CN110656947A - Method for tunneling raised section of seabed bedrock - Google Patents

Method for tunneling raised section of seabed bedrock Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110656947A
CN110656947A CN201911044011.9A CN201911044011A CN110656947A CN 110656947 A CN110656947 A CN 110656947A CN 201911044011 A CN201911044011 A CN 201911044011A CN 110656947 A CN110656947 A CN 110656947A
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hole
grouting
drilling
pipe
slurry
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CN110656947B (en
Inventor
陈馈
王凯
杨延栋
赵海雷
李凤远
翟乾智
陈桥
褚长海
周振建
任颖莹
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State Key Laboratory of Shield Machine and Boring Technology
China Railway Tunnel Group Co Ltd CRTG
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State Key Laboratory of Shield Machine and Boring Technology
China Railway Tunnel Group Co Ltd CRTG
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D9/00Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • E21D9/06Making by using a driving shield, i.e. advanced by pushing means bearing against the already placed lining
    • E21D9/08Making by using a driving shield, i.e. advanced by pushing means bearing against the already placed lining with additional boring or cutting means other than the conventional cutting edge of the shield
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B33/00Sealing or packing boreholes or wells
    • E21B33/10Sealing or packing boreholes or wells in the borehole
    • E21B33/13Methods or devices for cementing, for plugging holes, crevices, or the like
    • E21B33/138Plastering the borehole wall; Injecting into the formation
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B49/00Testing the nature of borehole walls; Formation testing; Methods or apparatus for obtaining samples of soil or well fluids, specially adapted to earth drilling or wells
    • E21B49/02Testing the nature of borehole walls; Formation testing; Methods or apparatus for obtaining samples of soil or well fluids, specially adapted to earth drilling or wells by mechanically taking samples of the soil
    • E21B49/025Testing the nature of borehole walls; Formation testing; Methods or apparatus for obtaining samples of soil or well fluids, specially adapted to earth drilling or wells by mechanically taking samples of the soil of underwater soil, e.g. with grab devices
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B7/00Special methods or apparatus for drilling
    • E21B7/12Underwater drilling
    • E21B7/124Underwater drilling with underwater tool drive prime mover, e.g. portable drilling rigs for use on underwater floors
    • E21B7/1245Underwater drilling with underwater tool drive prime mover, e.g. portable drilling rigs for use on underwater floors using explosive means
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B7/00Special methods or apparatus for drilling
    • E21B7/20Driving or forcing casings or pipes into boreholes, e.g. sinking; Simultaneously drilling and casing boreholes
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D9/00Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • E21D9/001Improving soil or rock, e.g. by freezing; Injections
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42DBLASTING
    • F42D3/00Particular applications of blasting techniques
    • F42D3/04Particular applications of blasting techniques for rock blasting

Abstract

The invention relates to the field of shield tunneling methods, in particular to a method for tunneling a raised section of a seabed bedrock. The method aims to solve the problem that the construction of the raised section of the seabed bedrock is difficult in the shield tunneling process in the prior art. The method comprises the steps of exploration, drilling, processing, tunneling and the like, and for the hard rock convex section in the sea, triaxial stirring or high-pressure jet grouting reinforcement is carried out on the stratum on the upper part of the hard rock at sea, and supporting equipment such as a cutter head and the like are changed simultaneously. Has the advantages that: the difficult problem of the excavation of the raised section of the seabed bedrock is solved, and after the working steps are combined with each other, the excellent anti-seepage effect is achieved.

Description

Method for tunneling raised section of seabed bedrock
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of shield tunneling methods, in particular to a method for tunneling a raised section of a seabed bedrock.
Background
A shield machine is a tunnel boring machine using a shield method. The shield construction method is a method in which a "shield" (referred to as a supporting segment) of a tunnel is constructed (laid) while a heading machine is heading. The shield machine is generally classified into a hand-operated shield, an extrusion shield, a semi-mechanical shield (local air pressure, global air pressure), and a mechanical shield (an open-chest cutting shield, an air pressure shield, a slurry pressure shield, an earth pressure balance shield, a hybrid shield, and a special shield) according to the working principle.
