CN110439550B - Tilting soil sampling system - Google Patents

Tilting soil sampling system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110439550B
CN110439550B CN201910660621.5A CN201910660621A CN110439550B CN 110439550 B CN110439550 B CN 110439550B CN 201910660621 A CN201910660621 A CN 201910660621A CN 110439550 B CN110439550 B CN 110439550B
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sampling
soil
well
connecting piece
guide plate
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CN110439550A (en
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付融冰
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Tongji University
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Tongji University
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B10/00Drill bits
    • E21B10/26Drill bits with leading portion, i.e. drill bits with a pilot cutter; Drill bits for enlarging the borehole, e.g. reamers
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B49/00Testing the nature of borehole walls; Formation testing; Methods or apparatus for obtaining samples of soil or well fluids, specially adapted to earth drilling or wells
    • E21B49/02Testing the nature of borehole walls; Formation testing; Methods or apparatus for obtaining samples of soil or well fluids, specially adapted to earth drilling or wells by mechanically taking samples of the soil
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B7/00Special methods or apparatus for drilling
    • E21B7/02Drilling rigs characterized by means for land transport with their own drive, e.g. skid mounting or wheel mounting
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B7/00Special methods or apparatus for drilling
    • E21B7/04Directional drilling
    • E21B7/06Deflecting the direction of boreholes
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B7/00Special methods or apparatus for drilling
    • E21B7/04Directional drilling
    • E21B7/06Deflecting the direction of boreholes
    • E21B7/064Deflecting the direction of boreholes specially adapted drill bits therefor

Abstract

The inclined soil sampling system comprises at least one inclined sampling well with different depths, wherein the inclined sampling well is arranged corresponding to sampling points of target strata with different depths; and the soil sampler of setting in the sampling well, the sampling point is arranged in the target stratum, the well head of the sampling well is arranged outside the boundary of a special target, the soil sampler is arranged at the well bottom of the sampling well, the well bottom is arranged at the corresponding sampling point, the axis of the sampling well and the inclination angle of the ground are smaller than 15 degrees, the soil sampler comprises a hollow sampling tube, the hollow sampling tube is fixed in the pipe body through a connecting piece, and one end of the hollow sampling tube is communicated with the front end of the pipe body. The inclined soil sampling system solves the technical problem that only vertical sampling can be performed at present, realizes underground inclined soil sampling, and realizes soil sampling at different positions at the bottom of various landfills, buildings, structures, lakes, rivers, trails, important facilities and the like.

Description

Tilting soil sampling system
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the field of environmental protection, and particularly relates to an inclined soil sampling system.
Background
At present, soil and underground water are sampled by adopting a method of drilling and a method of constructing an underground water monitoring well by drilling. Whether soil or groundwater sampling, the borehole or the monitoring well is vertical to the ground. However, many times, the environment conditions of soil and underground water at the bottom of some special objects such as buildings, structures, landfills, rivers or lakes, historic preservation areas, important facilities and the like need to be known, and the drilling and sampling from the upper part cannot be carried out. For such a situation, a technology for deep sampling of the bottom of the container is not available, so that the environmental condition of the bottom cannot be accurately determined, which is an important technical problem for environmental survey and evaluation.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to solve the problems, the invention provides a tilting soil sampling system, which solves the technical problem that only vertical sampling can be realized at present, and realizes underground tilting soil sampling, so that soil sampling at different positions at the bottom of various landfills, buildings, structures, lakes, rivers, trails, important facilities and the like becomes practical.
The invention provides an inclined soil sampling system, which is used for sampling soil of each target stratum with at least one different depth in an area needing to investigate the soil environment at the bottom of a special target, and has the characteristics that the inclined soil sampling system comprises at least one inclined sampling well with different depths, wherein the inclined sampling well is arranged corresponding to sampling points of each target stratum with at least one different depth; and the soil sampler of setting in the sampling well, wherein, the sampling point is arranged in the target stratum, the well head of sampling well is arranged outside the boundary of special target, the soil sampler sets up the shaft bottom at the sampling well, this shaft bottom is arranged in the sampling point that corresponds, the axis of sampling well is less than 15 degrees with the inclination on ground, the soil sampler includes body, cavity sampling tube, connecting piece, the cavity sampling tube passes through the connecting piece to be fixed in the body, the one end of cavity sampling tube communicates with the front end of body.
