CN110438700B - Finishing equipment and process method for denim fabric capable of being free of ferment bleaching - Google Patents

Finishing equipment and process method for denim fabric capable of being free of ferment bleaching Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110438700B
CN110438700B CN201910706080.5A CN201910706080A CN110438700B CN 110438700 B CN110438700 B CN 110438700B CN 201910706080 A CN201910706080 A CN 201910706080A CN 110438700 B CN110438700 B CN 110438700B
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roller
fabric
cloth
rack
denim
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CN110438700A (en
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邝棣添
胡健球
英小琴
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Kaiping Benda Textile Co ltd
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Kaiping Benda Textile Co ltd
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    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06BTREATING TEXTILE MATERIALS USING LIQUIDS, GASES OR VAPOURS
    • D06B21/00Successive treatments of textile materials by liquids, gases or vapours
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06BTREATING TEXTILE MATERIALS USING LIQUIDS, GASES OR VAPOURS
    • D06B23/00Component parts, details, or accessories of apparatus or machines, specially adapted for the treating of textile materials, not restricted to a particular kind of apparatus, provided for in groups D06B1/00 - D06B21/00
    • D06B23/02Rollers
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06BTREATING TEXTILE MATERIALS USING LIQUIDS, GASES OR VAPOURS
    • D06B23/00Component parts, details, or accessories of apparatus or machines, specially adapted for the treating of textile materials, not restricted to a particular kind of apparatus, provided for in groups D06B1/00 - D06B21/00
    • D06B23/02Rollers
    • D06B23/021Compressive rollers
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06BTREATING TEXTILE MATERIALS USING LIQUIDS, GASES OR VAPOURS
    • D06B23/00Component parts, details, or accessories of apparatus or machines, specially adapted for the treating of textile materials, not restricted to a particular kind of apparatus, provided for in groups D06B1/00 - D06B21/00
    • D06B23/02Rollers
    • D06B23/023Guiding rollers
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06BTREATING TEXTILE MATERIALS USING LIQUIDS, GASES OR VAPOURS
    • D06B23/00Component parts, details, or accessories of apparatus or machines, specially adapted for the treating of textile materials, not restricted to a particular kind of apparatus, provided for in groups D06B1/00 - D06B21/00
    • D06B23/02Rollers
    • D06B23/026Rollers characterised by particular surface features
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06BTREATING TEXTILE MATERIALS USING LIQUIDS, GASES OR VAPOURS
    • D06B23/00Component parts, details, or accessories of apparatus or machines, specially adapted for the treating of textile materials, not restricted to a particular kind of apparatus, provided for in groups D06B1/00 - D06B21/00
    • D06B23/04Carriers or supports for textile materials to be treated

Abstract

The invention relates to the technical field of denim processing, in particular to a fermentation-free bleaching-free denim surface finishing device and a process method. The denim fabric finishing process mainly adopts the diamond peach skin with high wear resistance and special edge and corner specifications, and removes the indigo floating color on the denim fabric in a physical surface friction mode, so that the denim washing water does not need ferment bleaching, and the washing effect required by customers can be met only by general washing, thereby saving a large amount of resources.

Description

Finishing equipment and process method for denim fabric capable of being free of ferment bleaching
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of jean material processing, in particular to a finishing device and a process method of a jean fabric capable of being free of ferment bleaching.
Background
Dyeing is a common process, which means that various dyes and auxiliaries are added in a dyeing machine during dyeing cloth with various colors, and the dyeing quality is affected by different cloth types and different cloth characteristics, such as shrinkage and the like, so that the dyeing process is changed correspondingly. Denim belongs to one of the current popular fabrics, and is dyed by a traditional dyeing method, so that the water consumption is high, and the cost is high.