The tunnel shield equipment has certain difficulty in adapting to various land conditions, for example, a tunnel shield section of a submarine bedrock bulge section has a plurality of hard rock bulges below a sea main channel, the length of the hard rock bulges is about hundreds of meters, and the height of the hard rock bulges is about 3-6 m. Mainly has a slightly weathered granite blocky structure, relatively develops cracks and locally has slightly weathered granite with relatively high strength. The engineering shield tunnel sea area has three sections of granite composite strata, the upper silt clay is soft and rich in water, the pore ratio is large, and the sensitivity is high. The tunneling technology of the shield in the upper soft and lower hard stratum is a difficult point of engineering and is easy to collapse. In the published patent document, a patent named as a vibration detection device of a submarine shield machine used in bedrock blasting pretreatment construction, with application number 2012200385015, discloses a vibration detection device to ensure safe construction of a submarine tunnel, however, a systematic tunneling method capable of aiming at a raised section of a submarine bedrock is still lacking in the current technology.
The concrete points are as follows:
(1) when the shield tunnels soft (silt and sand) and hard stratum, hard rock at the lower part of the cutter head is difficult to tunnel, soft soil at the upper part of the cutter head is continuously lost, and the vault stratum is easy to collapse, possibly causing seawater to be poured in.
(2) The cutter head is stressed unevenly up and down, and the cutter is easy to be eccentric.
(3) When the chamber is opened under normal pressure, the soil body on the tunnel face cannot be self-stabilized and is easy to collapse.
(4) The conventional cutter head shield directly tunnels the upper soft and lower hard stratum, and the project progress and investment are uncontrollable.
(5) When the shield is tunneled in a soft upper layer and a hard lower layer, the cutter head is in unbalance loading, and the main bearing can be damaged.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to solve the problem that the construction of the raised section of the seabed bedrock is difficult in the shield tunneling process in the prior art.
The specific scheme of the invention is as follows:
a method for tunneling a raised section of seabed bedrock is designed, and comprises the following steps:
(1) exploration: carrying out water drilling operation by using an XY-1 type drilling machine and a ship, carrying out geological reconnaissance work, knowing a raised section of a seabed bedrock in detail, carrying out detailed reconnaissance, determining the raised range and position of the bedrock, carrying out geological reconnaissance survey by using a GPS measuring instrument, accurately positioning and measuring the position of a drilling hole and the distance of a hole opening relative to a basal plane, carrying out slurry dado pumpless coring drilling after casing running, drilling the bedrock by using a diamond bit, drilling a soil layer by using a slurry dado alloy bit, measuring the hole depth and the water level each time of drilling back, collecting rock compression-resistant and tensile-resistant samples from drilling core samples, and sampling soft soil by using a thin-wall;
(2) perforating and introducing explosive: set up the blast hole at last, adopt the sand section of thick bamboo to fill, thickness l2 is 0.5m, and the row pitch l1 is 0.8 ~ 1.2m between the blast hole, and the thick department of basement rock sets up the multistage explosive, and blast hole bottom distance tunnel bottom surface distance between the explosive section is about 1.0 ~ 2.0m, and the blast hole arrangement mode adopts the rectangle:
(3) grouting reinforcement: after blasting is finished, a drilling machine is used for directly forming holes, sleeve valve pipe grouting and hole sealing are carried out, the broken rock stratum and the soil body are reinforced, grouting is carried out at the position of an original blasting hole, cement slurry is adopted, the water cement ratio is 1:1, and the grouting pressure of a high-strength and high-toughness PVC pipe is controlled to be 1.5-3 MPa;
(4) tunneling: the shield machine is provided with a normal-pressure cutter head, the cutter of the shield machine is designed and provided with a heavy wear-resistant cutter, a 19-inch disk cutter is adopted, the hardness of a cutter ring is in a gradient hardness distribution mode, the effect of 'hard outside and tough inside' is achieved, the surface hardness reaches 58-60 HRC, the core hardness is 54-58 HRC, and the tunneling work is carried out according to a designed route;
in the step (3), for the hard rock convex section in the sea, triaxial stirring or high-pressure rotary jetting reinforcement is carried out on the upper stratum of the hard rock on the sea;