The inclined soil sampling system is characterized by further comprising a movable drilling machine, wherein a chassis is arranged at the bottom of the movable drilling machine, a track beam frame and a traveling mechanism mounted on the track beam frame are arranged below the chassis, four hydraulic supports are respectively arranged at four corners of the chassis, the hydraulic supports extend out and are supported on the ground during operation, a mast is arranged at the upper portion of the chassis, a power head assembly and a clamping and fixing assembly are arranged on the mast, the mast is fixed on a sliding seat, the bottom of the sliding seat is hinged with a lifting rod, and the mast and the ground are enabled to keep a certain angle through adjusting the lifting rod. In addition, the inclined soil sampling system provided by the invention can also have the following characteristics: wherein the content of the first and second substances,
in addition, the inclined soil sampling system provided by the invention is characterized by further comprising a plurality of drill rods, the lengths of the drill rods are matched with the well depth of the sampling well, and the adjacent drill rods are connected through threads.
In addition, the inclined soil sampling system provided by the invention is characterized by further comprising a drill bit, wherein the drill bit is provided with a guide plate, a guide rod and a signal emission rod, the guide plate is plate-shaped, the front section of the guide plate is pointed, a plurality of water permeable pores are formed in the side wall of the guide plate, a detection cavity is formed in the guide rod, and the signal emission rod is arranged in the detection cavity.
In addition, the inclined soil sampling system provided by the invention can also have the following characteristics: wherein, the both sides of the anterior segment of deflector are provided with the cutting edge respectively, and the contained angle of cutting edge line and deflector central line is 45 degrees ~80 degrees.
In addition, the inclined soil sampling system provided by the invention can also have the following characteristics: wherein, the guide plate is made of tungsten steel or manganese alloy material.
In addition, in the inclined soil sampling system provided by the invention, the inclined soil sampling system is characterized by further comprising a monitor for receiving the ultrasonic signal sent by the signal transmitting rod and displaying the position, the direction and the angle of the drill bit.
In addition, the inclined soil sampling system provided by the invention can also have the following characteristics: wherein, the both ends of cavity sampling tube communicate, and the cavity sampling tube adopts transparent plastic to make.
In addition, the inclined soil sampling system provided by the invention can also have the following characteristics: wherein, one end of the connecting piece is in a flat mouth shape, and the other end is provided with an external thread connected with the pipe body.
Action and Effect of the invention
The inclined soil sampling system comprises at least one inclined sampling well with different depths, wherein the inclined sampling well is arranged corresponding to sampling points of target strata with different depths; and the soil sampler arranged in the sampling well realizes underground inclined soil sampling, so that soil sampling at different positions at the bottom of various landfills, buildings, structures, lakes, rivers, trails, important facilities and the like becomes a reality, the technical problem that the sampling can only be vertical and cannot be inclined at present is solved, the underground inclined soil sampling is realized, the sampling can be carried out at the position which cannot be sampled in the past, and the underground inclined soil sampler is an important breakthrough of the soil environment sampling technology.
In addition, the inclined soil sampling system can collect soil and underground water samples at different point positions and different depths by drilling once, and improves the working efficiency.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a sample taken in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic side view of a drill bit according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a schematic top view of a drill bit according to an embodiment of the present invention; and
FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of a soil sampler in an embodiment of the present invention.
Detailed Description
In order to make the technical means, creation features, achievement purposes and effects of the invention easy to understand, the inclined soil sampling system of the invention is specifically described in the following embodiments.