The denim fabric can wash out various washing effects due to the fading-eliminating characteristic of the indigo dye, is popular with consumers, but the practical pain point of a large amount of sewage generated by washing cannot be volatilized. At present, various washing water of the jean fabric faces to the practical problems that a large amount of chemical substances are needed, the working procedures are multiple, the time and the energy are consumed, the pollution is serious, and the cost is high. Aiming at the current social situation of environmental protection and cost reduction, I has developed a new finishing process aiming at energy conservation and environmental protection of denim fabric.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide finishing equipment and a process method for a denim fabric capable of avoiding ferment bleaching, so as to solve the problems in the background technology.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention provides the following technical scheme:
the utility model provides a can exempt from to ferment and float cowboy fabric finishing equipment, includes the frame, install fabric guide roll, tension regulation compression roller, backing roll and diversion roller in the frame, the both ends in the frame bottom are installed to the fabric guide roll, the both ends at the frame top are installed to the diversion roller, a plurality of backing rolls are installed to the bottom equidistance of frame, a plurality of tension regulation compression rollers are installed to the top equidistance of frame, the tension is adjusted the compression roller and is crisscross the arranging with the backing roll.
As a further scheme of the invention: the supporting roller is wrapped with diamond peach skin, and the diamond peach skin is in an edge-angle specification.
As a further scheme of the invention: the side of frame is provided with actuating mechanism, actuating mechanism is the power supply of fabric guide roll, tension regulation compression roller, backing roll and diversion roller.
A finishing process method of a denim fabric capable of being free of ferment bleaching comprises the following steps:
the method comprises the following steps: and spreading the dyed cloth on a rack, wherein the cloth is input by a cloth guide roller at the front end, then turns backwards by a turning roller at the front end, is spread on a support roller, and then is turned backwards by a turning roller at the rear end and is output by a cloth guide roller at the rear end.
Step two: the driving mechanism is started to drive the cloth guide roller, the tension adjusting compression roller, the supporting roller and the turning roller to move, the cloth guide roller and the turning roller assist in spreading of the cloth, the tension adjusting compression roller enables the cloth to be in a tightening state, diamond polyester peach skin on the supporting roller polishes the denim fabric, and indigo floating color on the denim fabric is removed.
Step three: and (3) performing washing operation, namely putting the rubbed fabric into a clean room, and pouring warm water properly for repeated washing, wherein the washing times are 7-9 times.
Step four: and (3) shaping, namely taking the washed fabric out of the cleaning chamber, spreading the fabric on a bearing plate surface of the shaping chamber, uniformly spraying a softening agent on the surface of the fabric, wherein the shaping temperature is 150-170 ℃, the time is 30-40 s, the liquid carrying rate is 50-65%, and the vehicle speed is 45-50 m/min.
Step five: calendering, wherein high-pressure steam is used for heating treatment, the steam is directly heated, the vehicle speed is 40m/min, the heating temperature is 130-150 ℃, and the pressure is 10-12 MPa;
performing tank steaming operation, namely performing tank steaming by using a tank steaming machine, performing vacuum operation firstly when the tank steaming machine is used, vacuumizing for about 1min, then performing outer steam steaming for 4min, opening a valve knob, discharging residual air for about 1min, and then performing inner steam steaming for 3 min; and after the steaming is finished, discharging residual air, opening the case, and taking out the fabric after the fabric is cooled.
As a further scheme of the invention: the water temperature of the warm water in the third step is 70-85 ℃.
As a further scheme of the invention: the softening agent in the fourth step is formed by mixing sodium benzoate, octamethyltetrasiloxane, sodium stearate, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, sodium oleate, sodium tripolyphosphate and sodium dodecyl sulfate.
As a still further scheme of the invention: and sixthly, when the tank steaming machine works, the steam pressure is 0.2-0.4 MPa.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the beneficial effects that:
compared with the common denim fabric finishing operation process in the prior art, the denim fabric finishing process capable of being rinsed without fermentation mainly adopts diamond peach skin with high wear resistance and special edge specifications, the pressure on the fabric and the feeding and output speed of the fabric are increased and decreased through the tension adjusting compression roller in the production process, the indigo floating color on the denim fabric is removed in a physical surface friction mode, the fabric can be made into approximate color light according to the color light depth requirement of terminal ready-made clothes washing water, the denim washing water is not required to be rinsed by fermentation, the washing effect required by customers can be met only through general washing, a large number of resources are saved, and the consumption of chemicals, water and energy is reduced.