in the step (4), the drilling comprises guiding holes of a backfill layer by a drilling machine, the lower stratum is drilled by a geological drilling machine by a drill bit with the diameter of 89 according to the design requirement, the error of the horizontal hole position of the drilled hole is less than or equal to 5cm, the verticality of the drilled hole is less than or equal to +/-1 degrees, and the drilling depth exceeds the design depth by 0.5-1 m so as to meet the pipe descending depth; using thin mud to protect the wall or dry-drill a hole, wherein the hole diameter of the formed hole is not less than 89mm;
cleaning impurities in the hole before drilling: sundries cannot be contained in the drill hole (in the sleeve) so as to be beneficial to installing the grouting pipe, and the sleeve is pulled out after the grouting pipe is installed; after drilling is finished, immediately replacing drilling wall protection slurry with fresh closed slurry (bentonite slurry) through a drill rod after pore forming, wherein the closed slurry is prepared according to the following proportion: water is 4:1, sealing mud is pressed in from the bottom of the hole by a drill rod, and a drilling space is filled until the sealing mud completely replaces the wall protection mud; the installation of sleeve valve pipe includes that after sealing mud is accomplished in the downthehole impressing, insert sleeve valve pipe immediately, sleeve valve pipe length is every section 4m, two adjacent sections are connected with the PVC connecting sleeve that length is 20cm, adopt U-PVC adhesive to glue sleeve valve pipe and connecting sleeve firmly, first section sleeve valve pipe bottom must add stifled closed end (precious tower lid), the mouth of pipe adds stifled, insert the while pouring into clear water in sleeve valve pipe insertion process, every section of the sleeve valve pipe is connected the back, transfer in the drilling in proper order, to the hole bottom, guarantee the center of sleeve valve pipe and the coincidence of drilling center as far as possible when transferring.
And in the installation process of the sleeve valve pipe, adding clear water to keep the pressure balance inside and outside the pipe, supplementing and sealing cement mortar after the slurry is basically gelled, installing the sleeve valve pipe and simultaneously installing a PVC pipe with the diameter of 20mm in a matched mode, wherein the PVC pipe is externally connected with a grouting machine, replacing the whole set of shell material by the slurry in the PVC pipe hole under the action of grouting pressure, enabling the whole set of shell material to enter the bottom of the drilled hole through the PVC pipe under the action of 0.5MPa pressure, along with the entering of the shell material, discharging the slurry out of the hole opening to a slurry circulating pool of a water surface stratum reinforcing operation platform through a slurry ditch of the drilled hole opening after the slurry is replaced, and stopping replacement until the discharged slurry contains the shell material. The proportion of the shell material is (weight ratio) cement (P.C 32.5.5): and (3) bentonite: water = 1: 1.5-2.5: 1, sealing the hole opening with cement mortar within the range of 2-3 m.
The grouting comprises a grouting pump to perform retreating type grouting operation, namely grouting is performed in a grouting pipe in a segmented mode from the bottom of a hole upwards, the length of a grouting section is 0.4-0.5 m each time, after the grouting is finished, another section is retreated and poured until full-hole grouting is finished, a grouting stop plug is arranged on a grouting pipeline, the specific gravity of single cement slurry is 1.6, and the pumping pressure of the grouting pump is 2.0 times of the pressure of a grouting pipe opening.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
(1) the shield machine is provided with a normal-pressure cutter head, so that the cutter can directly break the gasified granite and the shield can directly tunnel through the granite;
(2) the cutter of the shield machine is designed and configured with a heavy wear-resistant cutter, and the shield machine has the capability of directly excavating and breaking medium and slightly weathered granite, and the shield machine has the capability of directly excavating and passing through. A specific tool changing scheme is made according to the projection of the bedrock, and enough spare tools are reserved;
(3) for the hard rock convex section in the sea, the stratum on the upper part of the hard rock is subjected to triaxial stirring or high-pressure rotary spraying reinforcement at sea, and after the strength of the mucky soil layer is improved, the shield directly passes through the hard rock convex section.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of a bedrock blasting arrangement according to the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic top view of the bed blasting of the present invention;
1. a bedrock profile; 2. an explosive; 3. a sand cylinder; 4. a tunnel floor; 5. a blast hole; 6. the tunnel boundary.
Detailed Description
The preferred embodiments of the present invention will be described in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, and it will be understood that they are described herein for the purpose of illustration and explanation and not limitation.