Example one
560 mu land of a certain refuse landfill is divided into two stages, namely 230 mu land of the first stage, the landfill year is earlier, the refuse landfill belongs to a non-regular refuse landfill, and the bottom of the refuse landfill is not provided with an anti-seepage film. The second stage is formed by later-stage construction, and occupies 330 mu of land. The landfill site is subjected to relatively standard bottom anti-seepage treatment, and the bottom of the anti-seepage layer is 7m below the ground. According to local development specifications, the site needs to be further treated and repaired, and environmental investigation needs to be carried out on the refuse landfill site firstly. Because the first-stage landfill site is adjacent to the second-stage landfill site, the first-stage landfill site does not prevent seepage, the landfill leachate may seep downwards and diffuse to the bottom of the second-stage landfill site, and soil and underground water sampling is needed for judging the pollution condition at the bottom of the second-stage landfill site. Because the seepage-proofing treatment is carried out in the second stage, if the sample is drilled from the upper part of the landfill, the seepage-proofing layer is inevitably damaged, the percolate seeps downwards, the pollution is further diffused, and the sample cannot be carried out by adopting the traditional sampling technology.
The inclined soil sampling system comprises at least one inclined sampling well with different depths, which is arranged corresponding to sampling points of each target stratum with at least one different depth; and a soil sampler disposed in the sampling well.
And dividing the plane of the refuse landfill into grids corresponding to the range of the refuse landfill, and setting the number of the grids to be set.
Setting a monitoring point at the center of the grid; and setting sampling points corresponding to the target stratum right below the monitoring points.
And setting the number of the inclined sampling wells and the number of the drilling points, wherein the number of the inclined sampling wells and the number of the drilling points are the same.
One tilted sample well corresponds to at least one sampling point.
In the embodiment shown in fig. 1, 3 different sampling points are respectively arranged at the bottom of the landfill from the direction perpendicular to the boundary of the landfill to the center of the landfill. The first sampling point 1 is 20m away from the boundary, and the sampling depth is 2m below the bottom of the impermeable layer; the second sampling point 2 is 35m away from the boundary, and the sampling depth is 3m below the bottom of the impermeable layer; the third sampling point 3 is at a distance of 70m from the boundary, and the sampling depth is 5m below the bottom of the impermeable layer, in the embodiment, one inclined sampling well corresponds to 3 sampling points at different positions.
And constructing the inclined sampling well from the drilling point to the sampling point.
According to the sampling requirement, the inclination angle of the inclined sampling well is firstly determined, and the inclination angle is not more than 15 degrees generally.
The sampling system comprises a movable drilling machine, a drill rod, a guide drill bit, a monitor and a soil sampler.
The bottom of the movable drilling machine is provided with a chassis, a crawler beam frame and a traveling mechanism arranged on the crawler beam frame are arranged below the host chassis, and four corners of the chassis are provided with hydraulic supports which extend out of and are supported on the ground during operation, so that the function of fixing the drilling machine is achieved. The mast is arranged on the upper portion of the drilling machine chassis, a power head assembly and a clamping and fixing structure are arranged on the mast, the mast is fixed on a sliding seat, the bottom of the sliding seat is hinged and fixed with the main machine chassis through a lifting hydraulic rod, and the mast can be kept at a certain angle with the ground by adjusting the lifting hydraulic rod.
The drilling rod is a hollow steel pipe, one end of the drilling rod is provided with an external thread, the other end of the drilling rod is provided with an internal thread matched with the external thread, and the drilling rod is connected with the drilling rod through the thread.
The drill bit 10 is installed at the foremost end of the drill rod, as shown in fig. 2 and 3, the drill bit 10 comprises a guide plate 11 and a drill rod 12, the guide plate 11 is plate-shaped, the included angle a between the guide plate 11 and the axis of the drill rod 12 is 45 degrees, the front section of the guide plate 11 is pointed, and the included angle between the edge lines on the two sides and the center line of the guide plate 11 is 45-80 degrees. The drill bit 10 is provided with a detection chamber 14 in which a signal emitting rod is disposed. The front end and the side wall of the guide plate 11 are provided with a plurality of water permeable pore canals 13. The guide plate 11 is made of tungsten steel, manganese alloy and other materials, and has the characteristics of high strength and good wear resistance.
