the conventional facility agriculture intelligent irrigation method cannot be well applied to tidal seedling, the embodiment of the invention provides a tidal seedling calibration and irrigation device and method.
In a first aspect, an embodiment of the present invention provides a tidal seedling calibration and irrigation device, which includes a main control unit, and an evaporation unit, a seedling cultivation unit, a first pressure sensor and a second pressure sensor connected to the main control unit; the device comprises an evaporation unit, a seedling cultivation unit, a first pressure sensor, a second pressure sensor and a control unit, wherein the evaporation unit is a container used for calibrating the evaporation capacity of water, the seedling cultivation unit is a cultivation container for carrying out tidal seedling cultivation on seedlings, the first pressure sensor is fixedly connected below the evaporation unit and used for acquiring the evaporation capacity of the evaporation unit, and the second pressure sensor is fixedly connected below the seedling cultivation unit and used for acquiring the weight change of the seedling cultivation unit; the main control unit is used for acquiring the water consumption of the seedlings according to the weight change of the seedling cultivation unit and establishing a seedling water consumption rule model according to the evaporation capacity of the evaporation unit and the water consumption of the seedlings in a plurality of preset time periods; inputting the evaporation capacity of the evaporation unit in any time period into a seedling water consumption rule model to output the water consumption of the seedling in any time period, and stopping irrigating the seedling until the weight change of the seedling cultivation unit is the product of the water consumption of the seedling in any time period and the target matrix water holding rate of the seedling.
Preferably, the evaporation unit comprises a clean water source, a water replenishing electromagnetic valve, a standard evaporation dish, an upper laser sensor and a lower laser sensor; go up laser sensor and locate in the standard evaporating dish apart from the first preset distance department at top, lower laser sensor locates in the standard evaporating dish apart from the second preset distance department of bottom, and clean water source lets in the standard evaporating dish through the moisturizing solenoid valve.
Preferably, the seedling cultivating unit comprises a liquid supply electromagnetic valve and a liquid discharge electromagnetic valve, and the water supplementing electromagnetic valve, the liquid supply electromagnetic valve and the liquid discharge electromagnetic valve are respectively and electrically connected with the main control unit; the main control unit controls the water replenishing of the evaporation unit through the water replenishing electromagnetic valve, controls the liquid supply of the seedling cultivation unit through the liquid supply electromagnetic valve, and controls the liquid drainage of the seedling cultivation unit through the liquid drainage electromagnetic valve.
Preferably, the device also includes the environmental sensing unit who links to each other with the main control unit, and the environmental sensing unit includes optical radiation sensor, temperature sensor and humidity transducer, and optical radiation sensor is used for acquireing the light radiation value of seedling, and temperature sensor is used for acquireing the temperature in the seedling culture unit, and humidity transducer is used for acquireing the humidity in the seedling culture unit.
In a second aspect, an embodiment of the present invention further provides a method for calibrating and irrigating a tidal seedling, including: establishing a seedling water consumption rule model according to evaporation capacity of evaporation units and seedling water consumption in a plurality of preset time periods; inputting the evaporation capacity of the evaporation unit in any time period into a seedling water consumption rule model to output the water consumption of the seedling in any time period, irrigating the seedling, and stopping irrigating the seedling until the weight change of the seedling culture unit is the product of the water consumption of the seedling in any time period and the target matrix water holding rate of the seedling; wherein, the evaporation unit is a container for calibrating the water evaporation capacity, and the seedling cultivation unit is a cultivation container for the seedlings to carry out tidal seedling.
Preferably, the method further comprises: if the time for stopping irrigating the seedlings reaches the preset retention time, discharging the irrigation liquid in the seedlings; and supplementing moisture to the evaporation unit and enabling the moisture in the evaporation unit to reach the preset capacity.
Preferably, the method further comprises: selecting different seedlings, and acquiring water consumption of the different seedlings in a plurality of arbitrary time periods; and irrigating different seedlings, so that the irrigation to the different seedlings is stopped after the weight change of the seedling culture unit of the different seedlings is the product of the water consumption of the different seedlings and the target matrix water holding rate of the different seedlings.
