CN110216425B - Machining method for precisely machining variable-groove-width threads through single teeth - Google Patents

Machining method for precisely machining variable-groove-width threads through single teeth Download PDF

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CN110216425B
CN110216425B CN201910525349.XA CN201910525349A CN110216425B CN 110216425 B CN110216425 B CN 110216425B CN 201910525349 A CN201910525349 A CN 201910525349A CN 110216425 B CN110216425 B CN 110216425B
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width
thread
variable
workpiece
groove
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CN110216425A (en
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刘安民
陈雪林
刘伟
周唯
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Hunan Institute of Technology
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23PMETAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; COMBINED OPERATIONS; UNIVERSAL MACHINE TOOLS
    • B23P15/00Making specific metal objects by operations not covered by a single other subclass or a group in this subclass

Abstract

The invention discloses a processing method for precisely processing variable-groove wide threads by single teeth; the invention establishes the compensation of the motion path between the large-size oil pipe and the single-tooth cutter based on the geometric shape of the variable-groove-width thread, completes the rough machining and the finish machining of the internal thread simultaneously, and improves the machining efficiency of the variable-groove-width thread.

Description

Machining method for precisely machining variable-groove-width threads through single teeth
The technical field is as follows:
the invention relates to the field of machining, in particular to a machining method for precisely machining variable-groove-width threads by single teeth.
Background art:
the variable-groove-width threaded connection of the oil pipe or the air pipe not only needs tight connection threads and has higher strength, but also needs higher sealing performance, and thus, higher requirements are provided for the processing precision of the variable-groove-width threads. At present, turning is taken as an effective method for efficiently machining threads, but because the length of an oil pipe is large and exceeds 15 meters, the diameter is large and exceeds 0.5 meter, in the existing machining process, a comb-tooth cutter is adopted for turning, but a machine tool is required to clamp large-size oil pipe threads to rotate for turning, so that the movement chain transmission and the balance weight ratio of the machine tool are changed, machining errors are caused, and the machining precision is restrained. The invention provides a processing method for precisely processing a variable-groove-width thread by a single tooth, which establishes the compensation of a motion path between a large-size oil pipe and a single-tooth cutter on the basis of the geometric shape of the variable-groove-width thread and simultaneously completes the rough processing and the finish processing of an internal thread. The invention can effectively reduce the cost of the processing cutter and improve the processing efficiency.
The invention content is as follows:
the invention discloses a processing method for precisely processing variable-groove wide threads by single teeth; the invention establishes the compensation of the motion path between the large-size oil pipe and the single-tooth cutter based on the geometric shape of the variable-groove-width thread, and simultaneously completes the rough machining and the finish machining of the internal thread.
In order to solve the problems, the technical scheme of the invention is as follows:
a processing method for precisely processing variable-groove-width threads by single teeth comprises the following steps;
the method comprises the following steps of firstly, obtaining a preset relative position of a cutter and a workpiece before clamping the workpiece; respectively installing a non-contact sensor at the center of a workbench and a cutter of a machine tool, and detecting to obtain the actual relative position of the cutter and the workpiece after the workpiece is clamped;
obtaining relative positions and angle errors of the cutter and the workpiece before and after the workpiece is clamped; compensating relative position and angle errors of a cutter and a workpiece before and after the workpiece is clamped by a control program of a machine tool;
step three, processing of variable groove width thread size: in the given variable-slot-width thread, the minimum width b of the variable-slot-width thread is obtained according to the design parameters of the variable-slot-width thread1Maximum width b2Minimum depth h of variable groove width thread1Maximum depth h2Obtaining the length l of the thread with variable groove width0(ii) a The width b (x) and depth h (x) of the thread at a distance x from the initial end of the thread are respectively:
step four, determining the parameters of a cutter for processing the variable-groove-width threads: carrying out turning and milling composite processing by adopting a single-tooth cutter: a machine tool clamp clamps a workpiece, a cutter moves along a variable groove width thread path under the control of a machine tool control system to perform turning motion, and the cutter performs self-rotation motion under the action of a machine tool electric spindle to perform milling motion; the cutter is a disc milling cutter; the disc milling cutter carries out turning and milling combined machining, wherein the maximum width of a part used for machining in the disc milling cutter is the minimum width b of the variable-groove-width thread1The minimum depth of the machining part in the disc milling cutter is the maximum depth h of the variable groove width thread2(ii) a I.e. the major cutting edge length of the insert is b1The length of the minor cutting edge is h2Therefore, the processing of the variable groove width thread depth is completed by one-time processing, and the rough processing and the finish processing of the thread are realized;
step five, controlling the machining motion path of the variable-groove-width thread: because in the processing of the thread with the variable groove width, the bladeIs set to the minimum width b of the variable groove width thread1The thread of the width of the remaining portion needs to be machined further, so that an optimized machining path is carried out:
the first procedure is as follows: disc milling cutter with width b under control of machine tool control system1Machining along the thread curve to complete the thread width b1The depth of the thread is realized by controlling the cutting depth in a machine tool control system according to the change of a thread depth curve;
the second procedure: calculating the maximum width b of the remaining thread to be processed3
1) If b is3Lower than b1Then, under the effect of the machine tool control system, the cutting width is controlled to change along with the thread path according to the following rule:similarly, the cutting depth is controlled according to the depth control in the first procedure, and the processing of the variable-groove-width thread is completed;
2) if b is3Greater than b1Then calculate the machining path l1At the time of cutting, the remaining cutting width of the thread is b1Is greater than path l1The remaining cutting width of the thread is less than b1Under the action of the machine tool control system, the widest position of the thread is taken as a point 0, and the thread path is 0-l1All according to the cutting width b1Is processed, path l1The cutting width from the initial end of the thread is changed according to the following rule:the cutting depth is controlled according to the depth in the first procedure to process the variable-groove-width thread;
the third procedure: analyzing thread paths 0-l1If the maximum remaining processing width of the thread is less than b1Finishing the processing of the thread by using a second procedure 1); if the maximum remaining processing width of the thread is greater than b1Then processing is carried out by using the second working procedure 2);
and (3) repeating the steps 1), 2) and the third procedure until the processing of the variable-groove-width thread is completed.
In a further improvement, the workpiece is an oil pipe or an air pipe.
In a further improvement, the arc radius of the cutting edge of the blade on the disc milling cutter is 0.3 mm.
The further improvement is that the preset relative position of the cutter and the workpiece before the workpiece is clamped is obtained by a control system of the machine tool.
Establishing a coordinate system o-x-y-z, testing and obtaining actual positions of the cutter and the workpiece under different conditions under a universal coordinate system, namely on a worktable of the machine tool, taking the vertical direction as the z direction, the cutting feed motion of the cutter as the y direction, the cutting depth direction of the cutter as the x direction, and setting the displacement error of ξ in the x direction after the machine tool clamps the workpiecexY-direction displacement error is ξyError in z-direction displacement of ξzThe angular error of the yaw movement in the x-z plane of the machine spindle is ζxzThe error of the rotation angle of the chuck for clamping the workpiece is ζxzd
Recognition of machine tool error includes ideal tool-workpiece relative position P't-P'wThe x, y and z direction positions and angles are respectively as follows: delta x'w-t,Δy'w-t,Δz'w-t,θ'yz;P′tIndicating the position of the tool reference point in the unmounted workpiece under the common coordinate system o-x-y-z, Pw' denotes the position of a workpiece reference point in the unmounted workpiece under the common coordinate system o-x-y-z; actual tool-to-workpiece relative position Pt-PwThe x, y and z direction positions and angles are respectively as follows: Δ xw-t,Δyw-t,Δzw-t,θyz,PtRepresenting the position of the tool reference point after mounting the workpiece, P, in the common coordinate system o-x-y-zwRepresenting the position of a workpiece reference point under the universal coordinate system o-x-y-z after the workpiece is installed; the relative position and angle error of the front and rear cutters and the workpiece are respectively as follows:
ξx=Δx'w-t-Δxw-t
ξy=Δy'w-t-Δyw-t
ξz=Δz'w-t-Δzw-t
ζyz=θ'yzyz(1)
compensating for tool adjustment errors ξ through machine tool internalsx,ξy,ξzAnd the displacement error and the angle error zeta are increased on the basis of the original control motionxzMotion compensation is performed.
Drawings
The accompanying drawings, which are included to provide a further understanding of the invention and are incorporated in and constitute a part of this specification, illustrate embodiments of the invention and together with the description serve to explain the invention without limiting the invention. In the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of a displacement and angle error model of the relative position of a tool and a workpiece before and after modification in a universal coordinate system;
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of a variable slot width thread;
fig. 3 is a schematic view of the blade structure of the disc milling cutter.
The specific implementation mode is as follows:
the embodiments of the present invention will be described in further detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings, and it should be understood that the embodiments described herein are for purposes of illustration and explanation, and are not intended to limit the invention.
(1) After the machine tool is modified and a large-size oil pipe is loaded, the balance weight ratio and the transmission chain response of the machine tool are changed, and the machine tool has large influence on static errors and machining motion errors. Before the machining center is modified, the errors of assembly, static state and the like of the machining center are tested and compensated through an internal program, and the actual relative position P of the tool and the workpiece after modification is obtained on the basis of the errorst-PwAt a predetermined relative position Pt'-Pw' position and angle error. The preset relative position of the cutter and the workpiece can be obtained by measuring the relative position of the cutter and the workpiece before modification, the actual relative position of the modified cutter and the workpiece can be obtained by measuring the relative position of the modified cutter and the workpiece, and the actual position between the cutter and the workpiece is obtained by non-contactA touch pair of sensors, one sensor disposed on the table and the other sensor disposed at the center of the tool, for detecting the relative position of the workpiece and the center of the tool. As shown in fig. 1.
Firstly, defining the error of the machine tool, and setting the displacement error in the x direction as ξxY-direction displacement error is ξyError in z-direction displacement of ξzThe angular error of the yaw movement in the x-z plane of the machine spindle is ζxzThe error of the rotation angle of the chuck for clamping the large-size oil pipe is zetaxzd
In the recognition of machine tool errors, the ideal tool-workpiece relative position Pt'-PwThe x, y, z direction positions and angles of' are respectively: delta x'w-t,Δy'w-t,Δz'w-t,θ'yz. Actual tool-to-workpiece relative position Pt-PwThe x, y and z direction positions and angles are respectively as follows: Δ xw-t,Δyw-t,Δzw-t,θyz. The relative position and angle errors of the front and rear cutters and the workpiece for clamping the large-size oil pipe are respectively as follows:
the error caused by the part is compensated by the tool setting adjustment in the machine tool, and the displacement and angle error is increased on the basis of the original control movement.
(2) And (4) processing the dimension of the variable-groove-width thread. In a given variable slot width thread, the minimum width b of the variable slot width thread can be obtained according to design parameters1Maximum width b2Minimum depth h of variable groove width thread1Maximum depth h2The specific thread schematic is shown in fig. 2. In order to ensure that the threaded connection is installed tightly and reliably, the thread depth and the width of the variable-groove-width thread are changed linearly, and the change is the distance from the initial end of the thread to the end of the thread around the oil pipe along the threaded bolt along the length (thread distance) of the thread. According to the design parameters of the variable-groove-width thread, the length l of the variable-groove-width thread can be obtained0. Then away from the start of the threadThe distance between the ends is x, the width b (x) and the depth h (x) of the thread are respectively:
(3) and machining the parameters of the cutter for the variable-groove-width threads. In the processing of the variable groove width thread, because the traditional processing method of the variable groove width thread is to adopt a comb-tooth cutter to carry out turning processing, the width and the depth of the variable groove width thread are difficult to accurately and precisely process and smoothly transit. Secondly, because the oil pipe is long, the clamp is difficult to clamp the middle position of the oil pipe, the machine tool clamps the large-size oil pipe to rotate, eccentric motion of a workpiece in machining is caused, and machining precision of the oil pipe is reduced. The turning and milling composite processing is carried out by adopting a single-tooth cutter to solve the problems, and the turning and milling composite processing method specifically comprises the following steps: the machine tool clamp clamps a large-size oil pipe, the cutter moves along a variable-groove wide thread path under the control of a machine tool control system to perform turning movement, and the cutter performs self-rotation movement under the action of an electric spindle of the machine tool to perform milling movement. Performing turning and milling composite processing by adopting a disc milling cutter, wherein the maximum width of a processing part in the disc milling cutter is the minimum width b of the variable-groove-width thread1The minimum depth of the part for machining in the disc milling cutter is the maximum depth h of the thread with the variable groove width2. Meanwhile, the arc radius of the cutting edge of the blade mounted on the disc milling cutter head is 0.3mm, because the depth of the thread changes in the processing of different variable groove width threads, and if the transition radius of the cutting edge is small, the transition chip edge is easy to break, and if the transition radius is large, the smooth transition between the bottom surface and the side surface of the thread is difficult to meet. Setting the length of the main cutting edge of a disc milling cutter blade to b1The length of the minor cutting edge is h2The variable groove type thread depth machining can be completed in one time, the rough machining and the finish machining of the thread are realized, the machining efficiency is improved, and the length of the secondary cutting edge is set to meet the requirement of minimum-width variable groove width machining.
(4) BecomeAnd controlling the motion path of the groove width thread machining. In the variable-groove-width thread processing, the width of the blade is set to be the minimum width b of the variable-groove-width thread1And the thread with the width of the rest part needs to be processed continuously, and the optimized processing path provided by the invention is as follows:
the first procedure is as follows: disc milling cutter with width b under control of machine tool control system1Machining along the thread curve, which completes the thread width b1The depth of the thread is changed according to the step (2) and the cutting depth is controlled by a machine tool control system to realize the machining.
The second procedure: after the first procedure is finished, calculating the maximum width b of the rest thread to be processed3
1. If the maximum width is less than b1Then, under the effect of the machine tool control system, the cutting width is controlled to change along with the thread path according to the following rule:and similarly, the cutting depth is controlled according to the depth control in the first process, and the processing of the variable-groove-width thread is completed.
2. If the maximum width is greater than b1Then calculate the machining path l1At the time of cutting, the remaining cutting width of the thread is b1Is greater than path l1The remaining cutting width of the thread is less than b1Then, under the action of the machine tool control system, at thread paths 0-l1All according to the cutting width b1Is processed, path l1The cutting width from the end of the thread varies according to the following law:and the cutting depth is controlled according to the depth in the first process to process the variable-groove-width thread.
3. Analyzing thread paths 0-l1If the maximum remaining processing width of the thread is less than b1The thread is processed by the second procedure 1; if the maximum remaining processing width of the thread is greater than b1Then refer to the second step 2 to process, and then according to the remaining snailWidth of the pattern and b1In relation, reference 3 is made to thread machining.
The main purpose of the above procedures is to avoid processing errors caused by the movement of the processed workpiece and the reciprocating motion of the cutter, and improve the processing precision.
The foregoing shows and describes the general principles, essential features, and advantages of the invention. The protection scope of the present invention is not limited to the above embodiments, and all technical solutions belonging to the idea of the present invention belong to the protection scope of the present invention. It should be noted that modifications and embellishments within the scope of the invention may occur to those skilled in the art without departing from the principle of the invention, and are considered to be within the scope of the invention.