And secondly, the edge angles of the special diamond peach skin sand grains have the advantages of larger working angle, uniform edge angle interval, neat arrangement, consistent working angle and height and the like, so that the depth of the color of the fabric can be controlled more accurately. The jean fabric after the new finishing process has the advantages that the surface sizing agent is removed, the tissue becomes loose, desizing enzyme and softening agent are not needed to be added in the post-finishing process, and meanwhile, the ready-made clothes washing water is not needed or the use of chemical materials such as enzyme, bleaching water and the like is greatly saved.
It is to be understood that both the foregoing general description and the following detailed description are exemplary and explanatory only and are not restrictive of the application.
Drawings
The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated in and constitute a part of this specification, illustrate embodiments consistent with the present application and together with the description, serve to explain the principles of the application. Also, the drawings and the description are not intended to limit the scope of the present concepts in any way, but rather to illustrate the concepts of the present disclosure to those skilled in the art by reference to specific embodiments.
FIG. 1 is a schematic structural diagram of the present invention.
In the figure: 1-a frame, 2-a cloth guide roller, 3-a tension adjusting press roller, 4-a support roller and 5-a turning roller.
Detailed Description
The technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the drawings in the embodiments of the present invention, examples of which are shown in the drawings. When the following description refers to the accompanying drawings, like numbers in different drawings represent the same or similar elements, unless otherwise indicated.
It is to be understood that the described embodiments are merely exemplary of the invention, and not restrictive of the full scope of the invention. All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the embodiments given herein without making any creative effort, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
Referring to fig. 1, the finishing equipment and the process method for the ferment-free denim fabric comprise a rack 1, wherein a cloth guide roller 2, a tension adjusting press roller 3, a support roller 4 and a turning roller 5 are installed on the rack 1, the cloth guide roller 2 is installed at two ends of the bottom of the rack 1, the turning roller 5 is installed at two ends of the top of the rack 1, a plurality of support rollers 4 are installed at the bottom of the rack 1 at equal intervals, a plurality of tension adjusting press rollers 3 are installed at the top of the rack 1 at equal intervals, and the tension adjusting press rollers 3 and the support rollers 4 are arranged in a staggered mode. The side of frame 1 is provided with actuating mechanism, actuating mechanism is the power supply of fabric guide roller 2, tension regulation compression roller 3, backing roll 4 and diversion roller 5.
The supporting roll 4 is wrapped by diamond peach skin, and the diamond peach skin is of a corner type and is made of a highly wear-resistant material.
The first embodiment is as follows:
a finishing process method of a denim fabric capable of being free of ferment bleaching comprises the following steps:
the method comprises the following steps: the dyed cloth is spread on a frame 1, after being input by a cloth guide roller 2 at the front end, the cloth is turned backwards by a turning roller 5 at the front end and is spread on a support roller 4, and after being turned backwards by a turning roller 5 at the rear end, the cloth is output by the cloth guide roller 2 at the rear end.
Step two: the driving mechanism is started to drive the cloth guide roller 2, the tension adjusting compression roller 3, the supporting roller 4 and the turning roller 5 to move, the cloth guide roller 2 and the turning roller 5 assist in spreading the cloth, the tension adjusting compression roller 3 enables the cloth to be in a tightening state, diamond polyester peach skin on the supporting roller 4 polishes the denim fabric, and indigo floating color on the denim fabric is removed.
Step three: and (3) performing washing operation, namely putting the rubbed fabric into a clean room, and pouring warm water properly for repeated washing, wherein the washing times are 7-9 times.
Step four: and (3) shaping, namely taking the washed fabric out of the cleaning chamber, spreading the fabric on a bearing plate surface of the shaping chamber, uniformly spraying a softening agent on the surface of the fabric, wherein the shaping temperature is 150-170 ℃, the time is 30-40 s, the liquid carrying rate is 50-65%, and the vehicle speed is 45-50 m/min.