Preferably, according to the evaporation capacity of the evaporation units and the seedling water consumption in a plurality of preset time periods, a seedling water consumption law model is established, which specifically comprises the following steps: acquiring the evaporation capacity of an evaporation unit and the weight change of a seedling cultivation unit in a preset time period; acquiring the growth amount of the seedlings in a preset period according to the growth and development curve of the seedlings and the average temperature and the average humidity of the environment where the seedlings are located in the preset period; acquiring the water consumption of the seedlings in a preset time period according to the liquid adding amount of the seedlings in the preset time period, the weight change of a seedling cultivation unit and the seedling growth amount; and fitting a relation curve between the evaporation capacity of the evaporation unit and the water consumption of the seedlings by using a least square method according to the evaporation capacity of the evaporation unit and the water consumption of the seedlings in a plurality of preset time periods so as to establish a water consumption rule model of the seedlings.
Preferably, the seedling water consumption is:
ΔM=ΔM1+I+ΔP
wherein, Delta M is water consumption of seedlings, and Delta M1For the weight change of the seedling-growing unit, I is the amount of liquid added to the seedling, and Δ P is the amount of growth of the seedling.
Preferably, the seedling water consumption law model is as follows:
ΔM=kΔG+b
wherein, Δ M is seedling water consumption, Δ G is evaporation capacity of evaporation unit, k is substrate evaporation coefficient, and b is evaporation deviation parameter.
The embodiment of the invention provides a tidal seedling raising calibration and irrigation device and method, wherein a first pressure sensor is used for acquiring the weight change of an evaporation unit, namely evaporation capacity of the evaporation unit, a second pressure sensor is used for acquiring the weight of a seedling culture unit, a main control unit is used for acquiring the water consumption of seedlings according to the weight change of the seedling culture unit, and a seedling water consumption rule model is established according to the evaporation capacity of the evaporation unit and the water consumption of the seedlings in a plurality of preset time periods; inputting the evaporation capacity of the evaporation unit in any time period into a seedling water consumption rule model to output the water consumption of the seedling in any time period, irrigating the seedling until the weight change of the seedling cultivation unit is the product of the water consumption of the seedling in any time period and the target matrix water holding rate of the seedling, and stopping irrigating the seedling to make the matrix of the seedling reach the target matrix water holding rate. The embodiment of the invention can accurately calibrate the water consumption for the substrates with different water holding characteristics, and carry out accurate irrigation based on the calibrated water consumption, thereby providing a reasonable period, improving the calibration of the water consumption of different seedlings and the stability and reusability of an irrigation water system, and providing technical support for the industrialized and standardized development of tidal seedling culture.
Drawings
In order to more clearly illustrate the embodiments of the present invention or the technical solutions in the prior art, the drawings used in the description of the embodiments or the prior art will be briefly described below, and it is obvious that the drawings in the following description are some embodiments of the present invention, and those skilled in the art can also obtain other drawings according to the drawings without creative efforts.
FIG. 1 is a schematic structural diagram of a tidal seedling calibration and irrigation device according to an embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic structural diagram of an evaporation unit according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a schematic flow chart of a tidal seedling calibration and irrigation method according to an embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 4 is a schematic view of the calibration flow of the tidal seedling calibration and irrigation method according to the embodiment of the invention;
fig. 5 is a schematic view of an irrigation flow of the tidal seedling calibration and irrigation method according to the embodiment of the invention.