Example 1
A tunneling method of a raised section of a seabed base layer comprises the following steps: (1) exploration: carrying out water drilling operation by using an XY-1 type drilling machine and a ship, carrying out geological reconnaissance work, knowing a raised section of a seabed bedrock in detail, carrying out detailed reconnaissance, determining the raised range and position of the bedrock, carrying out geological reconnaissance survey by using a GPS measuring instrument, accurately positioning and measuring the position of a drill hole and the distance of the drill hole relative to a basal plane, carrying out slurry dado pumpless coring drilling after casing running, drilling the bedrock by using a diamond drill bit, drilling a soil layer by using a slurry dado alloy drill bit, measuring the hole depth and the water level each time of drilling back, taking rock compression-resistant and tensile-resistant samples from drill hole core samples, sampling soft soil by using a thin-wall sampler, and carrying out in-situ tests; during reconnaissance, a coordinate system 54 Beijing coordinate system is adopted, the elevation is 85 national elevation standard, and the executed specifications and standards are as follows: (1) highway engineering geological survey Specification (JTG C20-2011); (2) building earthquake-resistant design Specification (GB 50011-2010) (2016 revised edition); (3) specification of geotechnical engineering investigation (GB 50021-2001, 2009 edition); (4) standard for geotechnical test methods (GB/T50123-1999, 2007 edition); (5) building foundation design code (GB 50007-2011); (6) building foundation design Specifications (DBJ 15-31-2003); (7) municipal engineering survey Specification (CJJ 56-2012); (8) classification of Earth Standard of engineering (GBT 50145-2007); (9) standard for geotechnical engineering investigation reporting (CECS 99: 98).
(2) The method comprises the steps of drilling holes and introducing explosives, wherein the holes are provided with blast holes, the blast holes are filled by sand cylinders, the thickness l2 is 0.5m, the row spacing l1 between the blast holes is 0.8-1.2 m, multiple sections of explosives are arranged at the thick part of a bedrock, the distance from the bottom of each blast hole between explosive sections to the bottom surface of a tunnel is about 1.0 ~ 2.0.0 m, and the arrangement mode of the blast holes is rectangular.
(3) Grouting reinforcement: after blasting is finished, a drilling machine is used for directly forming holes, sleeve valve pipe grouting and hole sealing are carried out, the broken rock stratum and the soil body are reinforced, grouting is carried out at the position of an original blasting hole, cement slurry is adopted, the water cement ratio is 1:1, and the grouting pressure of a high-strength and high-toughness PVC pipe is controlled to be 1.5-3 MPa;
(4) tunneling: the shield machine is provided with a normal-pressure cutter head, the cutter of the shield machine is designed and provided with a heavy wear-resistant cutter, a 19-inch disk cutter is adopted, the hardness of a cutter ring is in a gradient hardness distribution mode, the effect of 'hard outside and tough inside' is achieved, the surface hardness reaches 58-60 HRC, the core hardness is 54-58 HRC, and the tunneling work is carried out according to a designed route;
in the step (3), for the hard rock convex section in the sea, triaxial stirring or high-pressure rotary jetting is carried out on the stratum on the upper part of the hard rock on the sea for reinforcement.
In the step (4), the drilling comprises guiding holes of a backfill layer by a drilling machine, drilling on a lower stratum by a geological drilling machine by using a drill bit with the diameter of 89 according to the design requirement, wherein the error of the horizontal hole position of the drilled hole is less than or equal to 5cm, the verticality of the drilled hole is less than or equal to +/-1 DEG, and the drilling depth exceeds the design depth by 0.5-1 m so as to meet the depth of a lower pipe;
cleaning sundries in the hole before drilling: sundries cannot be contained in the drill hole (in the sleeve) so as to be beneficial to installing the grouting pipe, and the sleeve is pulled out after the grouting pipe is installed; after drilling is finished, immediately replacing drilling wall protection slurry with fresh closed slurry (bentonite slurry) through a drill rod after pore forming, wherein the closed slurry is prepared according to the following proportion: water is 4:1, sealing mud is pressed in from the bottom of the hole by a drill rod, and a drilling space is filled until the sealing mud completely replaces the wall protection mud; the installation of sleeve valve pipe includes that after sealing mud is accomplished in the downthehole impressing, insert sleeve valve pipe immediately, sleeve valve pipe length is every section 4m, two adjacent sections are connected with the PVC connecting sleeve that length is 20cm, adopt U-PVC adhesive to glue sleeve valve pipe and connecting sleeve firmly, first section sleeve valve pipe bottom must add stifled closed end (precious tower lid), the mouth of pipe adds stifled, insert the while pouring into clear water in sleeve valve pipe insertion process, every section of the sleeve valve pipe is connected the back, transfer in the drilling in proper order, to the hole bottom, guarantee the center of sleeve valve pipe and the coincidence of drilling center as far as possible when transferring. Drillers require rich experience, can roughly judge the bed rock blasting effect according to the drilling process, and are convenient to determine the drilling depth. Drilling records are required to be made in the construction process so as to determine the pipe descending condition of the grouting pipe. And (5) completing drilling, installing the grouting pipe, and then pulling out the sleeve.