The monitor is in communication connection with the transmitting rod, the monitor is arranged on the ground and can receive ultrasonic signals transmitted by the transmitting rod in the guide drill bit 10, the position, the direction and the angle of the guide drill bit 10 can be monitored through a screen on the monitor, and the precession direction of a drill rod can be controlled through rotating the angle of the drill plate 11 of the guide drill bit.
As shown in fig. 4, the soil sampler 20 includes a tube body 21, a hollow sampling tube 22, and a connector 23.
The pipe body 21 is a section of hollow steel pipe, the front end of the steel pipe shell is slightly closed, extrusion propulsion in soil is facilitated, a protrusion is arranged on the inner wall of the front end of the pipe body 21, an internal thread 25 and an external thread 24 are arranged at the rear end of the pipe body 21, and the pipe body can be in threaded connection with a drill rod through the external thread 24.
The hollow sampling tube 22 has two open ends and is connected to the tube 21, and one end is connected to the protrusion at the front end of the tube 21, in the embodiment, the hollow sampling tube 22 is made of transparent plastic.
The connecting piece 23 is cylindrical, the outer diameter of the connecting piece is larger than the inner diameter of the hollow sampling tube 22, and one end of the connecting piece 23 is conical and is used for extending into the hollow sampling tube 22. In the embodiment, connecting piece 23 one end is flat mouthful of form, can conveniently rotate, the other end has the external screw thread, the through-hole that sets up along the axis has in the connecting piece 23, connecting piece 23 is flat mouthful of one end setting of form in cavity sampling tube 22, the other end passes through external screw thread and the internal thread 25 threaded connection of body 21, the one end of cavity sampling tube 22 is blocked by the arch of body 21 front end, the other end links to each other with connecting piece 23, cavity sampling tube 22 passes through connecting piece 23 to be fixed in body 21, the one end of cavity sampling tube 22 and the front end intercommunication of body 21.
When sampling soil, the specific operation method comprises the following steps:
the method comprises the following steps that firstly, grids are divided for the plane of a special target corresponding to the range of the special target, and the number of the grids needing to be set is set;
secondly, setting monitoring points in the center of the grid;
a third step of setting sampling points corresponding to a target stratum right below the monitoring points;
step four, setting the number of the inclined sampling wells and the number of drilling points;
fifthly, performing inclined sampling well operation from the drilling point to the sampling point;
a sixth step of installing a soil sampler for soil sampling;
and a seventh step of obtaining the sampled soil of the target stratum.
According to sampling requirements, firstly drawing the advancing track of the drill bit and determining the inclination angle. The parking position of the drilling machine is selected, the parking area is ensured to be flat and firm, the movable drilling machine is driven into the parking place, the mast faces the drilling direction, and the support frame is extended out to fix the drilling machine. And adjusting the hydraulic support at the bottom of the mast to form a certain inclination angle between the mast and the horizontal ground, and sliding the mast out to the ground. A pilot bit is screwed onto the drill pipe to secure the drill pipe to the gripping device and to connect the rear end to the power assembly. And starting a motor to rotate the drill rods to push, connecting the next drill rod after one drill rod drills underground, screwing the drill rods step by step, and connecting or separating the drill rods through the shackle plates. The position and depth of the drill bit are monitored in real time for each advance of the rod.
When the advancing direction of the drill bit needs to be adjusted, the orientation of the pilot drill bit is observed through the monitor. When the guide plate faces the twelve o' clock direction, the rotation is stopped, the drill rod is pushed, and the drill rod moves upwards; similarly, the drill rod can be controlled to move towards the left, right and lower directions underground by adjusting the directions of the guide plates, such as nine o ' clock, three o ' clock, six o ' clock and the like. When the drill bit with larger depth is in the situation of resistance and cannot be pushed, a pressure pump on the drilling machine is started, deionized water is injected into the drill bit through a hollow pore channel of the drill rod and flows out through a limber hole on the drill bit, so that the drill bit is promoted to drill, and slurry flows out of the ground along the drill hole from the outer side of the drill rod.