Detailed Description
In order to make the objects, technical solutions and advantages of the embodiments of the present invention clearer, the technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the drawings in the embodiments of the present invention, and it is obvious that the described embodiments are some, but not all, embodiments of the present invention. All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the embodiments given herein without making any creative effort, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
Fig. 1 is a schematic structural diagram of a tidal seedling calibration and irrigation device according to an embodiment of the invention, and as shown in fig. 1, the embodiment of the invention provides a tidal seedling calibration and irrigation device which comprises a main control unit 5, and an evaporation unit 1, a seedling cultivation unit 2, a first pressure sensor 3 and a second pressure sensor 4 which are connected with the main control unit 5; wherein, the evaporation unit 1 is a container for calibrating the water evaporation amount, the seedling cultivation unit 2 is a cultivation container for the seedlings to grow by tide, the first pressure sensor 3 is fixedly connected below the evaporation unit 1 and is used for acquiring the weight of the evaporation unit 1, and the second pressure sensor 4 is fixedly connected below the seedling cultivation unit 2 and is used for acquiring the weight of the seedling cultivation unit 2; the main control unit 5 is used for acquiring the water consumption of the seedlings according to the weight change of the seedling cultivation unit 2, and establishing a seedling water consumption rule model according to the evaporation capacity of the evaporation unit and the water consumption of the seedlings in a plurality of preset time periods; inputting the evaporation capacity of the evaporation unit in any time period into a seedling water consumption rule model to output the water consumption of the seedling in any time period, and stopping irrigating the seedling until the weight change of the seedling cultivation unit is the product of the water consumption of the seedling in any time period and the target matrix water holding rate of the seedling.
Specifically, the weight change of the evaporation unit 1, i.e. the evaporation amount of the evaporation unit, can be used for calibrating the water evaporation amount, and the weight change of the container for the tidal seedling raising of the seedling in the culture medium in the standard seedling raising tray, i.e. the seedling culture unit 2, can be used for acquiring the water consumption of the seedling. It should be noted that the second pressure sensor 4 is supported by a support block or mounted under the seedling cultivation unit 2 by a lifting rope, and is used for measuring the weight change of the standard seedling cultivation tray, thereby obtaining the weight change of the seedling cultivation unit 2.
Further, a seedling water consumption law model can be established according to evaporation capacity of the evaporation units and seedling water consumption which correspond to each other in a plurality of preset time periods, so that the relation between the evaporation capacity of the evaporation units and the seedling water consumption is represented. Inputting the seedling water consumption in any time period into a seedling water consumption rule model, acquiring the seedling water consumption in any time period, irrigating the seedling until the weight of the seedling cultivation unit is the product of the seedling water consumption in any time period and the target matrix water holding rate of the seedling, and stopping irrigating the seedling so that the matrix water holding rate of the seedling reaches the target matrix water holding rate.
The tide seedling calibration and irrigation device provided by the embodiment of the invention can accurately calibrate the water consumption for substrates with different water-holding characteristics, and can carry out accurate irrigation based on the calibrated water consumption, thereby providing a reasonable period, improving the system stability and reusability for calibration of the water consumption of different substrates and the irrigation water amount, and providing a technical support for industrialized and standardized development of tide seedling.
Based on the above embodiment, fig. 2 is a schematic structural diagram of an evaporation unit according to an embodiment of the present invention, and as shown in fig. 2, the evaporation unit 1 includes a clean water source 11, a water supplement solenoid valve 15, a standard evaporation pan 12, an upper laser sensor 13, and a lower laser sensor 14; the upper laser sensor 13 is arranged in the standard evaporating dish 12 at a first preset distance from the top, the lower laser sensor 14 is arranged in the standard evaporating dish 12 at a second preset distance from the bottom, and the clean water source 11 is introduced into the standard evaporating dish 12 through the water replenishing electromagnetic valve 15.
Specifically, the upper laser sensor 13 senses that the moisture in the standard evaporation dish 12 reaches a preset capacity by being arranged at a first preset distance from the top in the standard evaporation dish 12, and the upper laser sensor 13 is disconnected to indicate that the water replenishing action is completed; the lower laser sensor 14 senses that the water content in the standard evaporation dish 12 has reached the minimum capacity by being located at a second predetermined distance from the bottom inside the standard evaporation dish 12, and the open circuit of the lower laser sensor 14 indicates that the water content in the standard evaporation dish 12 is absent.
Further, the seedling cultivating unit 2 comprises a liquid supply electromagnetic valve and a liquid discharge electromagnetic valve, and the water supplementing electromagnetic valve, the liquid supply electromagnetic valve and the liquid discharge electromagnetic valve are respectively and electrically connected with the main control unit 5; the main control unit controls the water replenishing of the evaporation unit through the water replenishing electromagnetic valve, controls the liquid supply of the seedling cultivation unit through the liquid supply electromagnetic valve, and controls the liquid drainage of the seedling cultivation unit through the liquid drainage electromagnetic valve.