And in the installation process of the sleeve valve pipe, adding clear water to keep the pressure balance inside and outside the pipe, supplementing and sealing cement mortar after the slurry is basically gelled, installing the sleeve valve pipe and simultaneously installing a PVC pipe with the diameter of 20mm in a matched mode, wherein the PVC pipe is externally connected with a grouting machine, replacing the whole set of shell material by the slurry in the PVC pipe hole under the action of grouting pressure, enabling the whole set of shell material to enter the bottom of the drilled hole through the PVC pipe under the action of 0.5MPa pressure, along with the entering of the shell material, discharging the slurry out of the hole opening to a slurry circulating pool of a water surface stratum reinforcing operation platform through a slurry ditch of the drilled hole opening after the slurry is replaced, and stopping replacement until the discharged slurry contains the shell material. The proportion of the shell material is (weight ratio) cement (P.C 32.5.5): and (3) bentonite: water = 1: 1.5-2.5: 1, sealing the hole opening with cement mortar within the range of 2-3 m. After the sleeve valve pipe is adopted for grouting, the slurry is solidified and consolidated with the stratum, so that the soil body strength and the self-stability capability are improved.
The grouting comprises a grouting pump to perform retreating type grouting operation, namely grouting is performed in a grouting pipe in a segmented mode from the bottom of a hole upwards, the length of a grouting section is 0.4-0.5 m each time, after the grouting is finished, another section is retreated and poured until full-hole grouting is finished, a grouting stop plug is arranged on a grouting pipeline, the specific gravity of single cement slurry is 1.6, and the pumping pressure of the grouting pump is 2.0 times of the pressure of a grouting pipe opening. 1, the sealing mud can be pressed in from the bottom of the hole by using a drill pipe to fill the drilling space until the sealing mud completely replaces the wall protection mud. The sealing mud pressed in advance can overflow from the hole opening while the pipe is lowered, the sealing mud can automatically sink after the pipe is lowered to the right position, the sinking depth can reach 2m after the slurry is basically gelled, and the cement mortar is used for supplementary sealing. And (3) installing a phi 20mm PVC pipe while installing the sleeve valve pipe, and binding the phi 20mm PVC pipe and the sleeve valve pipe together by using an adhesive tape. And inserting the flushing pipe into the bottom of the sleeve valve pipe, pressing clear water in until the water returned from the orifice is basically clean, repeatedly moving the water pipe up and down in the flushing process, and flushing the cement paste in the pipe to be clean so as to facilitate subsequent grouting.
The shield machine is provided with a normal-pressure cutter head, so that the cutter can directly break the gasified granite and the shield can directly tunnel through the granite breaking machine. Before the shield constructs the protruding section of the bedrock after blasting reinforcement, a normal pressure cutter changing device on a normal pressure cutter head is used for replacing a new disc cutter, so that the cutter head has the capability of dispersing granite in the air.
The cutter of the shield machine is designed and configured with a heavy wear-resistant cutter, and the shield machine has the capability of directly excavating and breaking medium and slightly weathered granite, and the shield machine has the capability of directly excavating and passing through. And (4) establishing a targeted tool changing scheme according to the projection of the bedrock, and reserving enough spare tools.
In the embodiment, the diameter of the disc cutter is larger than that of a common 17-inch disc cutter, the bearing capacity of a single cutter is improved from 250kN to 315kN, the hardness of the cutter ring is in a gradient hardness distribution mode, the effect of 'hard outside and tough inside' is achieved, the surface hardness reaches 58-60 HRC, and the core hardness is 54-58 HRC.