Step five: calendering, wherein high-pressure steam is used for heating treatment, the steam is directly heated, the vehicle speed is 40m/min, the heating temperature is 130-150 ℃, and the pressure is 10-12 MPa;
performing tank steaming operation, namely performing tank steaming by using a tank steaming machine, performing vacuum operation firstly when the tank steaming machine is used, vacuumizing for about 1min, then performing outer steam steaming for 4min, opening a valve knob, discharging residual air for about 1min, and then performing inner steam steaming for 3 min; and after the steaming is finished, discharging residual air, opening the case, and taking out the fabric after the fabric is cooled.
The water temperature of the warm water in the third step is 70-85 ℃.
The softening agent in the fourth step is formed by mixing sodium benzoate, octamethyltetrasiloxane, sodium stearate, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, sodium oleate, sodium tripolyphosphate and sodium dodecyl sulfate.
And sixthly, when the tank steaming machine works, the steam pressure is 0.2-0.4 MPa.
Example two:
the embodiment is further optimized as an embodiment, and on the basis of the further optimization, the finishing process method of the ferment-free denim fabric comprises the following steps:
the method comprises the following steps: the dyed cloth is spread on a frame 1, after being input by a cloth guide roller 2 at the front end, the cloth is turned backwards by a turning roller 5 at the front end and is spread on a support roller 4, and after being turned backwards by a turning roller 5 at the rear end, the cloth is output by the cloth guide roller 2 at the rear end.
Step two: the driving mechanism is started to drive the cloth guide roller 2, the tension adjusting compression roller 3, the supporting roller 4 and the turning roller 5 to move, the cloth guide roller 2 and the turning roller 5 assist in spreading the cloth, the tension adjusting compression roller 3 enables the cloth to be in a tightening state, diamond polyester peach skin on the supporting roller 4 polishes the denim fabric, and indigo floating color on the denim fabric is removed.
Step three: and (3) performing washing operation, namely putting the rubbed fabric into a clean room, pouring warm water appropriately for repeated washing, wherein the washing times are 7-9 times, and the temperature of the warm water is 70-85 ℃.
Step four: and (3) shaping, namely taking the washed fabric out of the cleaning chamber, spreading the fabric on a bearing plate surface of the shaping chamber, uniformly spraying a softening agent on the surface of the fabric, wherein the shaping temperature is 150-170 ℃, the time is 30-40 s, the liquid carrying rate is 50-65%, and the vehicle speed is 45-50 m/min.
Step five: calendering, wherein high-pressure steam is used for heating treatment, the steam is directly heated, the vehicle speed is 40m/min, the heating temperature is 130-150 ℃, and the pressure is 10-12 MPa;
performing tank steaming operation, namely performing tank steaming by using a tank steaming machine, wherein the steam pressure is 0.2-0.4 MPa, performing vacuum operation for about 1min, performing outer steam steaming for 4min, opening a valve knob, discharging residual air for about 1min, and performing inner steam steaming for 3 min; and after the steaming is finished, discharging residual air, opening the case, and taking out the fabric after the fabric is cooled.
Example three:
the embodiment is an embodiment and further optimized, and on the basis, the method comprises the following steps:
the method comprises the following steps: the dyed cloth is spread on a frame 1, after being input by a cloth guide roller 2 at the front end, the cloth is turned backwards by a turning roller 5 at the front end and is spread on a support roller 4, and after being turned backwards by a turning roller 5 at the rear end, the cloth is output by the cloth guide roller 2 at the rear end.
Step two: the driving mechanism is started to drive the cloth guide roller 2, the tension adjusting compression roller 3, the supporting roller 4 and the turning roller 5 to move, the cloth guide roller 2 and the turning roller 5 assist in spreading the cloth, the tension adjusting compression roller 3 enables the cloth to be in a tightening state, diamond polyester peach skin on the supporting roller 4 polishes the denim fabric, and indigo floating color on the denim fabric is removed.