When the guide drill bit reaches the sampling position, the drill rod rotates reversely and slightly retreats for a certain distance, the water pumping device is started, and the mud in the drill hole is pumped out by the drill rod. And then the drill rod is withdrawn to lift the drill rod out. And (3) removing the guide drill bit on the last drill rod, replacing the guide drill bit with a soil sampler, pushing the soil sampler into a sampling position, operating the drilling machine to push the sampler into the soil layer, so that the soil enters the hollow sampling tube 22 of the soil sampler 20, withdrawing the drill rod, removing the soil sampler 20, and taking out the hollow sampling tube 22. According to the use amount of soil detection, two ends of the hollow sampling tube 22 are cut off, sealed by a sealing cover, numbered and placed in a sample storage box to finish soil sampling.
And according to the set advancing track of the drill bit, continuing to advance to the next sampling position, and carrying out sampling according to the operation. The soil and underground water samples can be collected at different positions and different depths at one time.
In order to prevent the inclined drilling from possibly causing the migration and diffusion of pollutants at different positions, after sampling is completed, the drill rod is pushed into the drilling hole, bentonite or cement slurry is injected through the hollow pore channel of the drill rod, and bentonite or cement slurry is injected gradually while the drill rod is pulled out one by one until the plugging is completed on the ground.
In the embodiment, 4.7m outside the intersection point of the connecting lines of the three sampling points and the boundary of the landfill is used as a drill placing point, the movable drill is driven into a parking place, the mast faces the sampling points, and the support frame is extended out to fix the drill. And adjusting the hydraulic support at the bottom of the mast, forming an inclination angle of 20 degrees between the mast and the horizontal ground, and sliding the mast out to the ground. And screwing a guide drill bit on the drill rod, fixing the drill rod on the clamping device, and connecting the rear end of the drill rod to the power assembly. And starting a motor to rotate the drill rods to advance, screwing the next drill rod after one drill rod is drilled underground, and monitoring the position and the depth of the drill bit in real time when one drill rod is drilled. When drilling, deionized water is injected into the drill bit through the hollow channel of the drill rod. When the pilot bit drills 26.3m and reaches a first sampling position, namely 9m of underground water, the drill rod reversely rotates and retreats for a distance of about 50cm, the water pumping device is started, and mud in the drill hole is pumped out by the drill rod. And then the drill rod is withdrawn to completely remove the drill rod. And (3) unloading the guide drill bit on the last drill rod, replacing the guide drill bit with a soil sampler, pushing the soil sampler into a sampling position, operating the drilling machine to push the sampler into a soil layer by about 1m, enabling the soil to enter the sampling pipe, withdrawing the drill rods, unloading the drill rods to the last drill rod one by one, unloading the sampling pipe, shearing the sampling pipe to be 30cm long, sealing two ends of the sampling pipe by sealing covers, numbering the sampling pipe, and putting the sampling pipe into a sample storage box to finish soil sampling.
Sampling a second point position, observing the orientation of the guide drill bit through a monitor, enabling the drill bit guide plate to face in a twelve o' clock direction, stopping rotating, pushing the drill rod, and enabling the drill rod to move upwards until the included angle between the drill rod and the horizontal line is adjusted to be 3.8 degrees; stopping propelling, rotating the drill rod to drill for 15.03m to reach a second sampling point, and sampling soil and underground water according to the same method. When the second sampling point is completed, the direction of the guide plate is adjusted to be about 0.54 degrees upwards, and the third sampling point is reached by screwing 35.06m, and the method is adopted.
And after sampling is finished, pushing the drill rod into the drill hole, injecting bentonite or cement slurry into the hollow drill rod, and gradually injecting the bentonite or cement slurry until the ground to finish plugging when the drill rod is pulled out one by one.