For the hard rock convex section in the sea, the stratum on the upper part of the hard rock is subjected to triaxial stirring or high-pressure rotary spraying reinforcement at sea, and after the strength of the mucky soil layer is improved, the shield directly passes through the hard rock convex section.
In the preliminary design scheme, a large amount of stones are generated after the bed rock blasting, the workload of the operation of pressing into the warehouse can be increased, and for the stones encountered by the shield in the tunneling process, the treatment modes generally comprise the following steps: firstly, performing stratum strengthening and then tunneling a shield, namely, concreting stones or boulders in a soil layer, breaking the stones by using a disc-shaped hob on a shield cutter head, breaking the stones or boulders into small blocks, and then conveying the small blocks of the stones out by using a mud-water circulation system; and secondly, blasting treatment, namely blasting large rock blocks into small rock blocks, then reinforcing the stratum, and then tunneling the shield. In the embodiment, a method of blasting and grouting reinforcement is adopted to adapt to the processing environment.
However, the crushing degree of the rock after blasting is difficult to control, and the particle size of the rock which can be conveyed by the shield is limited, so that the large rock after blasting is possibly clamped at the opening of the cutter head, and for the condition, the clamped rock can be mechanically crushed or manually cleaned to be removed from the cutter head or the muddy water bin by adopting a pressurized bin feeding mode. The equipment carried on the shield does not have the capability of searching and cleaning large rocks.
The difference between the embodiment and the prior art is that the existing similar engineering at the present stage is a typhoon nuclear power water taking tunnel, but the blasting of the project of the bedrock is applied to the land, not the sea; meanwhile, a 17-inch disc cutter is adopted in the engineering, and the carrying capacity and the wear resistance of the disc cutter with the size are not as good as those of a 19-inch disc cutter; in addition, the conventional cutter head is adopted in the embodiment, and the normal-pressure cutter head is not adopted, so that the capability of replacing the hob under normal pressure is not provided, and the risk of the hob replacing operation is high.
Finally, it should be noted that: although the present invention has been described in detail with reference to the foregoing embodiments, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that changes may be made in the embodiments and/or equivalents thereof without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Any modification, equivalent replacement, or improvement made within the spirit and principle of the present invention should be included in the protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (4)

1. A method for tunneling a raised section of seabed bedrock is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) exploration: performing water drilling operation by using an XY-1 type drilling machine and a ship, determining the protruding range and position of bedrock by carrying out geological reconnaissance work, performing geological reconnaissance survey by using a GPS measuring instrument, accurately positioning and measuring the position of a drill hole and the distance of a hole opening relative to a basal plane, performing slurry retaining wall pumpless coring drilling after casing running, drilling the bedrock by using a diamond bit, drilling a soil layer by using a slurry retaining wall alloy bit, measuring the hole depth and the water level every time of drilling, taking a rock compression-resistant tensile sample from a drill hole core sample, and taking a soft soil sample by using a thin-wall sampler;
distance of orifice from reference plane
(2) Perforating and introducing explosive: on the basis of step (1) drilling, set up the blast hole on, adopt the sand section of thick bamboo to fill, thickness l2 is 0.5m, and the row spacing l1 is 0.8 ~ 1.2m between the blast hole, and the thicker department of bedrock sets up the multistage explosive, and blast hole bottom distance apart from the tunnel bottom surface between the explosive section is about 1.0 ~ 2.0m, and the blast hole arrangement mode adopts the rectangle:
(3) grouting reinforcement: after blasting is finished, a drilling machine is adopted to directly form holes at the original site of the blasting hole, sleeve valve pipe grouting and hole sealing are carried out, the broken rock stratum and the soil body are reinforced, grouting is carried out at the original blasting hole position, cement slurry is adopted as the slurry, the water cement ratio is 1:1, and the grouting pressure of a high-strength and high-toughness PVC pipe of a PVC pipe is controlled to be 1.5-3 MPa;
(4) tunneling: the shield machine is provided with a normal-pressure cutter head, the cutter of the shield machine is designed and provided with a heavy wear-resistant cutter, a 19-inch disk cutter is adopted, the hardness of a cutter ring is distributed in a gradient hardness mode, the surface hardness reaches 58-60 HRC, the core hardness is 54-58 HRC, and the tunneling work is carried out according to a designed route;
in the step (3), sleeve valve pipe grouting reinforcement is carried out on the upper stratum of the hard rock by using the offshore platform for the hard rock convex section in the sea.