Step three: and (3) performing washing operation, namely putting the rubbed fabric into a clean room, pouring warm water appropriately for repeated washing, wherein the washing times are 7-9 times, and the temperature of the warm water is 70-85 ℃.
Step four: and (3) shaping, namely taking the washed fabric out of the cleaning chamber, spreading the fabric on a bearing plate surface of the shaping chamber, uniformly spraying a softening agent on the surface of the fabric, wherein the shaping temperature is 150-170 ℃, the time is 30-40 s, the liquid carrying rate is 50-65%, and the vehicle speed is 45-50 m/min.
The softening agent is prepared by mixing sodium benzoate, octamethyltetrasiloxane, sodium stearate, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, sodium oleate, sodium tripolyphosphate and sodium dodecyl sulfate
Step five: calendering, wherein high-pressure steam is used for heating treatment, the steam is directly heated, the vehicle speed is 40m/min, the heating temperature is 130-150 ℃, and the pressure is 10-12 MPa;
performing tank steaming operation, namely performing tank steaming by using a tank steaming machine, performing vacuum operation firstly when the tank steaming machine is used, vacuumizing for about 1min, then performing outer steam steaming for 4min, opening a valve knob, discharging residual air for about 1min, and then performing inner steam steaming for 3 min; and after the steaming is finished, discharging residual air, opening the case, and taking out the fabric after the fabric is cooled.
Comparative example one, the existing denim general cleaning process includes: pickling, soaping, washing, shaping, calendering, steaming and the like.
Comparison by wash test (light wash version): after the novel energy-saving and environment-friendly finishing process, the same effect is achieved, and compared with the washing water of the traditional denim fabric, the washing water is saved as follows: can save 20 percent of water, 26 percent of chemical materials, 47 percent of time, 50 percent of electricity and 20 percent of steam. (according to the big goods production 100 pieces jeans, jar calculation)
Compared with the common denim fabric finishing operation process in the prior art, the application can be used for the fermentation-free rinsing denim fabric finishing process, the diamond peach skin velvet with high wear resistance and special edge and corner specifications is mainly adopted, the pressure on the fabric and the feeding and the output speed of the fabric are increased and decreased through the tension adjusting compression roller in the production process, the indigo floating color on the denim fabric is removed in a physical surface friction mode, the color light depth requirement of terminal ready-made clothes washing water can be met, the fabric can be close in color light, the denim washing water is not required to be subjected to fermentation rinsing, the washing effect required by customers can be met only through general washing, a large amount of resources are saved, and chemicals, water and energy consumption are reduced. The edge angles of the special diamond peach skin sand grains have the advantages of larger working angles, uniform edge angle intervals, regular arrangement, consistent working angles and heights and the like, so that the depth of the color of the fabric can be controlled more accurately. The jean fabric after the new finishing process has the advantages that the surface sizing agent is removed, the tissue becomes loose, desizing enzyme and softening agent are not needed to be added in the post-finishing process, and meanwhile, the ready-made clothes washing water is not needed or the use of chemical materials such as enzyme, bleaching water and the like is greatly saved.
It will be evident to those skilled in the art that the invention is not limited to the details of the foregoing illustrative embodiments, and that the present invention may be embodied in other specific forms without departing from the spirit or essential attributes thereof. The present embodiments are therefore to be considered in all respects as illustrative and not restrictive, the scope of the invention being indicated by the appended claims rather than by the foregoing description, and all changes which come within the meaning and range of equivalency of the claims are therefore intended to be embraced therein. Any reference sign in a claim should not be construed as limiting the claim concerned.
Furthermore, it should be understood that although the present description refers to embodiments, not every embodiment may contain only a single embodiment, and such description is for clarity only, and those skilled in the art should integrate the description, and the embodiments may be combined as appropriate to form other embodiments understood by those skilled in the art.