Further, the device still includes the environmental sensing unit 6 that links to each other with the main control unit, and environmental sensing unit 6 includes optical radiation sensor, temperature sensor and humidity transducer, and optical radiation sensor is used for acquireing the light radiation value that the seedling received, and temperature sensor is used for acquireing the temperature in the seedling culture unit, and humidity transducer is used for acquireing the humidity in the seedling culture unit.
Furthermore, the device also comprises a display unit connected with the main control unit, and the display unit is used for displaying various environmental parameters and control data in the main control unit.
In a second aspect, fig. 3 is a schematic flow chart of a method for calibrating and irrigating a tidal seedling according to an embodiment of the present invention, and as shown in fig. 3, an embodiment of the present invention further provides a method for calibrating and irrigating a tidal seedling, the method including: s1, establishing a seedling water consumption rule model according to evaporation capacity of evaporation units and seedling water consumption in a plurality of preset time periods; s2, inputting the evaporation capacity of the evaporation unit in any time period into a seedling water consumption rule model to output the seedling water consumption in any time period, irrigating the seedlings until the weight change of the seedling cultivation unit is the product of the seedling water consumption in any time period and the target matrix water holding rate of the seedlings, and stopping irrigating the seedlings; wherein, the evaporation unit is a container for calibrating the water evaporation capacity, and the seedling cultivation unit is a cultivation container for the seedlings to carry out tidal seedling.
Specifically, a seedling water consumption law model may be established according to evaporation amounts of evaporation units and seedling water consumption amounts corresponding to each other in a plurality of preset time periods, thereby expressing a relationship between the evaporation amounts of the evaporation units and the seedling water consumption amounts. Inputting the seedling water consumption in any time period into a seedling water consumption rule model, acquiring the seedling water consumption in any time period, irrigating the seedling until the weight of the seedling cultivation unit is the product of the seedling water consumption in any time period and the target matrix water holding rate of the seedling, and stopping irrigating the seedling so that the matrix water holding rate of the seedling reaches the target matrix water holding rate.
The tide seedling calibration and irrigation method provided by the embodiment of the invention can accurately calibrate the water consumption for substrates with different water-holding characteristics, and carry out accurate irrigation based on the calibrated water consumption, thereby providing a reasonable period, improving the calibration of the water consumption of different substrates and the system stability and reusability of the irrigation water, and providing a technical support for the industrialized and standardized development of tide seedling.
It should be noted that, in order to perform irrigation at an appropriate temperature and facilitate the absorption and growth of crops, it is necessary that the seedling is at an appropriate temperature, and the light radiation received by the crops reaches a preset threshold, so that in any period of time, the temperature of the environment where the seedling is located is within a preset range, and the accumulated value of the light radiation received by the seedling is not less than the preset threshold.
Based on the above embodiment, according to evaporation capacity of evaporation units and seedling water consumption in a plurality of preset periods, establish seedling water consumption law model, specifically include: acquiring the evaporation capacity of an evaporation unit and the weight change of a seedling cultivation unit in a preset time period; acquiring the growth amount of the seedlings in a preset period according to the growth and development curve of the seedlings and the average temperature and the average humidity of the environment where the seedlings are located in the preset period; acquiring the water consumption of the seedlings in a preset time period according to the liquid adding amount of the seedlings in the preset time period, the weight change of a seedling cultivation unit and the seedling growth amount; and fitting a relation curve between the evaporation capacity of the evaporation unit and the water consumption of the seedlings by using a least square method according to the evaporation capacity of the evaporation unit and the water consumption of the seedlings in a plurality of preset time periods so as to establish a water consumption rule model of the seedlings.
Specifically, according to the growth and development curve of the seedling, the growth quantity delta P of the seedling is equal to the average temperature T of the environment where the seedling is in within a preset time periodAverageAnd average humidity RHAverageThe function concerned, i.e. the amount of seedling growth Δ P, is: Δ P ═ f (T)Average,RHAverage). Therefore, the seedling growth amount in the preset time period is obtained according to the growth and development curve of the seedling and the average temperature and the average humidity of the environment where the seedling is located in the preset time period.