2. A method of tunnelling a raised section of seafloor bedrock as claimed in claim 1, wherein in step (4):
the drilling comprises leading holes of a backfill layer by a drilling machine, drilling a lower stratum by a geological drilling machine by using a phi 89 drill bit according to the design requirement, wherein the error of the horizontal hole position of the drilled hole is less than or equal to 5cm, the verticality of the drilled hole is less than or equal to +/-1 degrees, and the drilling depth exceeds the design depth by 0.5-1 m so as to meet the pipe laying depth; using thin mud to protect the wall or dry-drill a hole, wherein the hole diameter of the formed hole is not less than 89mm;
cleaning impurities in the hole before drilling: sundries cannot be contained in the drill hole (in the sleeve), and the sleeve is pulled out after the grouting pipe is installed; after drilling is finished, immediately replacing drilling wall protection slurry with fresh closed slurry (bentonite slurry) through a drill rod after pore forming, wherein the closed slurry is prepared according to the following proportion: water is 4:1, sealing mud is pressed in from the bottom of the hole by a drill rod, and a drilling space is filled until the sealing mud completely replaces the wall protection mud; the installation of sleeve valve pipe includes that after sealing mud is accomplished in the downthehole impressing, insert sleeve valve pipe immediately, sleeve valve pipe length is every section 4m, two adjacent sections are connected with the PVC connecting sleeve that length is 20cm, adopt U-PVC adhesive to glue sleeve valve pipe and connecting sleeve firmly, first section sleeve valve pipe bottom must add stifled closed end (precious tower lid), the mouth of pipe adds stifled, insert the while pouring into clear water in sleeve valve pipe insertion process, every section of the sleeve valve pipe is connected the back, transfer in the drilling in proper order, to the hole bottom, guarantee the center of sleeve valve pipe and the coincidence of drilling center as far as possible when transferring.
3. The method for driving the raised section of the seabed bedrock according to claim 2, wherein during the installation of the sleeve valve pipe, clear water is added to keep the pressure balance inside and outside the pipe, after the slurry is basically gelled, cement mortar is used for supplementary sealing, the sleeve valve pipe is installed and is matched with a PVC pipe with the diameter of 20mm, wherein the PVC pipe is connected with a grouting machine, the casing material is replaced by the slurry in the PVC pipe hole under the action of grouting pressure, the casing material enters the bottom of the drilled hole through the PVC pipe under the action of 0.5MPa of pressure, along with the entering of the casing material, the slurry is replaced from the hole opening and then is discharged to a slurry circulating pool of a water surface stratum reinforcing operation platform through a slurry discharge pipe at the drilled hole, and the replacement is stopped until the discharged slurry is found to contain the casing material, and the proportion of the casing material is (weight ratio) cement (P.C 32.5.5): and (3) bentonite: water = 1: 1.5-2.5: 1, sealing the hole opening with cement mortar within the range of 2-3 m.
4. A method for driving a raised section of seafloor bedrock according to claim 3, wherein the grouting comprises a grouting pump to perform backward grouting operation, namely grouting is performed in a grouting pipe in a subsection manner from the bottom of a hole to the top, the length of the grouting section is 0.4-0.5 m each time, after the grouting section is completed, another section is backward grouted until the full hole grouting is completed, a grouting stop plug is arranged on a grouting pipeline, the specific gravity of single cement slurry is 1.6, and the pumping pressure of the grouting pump is 2.0 times of the pressure of a grouting pipe opening.
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CN115288632B (en) * 2022-07-07 2024-05-10 巩建雨 Design method for preventing first-row drilling damage of separation layer grouting

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CN115288632A (en) * 2022-07-07 2022-11-04 巩建雨 Design method for preventing damage of first row drilling holes in separation layer grouting
CN115288632B (en) * 2022-07-07 2024-05-10 巩建雨 Design method for preventing first-row drilling damage of separation layer grouting

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