Claims (4)

1. A finishing process method of a denim fabric capable of being free of ferment bleaching is characterized by comprising the following steps:
the cloth guide roller type cloth feeding machine comprises a rack (1), wherein a cloth guide roller (2), a tension adjusting compression roller (3), a supporting roller (4) and a turning roller (5) are installed on the rack (1), the cloth guide roller (2) is installed at two ends of the bottom of the rack (1), the turning roller (5) is installed at two ends of the top of the rack (1), a plurality of supporting rollers (4) are installed at the bottom of the rack (1) in an equal distance, a plurality of tension adjusting compression rollers (3) are installed at the top of the rack (1) in an equal distance, and the tension adjusting compression rollers (3) and the supporting rollers (4) are arranged in a staggered mode; the supporting roller (4) is wrapped with diamond peach skin, and the diamond peach skin adopts a corner specification; a driving mechanism is arranged on the side edge of the rack (1), and the driving mechanism is a power source of the cloth guide roller (2), the tension adjusting press roller (3), the support roller (4) and the turning roller (5);
the method comprises the following steps:
the method comprises the following steps: spreading the dyed cloth on a rack (1), wherein the cloth is input by a cloth guide roller (2) at the front end, then turns backward by a turning roller (5) at the front end, is spread on a support roller (4), and then turns backward by a turning roller (5) at the rear end, and is output by the cloth guide roller (2) at the rear end;
step two: starting a driving mechanism to drive a cloth guide roller (2), a tension adjusting compression roller (3), a support roller (4) and a turning roller (5) to move, wherein the cloth guide roller (2) and the turning roller (5) assist in spreading the cloth, the tension adjusting compression roller (3) enables the cloth to be in a tightened state, diamond peach skin on the support roller (4) polishes the denim fabric, and indigo floating color on the denim fabric is removed;
step three: washing, namely putting the rubbed fabric into a clean room, pouring warm water properly for repeated washing, wherein the washing frequency is 7-9 times;
step four: the fabric is taken out of the cleaning chamber, spread on a bearing plate surface of the sizing chamber, and uniformly sprayed with a softening agent on the surface of the fabric, wherein the sizing temperature is 150-170 ℃, the time is 30-40 s, the liquid carrying rate is 50-65%, and the vehicle speed is 45-50 m/min;
step five: calendering, wherein high-pressure steam is used for heating treatment, the steam is directly heated, the vehicle speed is 40m/min, the heating temperature is 130-150 ℃, and the pressure is 10-12 MPa;
performing tank steaming operation, namely performing tank steaming by using a tank steaming machine, performing vacuum operation firstly when the tank steaming machine is used, vacuumizing for 1min, then performing outer steam steaming for 4min, opening a valve knob, discharging residual air for 1min, and then performing inner steam steaming for 3 min; and after the steaming is finished, discharging residual air, opening the case, and taking out the fabric after the fabric is cooled.
2. The finishing process method of the ferment-free denim fabric according to the claim 1, characterized in that the temperature of the warm water in the third step is 70-85 ℃.
3. The finishing process of the ferment-free denim fabric according to claim 1, wherein the softener in the fourth step is prepared by mixing sodium benzoate, octamethyltetrasiloxane, sodium stearate, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, sodium oleate, sodium tripolyphosphate and sodium dodecyl sulfate.
4. The finishing process method of the ferment-free denim fabric according to the claim 1, wherein in the sixth step, when the tank steaming machine works, the steam pressure is 0.2-0.4 MPa.
CN201910706080.5A 2019-08-01 2019-08-01 Finishing equipment and process method for denim fabric capable of being free of ferment bleaching Active CN110438700B (en)

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CN104630967A (en) * 2013-11-11 2015-05-20 青岛鑫益发工贸有限公司 Hand feeling finishing method for denim fabric
HK1198794A2 (en) * 2015-01-05 2015-06-05 達豐紡織印染有限公司 Production process and production line for eco-friendly denim
CN108385405A (en) * 2018-02-22 2018-08-10 黑牡丹纺织有限公司 There is the indigo denim fabric production method that the age is felt

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