Further, the water consumption of the seedlings in the preset time period is the sum of the weight change of the seedling cultivation unit, the liquid adding amount to the seedlings and the growth amount of the seedlings in the preset time period, namely the water consumption of the seedlings in the preset time period is as follows:
ΔM=ΔM1+I+ΔP
wherein, Delta M is water consumption of seedlings, and Delta M1For weight change of the seedling-growing unit, I is the amount of liquid added to the seedling, and Δ P is the seedlingAnd (4) growth amount.
Further, fitting a relation curve between the evaporation capacity of the evaporation unit and the water consumption of the seedlings by using a least square method, and solving a matrix evaporation coefficient k and an evaporation offset parameter b, thereby establishing a water consumption rule model of the seedlings as follows:
ΔM=kΔG+b
wherein, Δ M is seedling water consumption, Δ G is evaporation capacity of evaporation unit, k is substrate evaporation coefficient, and b is evaporation deviation parameter.
Further, the method further comprises: and if the time for stopping irrigating the seedlings reaches the preset retention time, discharging the irrigation liquid in the seedlings. And supplementing moisture to the evaporation unit and enabling the moisture in the evaporation unit to reach the preset capacity. From this, after irrigating to the seedling at every turn, carry out the fluid infusion to the evaporation unit for evaporation capacity of evaporation unit and to the evaporation unit fluid infusion separately go on.
Based on the above embodiment, the method further comprises: selecting different seedlings, and acquiring water consumption of the different seedlings in a plurality of arbitrary time periods; and irrigating different seedlings, so that the irrigation to the different seedlings is stopped after the weight change of the seedling culture unit of the different seedlings is the product of the water consumption of the different seedlings and the target matrix water holding rate of the different seedlings.
Specifically, the water holding characteristics of different seedlings are different, so in order to realize accurate calibration and irrigation without using the seedlings, the tide seedling calibration and irrigation method is implemented for the different seedlings, so that the water consumption of the different seedlings is accurately calibrated, the irrigation quantity of the different seedlings is accurately controlled, a reasonable irrigation period is provided, the establishment period of an irrigation system is short, and the efficiency is high.
Two specific examples are given below to describe in detail the complete process of the tidal seedling calibration and irrigation method.
FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram showing the calibration process of the tidal seedling calibration and irrigation method of the embodiment of the invention, as shown in FIG. 4, before the calibration, the seedling culture unit is filled with liquid every day until the water holding rate of the culture medium reaches saturation; and (4) automatically judging the zero point every day of the evaporation unit, opening the water replenishing electromagnetic valve when the current laser sensor is in an open circuit, and closing the water replenishing electromagnetic valve until the upper laser sensor is in an open circuit.
Because the growth curves of fruits and vegetables are different, it is necessary to distinguish fruits and vegetables from wild vegetables, for example, when two digits are used as a crop code, the first letter is a distinction between fruits and vegetables using a and B, where a represents fruits and B represents wild vegetables. For example, a1 represents tomato, a2 represents cucumber, A3 represents eggplant, a4 represents hot pepper, a5 represents watermelon, B1 represents lettuce, B2 represents rape, B3 represents water spinach, and then the start of calibration is initiated.
Recording the weight G of the evaporation unit at the time of sunrise with a first pressure sensorSunriseThe weight at sunset is GSunsetThe evaporation amount of the evaporation unit in the day is delta G ═ GSunrise-GSunset
Recording the weight M of the seedling-raising unit at sunrise time with a second pressure sensorSunriseWeight at sunset time is MSunsetThe weight change of the seedling-raising unit on the day is Δ M1=MSunrise-MSunset
Therefore, according to the growth curve of the seedling and the average temperature T of the environment in which the seedling is located during the dayAverageAnd average humidity RHAverageAnd acquiring the growth quantity of the seedlings in the day as follows: Δ P ═ f (T)Average,RHAverage)。
According to the weight change of the seedling cultivation unit in the day, the seedling growth amount in the day and the sum of the liquid adding amount I to the seedlings in the day, the water consumption of the seedlings in the day is obtained as follows: Δ M ═ Δ M1+I+ΔP=MSunrise-MSunset+I+ΔP。
Calculating the parameters in each day of the growth period, fitting a relation curve between the evaporation capacity of the evaporation unit and the water consumption of the seedling by using a least square method after the growth period is finished, solving a matrix evaporation coefficient k and an evaporation offset parameter b, and finishing calibration.