Effects and effects of the embodiments
According to the inclined soil sampling system related to the embodiment, the technical problem that the existing inclined soil sampling can only be performed vertically and cannot be performed at the present time is solved, the underground inclined soil sampling is realized, the sampling of the soil and the underground water at different positions at the bottom of various landfills, buildings, structures, lakes, rivers, trails, important facilities and the like can be realized, the sampling can be performed at the positions which cannot be sampled in the past, the inclined soil sampling system is an important breakthrough of the soil and underground water environment sampling technology, and the field environment investigation range and the sampling of key areas are greatly expanded.
In addition, the inclined soil sampling system of this embodiment can once drill and gather soil and groundwater sample in different position, different degree of depth departments, has improved work efficiency.
Furthermore, the inclined soil sampling system of the embodiment plugs the drill hole after sampling, and avoids the risk of diffusion and transfer of pollutants along the drill hole.
The above embodiments are preferred examples of the present invention, and are not intended to limit the scope of the present invention.

Claims (6)

1. An inclined soil sampling system for sampling soil from each target formation of at least one different depth in an area requiring investigation of the soil environment at the bottom of a particular target, comprising:
at least one inclined sampling well with different depths, which is arranged corresponding to the sampling points of the target strata with at least one different depth;
a soil sampler disposed in the sampling well; and
a drill bit is arranged on the drill bit body,
wherein the sampling point is located in the target formation, the wellhead of the sampling well is located outside the boundary of a special target,
the soil sampler is arranged at the bottom of the sampling well, which is positioned at the corresponding sampling point,
the inclination angle of the axis of the sampling well and the ground is less than 15 degrees,
the soil sampler comprises a pipe body, a hollow sampling pipe and a connecting piece,
the hollow sampling tube is fixed in the tube body through the connecting piece, one end of the hollow sampling tube is communicated with the front end of the tube body,
one end of the connecting piece is flat mouth-shaped, which is convenient for the connecting piece to rotate, one end of the connecting piece extends into the hollow sampling tube, the other end of the connecting piece is provided with an external thread connected with the tube body, the external thread is used for being in threaded connection with the tube body, the connecting piece is provided with a through hole arranged along the axis,
the drill bit is provided with a guide plate, a guide rod and a signal transmitting rod,
the guide plate is plate-shaped, the front section of the guide plate is pointed, two sides of the front section of the guide plate are respectively provided with a cutting edge line, the included angle between the cutting edge line and the center line of the guide plate is 45-80 degrees, the front end and the side wall of the guide plate are provided with a plurality of water permeable pore canals,
a detection cavity is arranged in the guide rod, and a signal transmitting rod is arranged in the detection cavity.
2. The inclined soil sampling system of claim 1, further comprising:
the movable drilling machine is characterized in that a chassis is arranged at the bottom of the movable drilling machine, a track beam frame and a travelling mechanism arranged on the track beam frame are arranged below the chassis, four hydraulic supports are arranged at four corners of the chassis respectively, during operation, the hydraulic supports extend out of and are supported on the ground, a mast is arranged on the upper portion of the chassis, a power head assembly and a clamping and fixing assembly are arranged on the mast, the mast is fixed on a sliding seat, the bottom of the sliding seat is hinged with a lifting rod, and the mast and the ground can keep a certain angle through adjusting the lifting rod.
3. The inclined soil sampling system of claim 1, further comprising:
the lengths of the drill rods are matched with the well depth of the sampling well, and the adjacent drill rods are connected through threads.
4. The inclined soil sampling system of claim 1, wherein:
the guide plate is made of tungsten steel or manganese alloy materials.
5. The inclined soil sampling system of claim 1, further comprising:
the monitoring instrument is used for receiving ultrasonic signals sent by the signal transmitting rod and displaying the position, the direction and the angle of the drill bit.
6. The inclined soil sampling system of claim 1, wherein:
wherein, the both ends intercommunication of cavity sampling tube, the cavity sampling tube adopts transparent plastics to make.
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