Claims (5)

1. A processing method for precisely processing variable-groove-width threads by single teeth is characterized by comprising the following steps;
the method comprises the following steps of firstly, obtaining a preset relative position of a cutter and a workpiece before clamping the workpiece; respectively installing a non-contact sensor at the center of a workbench and a cutter of a machine tool, and detecting to obtain the actual relative position of the cutter and the workpiece after the workpiece is clamped;
obtaining relative positions and angle errors of the cutter and the workpiece before and after the workpiece is clamped; compensating relative position and angle errors of a cutter and a workpiece before and after the workpiece is clamped by a control program of a machine tool;
step three, processing of variable groove width thread size: the thread depth and width change of the variable-groove-width thread are linear changes, and in the given variable-groove-width thread, the minimum width b of the variable-groove-width thread is obtained according to the design parameters of the variable-groove-width thread1Maximum width b2Minimum depth h of variable groove width thread1Maximum depth h2Obtaining the length l of the thread with variable groove width0(ii) a The width b (x) and depth h (x) of the thread at a distance x from the initial end of the thread are respectively:
step four, determining the parameters of a cutter for processing the variable-groove-width threads: carrying out turning and milling composite processing by adopting a single-tooth cutter: a machine tool clamp clamps a workpiece, a cutter moves along a variable groove width thread path under the control of a machine tool control system to perform turning motion, and the cutter performs self-rotation motion under the action of a machine tool electric spindle to perform milling motion; the cutter is a disc milling cutter; the disc milling cutter carries out turning and milling combined machining, wherein the maximum width of a part used for machining in the disc milling cutter is the minimum width b of the variable-groove-width thread1The minimum depth of the machining part in the disc milling cutter is the maximum depth h of the variable groove width thread2(ii) a I.e. the major cutting edge length of the insert is b1The length of the minor cutting edge is h2Therefore, the processing of the variable groove width thread depth is completed by one-time processing, and the rough processing and the finish processing of the thread are realized;
step five, controlling the machining motion path of the variable-groove-width thread: in the variable-groove-width thread processing, the width of the blade is set to be the minimum width b of the variable-groove-width thread1The thread of the width of the remaining portion needs to be machined further, so that an optimized machining path is carried out:
the first procedure is as follows: disc milling cutter with width b under control of machine tool control system1Machining along the thread curve to complete the thread width b1The depth of the thread is realized by controlling the cutting depth in a machine tool control system according to the change of a thread depth curve;
the second procedure: calculating the maximum width b of the remaining thread to be processed3
1) If b is3Lower than b1Then, under the effect of the machine tool control system, the cutting width is controlled to change along with the thread path according to the following rule:similarly, the cutting depth control is carried out according to the depth control in the first process, and the processing of the variable-groove-width thread is completed;
2) If b is3Greater than b1Then calculate the machining path l1At the time of cutting, the remaining cutting width of the thread is b1Is greater than path l1The remaining cutting width of the thread is less than b1Under the action of the machine tool control system, the widest position of the thread is taken as a point 0, and the thread path is 0-l1All according to the cutting width b1Is processed, path l1The cutting width from the initial end of the thread is changed according to the following rule:l1≤x1≤l0the cutting depth control is used for processing the variable-groove-width thread according to the depth control in the first procedure;
the third procedure: analyzing thread paths 0-l1If the maximum remaining processing width of the thread is less than b1Finishing the processing of the thread by using a second procedure 1); if the maximum remaining processing width of the thread is greater than b1Then processing is carried out by using the second working procedure 2);
and (3) repeating the steps 1), 2) and the third procedure until the processing of the variable-groove-width thread is completed.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the workpiece is an oil pipe or an air pipe.
3. A method of precision machining a variable groove width single tooth thread according to claim 1 wherein the radius of the arc of the cutting edge of the insert on the disc cutter is 0.3 mm.
4. A method of single-tooth precision finishing variable-slot-width threads as claimed in claim 1, wherein the predetermined relative position of the tool and the workpiece before clamping the workpiece is obtained by the control system of the machine itself.
5. The method of claim 1 for precision machining variable-slot-width threads with single toothEstablishing a coordinate system o-x-y-z, testing and obtaining actual positions of the tool and the workpiece under different conditions under a universal coordinate system, namely on a machine tool workbench, taking the vertical direction as the z direction, the cutting feed motion of the tool as the y direction, the cutting depth direction of the tool as the x direction, and setting the displacement error of the machine tool in the x direction to be ξ after clamping the workpiecexY-direction displacement error is ξyError in z-direction displacement of ξzThe angular error of the yaw movement in the x-z plane of the machine spindle is ζxzThe error of the rotation angle of the chuck for clamping the workpiece is ζxzd
Recognition of machine tool error includes ideal tool-workpiece relative position P't-P′wThe x, y and z direction positions and angles are respectively as follows: delta x'w-t,Δy′w-t,Δz′w-t,θ′yz;P′tRepresenting the position of the tool reference point in the unmounted workpiece, P 'under the common coordinate system o-x-y-z'wIndicating the position of a workpiece reference point in the universal coordinate system o-x-y-z at the unmounted workpiece; actual tool-to-workpiece relative position Pt-PwThe x, y and z direction positions and angles are respectively as follows: Δ xw-t,Δyw-t,Δzw-t,θyz,PtRepresenting the position of the tool reference point after mounting the workpiece, P, in the common coordinate system o-x-y-zwRepresenting the position of a workpiece reference point under the universal coordinate system o-x-y-z after the workpiece is installed; the relative position and angle error of the front and rear cutters and the workpiece are respectively as follows:
ξx=Δx′w-t-Δxw-t
ξy=Δy′w-t-Δyw-t
ξz=Δz′w-t-Δzw-t
ζyz=θ′yzyz(1)
compensating for tool adjustment errors ξ through machine tool internalsx,ξy,ξzAnd the displacement error and the angle error zeta are increased on the basis of the original control motionxzMotion compensation is performed.
CN201910525349.XA 2019-06-18 2019-06-18 Machining method for precisely machining variable-groove-width threads through single teeth Active CN110216425B (en)

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US4144795A (en) * 1977-10-20 1979-03-20 Gutshall Charles E Long-pitch re-rolled crest thread
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