Fig. 5 is a schematic view of an irrigation flow of the tidal seedling calibration and irrigation method according to the embodiment of the invention, and as shown in fig. 5, when irrigation needs to be performed on a seedling, the irrigation amount is determined according to the calibrated parameters of the type of the seedling.
And extracting the matrix evaporation coefficient k and the evaporation deviation parameter b according to the seedling type.
If the seedling receives the accumulated value of light radiation FAccumulation═ F(s) ds greater than a predetermined threshold FCritical point ofAnd the temperature of the environment where the seedlings are located is within a preset range T1≤t≤T2And inputting the evaporation amount delta G of the evaporation unit acquired by the first pressure sensor into a seedling water consumption rule model delta M ═ k delta G + b, and outputting the seedling water consumption delta M.
Opening the liquid supply solenoid valve of the seedling raising unit if the weight change Delta M of the seedling raising unit measured by the second pressure sensor1Δ M × a%, wherein the initial weight of the seedling-raising unit is M1Final weight of M2,ΔM1=M1-M2Closing the liquid supply solenoid valve of the seedling cultivation unit, starting the accumulation of the timer T, and when the accumulated time T of the timer T is upAccumulationTo reach TStopAnd opening a liquid discharge electromagnetic valve of the seedling cultivation unit until liquid discharge is finished.
And opening a water replenishing electromagnetic valve of the evaporation unit until the upper laser sensor is disconnected.
The above calibration and irrigation processes can be repeated for different seedlings, so that different seedlings respectively reach different target substrate water holding rates.
Finally, it should be noted that: the above examples are only intended to illustrate the technical solution of the present invention, but not to limit it; although the present invention has been described in detail with reference to the foregoing embodiments, it will be understood by those of ordinary skill in the art that: the technical solutions described in the foregoing embodiments may still be modified, or some technical features may be equivalently replaced; and such modifications or substitutions do not depart from the spirit and scope of the corresponding technical solutions of the embodiments of the present invention.

Claims (9)

1. A tidal seedling culture calibration and irrigation device is characterized by comprising a main control unit, an evaporation unit, a seedling culture unit, a first pressure sensor and a second pressure sensor, wherein the evaporation unit, the seedling culture unit, the first pressure sensor and the second pressure sensor are connected with the main control unit;
the evaporation unit is a container for calibrating the evaporation amount of water, the seedling cultivation unit is a cultivation container for the seedlings to grow by tides, the first pressure sensor is fixedly connected below the evaporation unit and used for acquiring the evaporation amount of the evaporation unit, and the second pressure sensor is fixedly connected below the seedling cultivation unit and used for acquiring the weight change of the seedling cultivation unit;
the main control unit is used for acquiring the water consumption of the seedlings according to the weight change of the seedling cultivation unit and establishing a seedling water consumption rule model according to the evaporation capacity of the evaporation unit and the water consumption of the seedlings in a plurality of preset time periods; inputting the evaporation capacity of the evaporation unit in any time period into the seedling water consumption rule model to output the seedling water consumption in any time period, irrigating the seedlings until the weight of the seedling cultivation unit is changed to be the product of the seedling water consumption in any time period and the target substrate water holding rate of the seedlings, and stopping irrigating the seedlings;
the seedling cultivating unit comprises a liquid supply electromagnetic valve and a liquid discharge electromagnetic valve, and the water supplementing electromagnetic valve, the liquid supply electromagnetic valve and the liquid discharge electromagnetic valve are respectively and electrically connected with the main control unit; the main control unit controls the water replenishing of the evaporation unit through the water replenishing electromagnetic valve, controls the liquid supply of the seedling cultivation unit through the liquid supply electromagnetic valve, and controls the liquid drainage of the seedling cultivation unit through the liquid drainage electromagnetic valve.
2. The tidal seedling calibration and irrigation device as claimed in claim 1, wherein the evaporation unit comprises a clean water source, a water replenishing solenoid valve, a standard evaporation dish, an upper laser sensor and a lower laser sensor; go up the laser sensor and locate in the standard evaporating dish apart from the first distance department of predetermineeing at the top, laser sensor locates down in the standard evaporating dish apart from the second distance department of predetermineeing of bottom, clean water source passes through the moisturizing solenoid valve lets in the standard evaporating dish.
3. The tidal seedling calibration and irrigation device as claimed in claim 1, further comprising an environment sensing unit connected to the main control unit, wherein the environment sensing unit comprises an optical radiation sensor, a temperature sensor and a humidity sensor, the optical radiation sensor is used for acquiring the light radiation value received by the seedling, the temperature sensor is used for acquiring the temperature in the seedling cultivation unit, and the humidity sensor is used for acquiring the humidity in the seedling cultivation unit.
4. A tide seedling-raising calibration and irrigation method is characterized by comprising the following steps:
establishing a seedling water consumption rule model according to evaporation capacity of evaporation units and seedling water consumption in a plurality of preset time periods;
inputting the evaporation capacity of the evaporation unit in any time period into the seedling water consumption rule model to output the seedling water consumption in any time period, irrigating the seedlings, and stopping irrigating the seedlings until the weight of the seedling cultivation unit is changed to be the product of the seedling water consumption in any time period and the target matrix water holding rate of the seedlings;
the evaporation unit is a container used for calibrating the water evaporation amount, and the seedling cultivation unit is a cultivation container for performing tidal seedling cultivation on the seedlings.
5. The method for calibrating and irrigating seedlings of tidal culture according to claim 4, further comprising:
if the time for stopping irrigating the seedlings reaches the preset retention time, discharging the irrigation liquid in the seedlings;
and supplementing moisture to the evaporation unit and enabling the moisture in the evaporation unit to reach a preset capacity.
6. The method for calibrating and irrigating seedlings of tidal culture according to claim 4, further comprising:
selecting different seedlings, and acquiring water consumption of the different seedlings in a plurality of any time periods;
and irrigating the different seedlings, so that after the weight of the seedling culture unit of the different seedlings is changed to be the product of the water consumption of the different seedlings and the target substrate water holding rate of the different seedlings, the irrigation to the different seedlings is stopped.
7. The tidal seedling calibration and irrigation method as claimed in claim 4, wherein the establishing of the seedling water consumption law model according to the evaporation capacity of the evaporation units and the seedling water consumption in a plurality of preset time periods specifically comprises:
acquiring the evaporation capacity of the evaporation unit and the weight change of the seedling cultivation unit in the preset time period;
acquiring the growth amount of the seedlings in the preset time period according to the growth and development curve of the seedlings and the average temperature and the average humidity of the environment where the seedlings are located in the preset time period;
acquiring the water consumption of the seedlings in the preset time period according to the liquid adding amount of the seedlings in the preset time period, the weight change of the seedling cultivation unit and the seedling growth amount;
and fitting a relation curve between the evaporation amount of the evaporation unit and the water consumption of the seedlings by using a least square method according to the evaporation amounts of the evaporation units and the water consumption of the seedlings in the preset time periods so as to establish a water consumption rule model of the seedlings.
8. The method for calibrating and irrigating tidal seedling according to claim 7, wherein the water consumption of the seedling is as follows:
ΔM=ΔM1+I+ΔP
wherein, Delta M is water consumption of seedlings, and Delta M1For the weight change of the seedling-growing unit, I is the amount of liquid added to the seedling, and Δ P is the amount of growth of the seedling.
9. The method for calibrating and irrigating tidal seedling according to claim 4, wherein the water consumption law model of the seedling is as follows:
M=kΔG+b
wherein, Δ M is seedling water consumption, Δ G is evaporation capacity of evaporation unit, k is substrate evaporation coefficient, and b is evaporation deviation parameter.
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