CN109988964A - Ductile cast iron material, preparation method and application - Google Patents

Ductile cast iron material, preparation method and application Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109988964A
CN109988964A CN201711480940.5A CN201711480940A CN109988964A CN 109988964 A CN109988964 A CN 109988964A CN 201711480940 A CN201711480940 A CN 201711480940A CN 109988964 A CN109988964 A CN 109988964A
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China
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iron
melt
ductile cast
weight
cast iron
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徐良
查明晖
毛恒杰
李娄明
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CHANGZHOU LANGRUI CASTING CO LTD
CRRC Qishuyan Institute Co Ltd
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CRRC Qishuyan Institute Co Ltd
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C33/00Making ferrous alloys
    • C22C33/08Making cast-iron alloys
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C37/00Cast-iron alloys
    • C22C37/04Cast-iron alloys containing spheroidal graphite
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C37/00Cast-iron alloys
    • C22C37/10Cast-iron alloys containing aluminium or silicon

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  • Chemical & Material Sciences (AREA)
  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Materials Engineering (AREA)
  • Mechanical Engineering (AREA)
  • Metallurgy (AREA)
  • Organic Chemistry (AREA)
  • Refinement Of Pig-Iron, Manufacture Of Cast Iron, And Steel Manufacture Other Than In Revolving Furnaces (AREA)

Abstract

The present invention provides a kind of ductile cast iron material, preparation method and applications.By weight percentage, ductile cast iron material include: carbon 3.40%~3.70%, silicon 2.40%~2.70%, manganese 0.30%~0.50%, phosphorus≤0.03%, sulphur≤0.03%, copper 0.30%~0.50%, vanadium 0.04%~0.06%, surplus be iron and other inevitable impurity.Not the problem of not containing titanium elements in the ductile cast iron material of the application, therefore avoiding the anti-nodularization caused by it.Alloy adds type and addition content through reasonable settings simultaneously, the especially content of strict control manganese, copper and vanadium, the spheroidal graphite cast-iron chemical composition of acquisition is simple, metallographic structure photo shows that metallographic structure is pearlite+ferritic structure, its as cast condition tensile strength >=640MPa, as cast condition elongation after fracture >=9%, intensity and toughness good combination property are suitable for manufacture rail traffic components.

Description

Ductile cast iron material, preparation method and application
Technical field
The present invention relates to cast iron materials fields, in particular to a kind of ductile cast iron material, preparation method and answer With.
Background technique
Currently, common spheroidal graphite cast-iron standard brand has: QT400-18, QT450-10, QT500-7, QT600-3, QT700-2 etc., wherein QT600-3 is used for coin rail traffic components more;But as train is to the more stable, speed of operation The raising required faster, higher and higher to the performance requirement of related components, traditional QT600-3 is no longer satisfied use It is required that therefore take into account high toughness plasticity while guaranteeing the strength of materials, it appears it is very necessary.
It is also relatively more about the research of high-strength and high ductility ductile cast iron material in the prior art, but obtained properties of product Fluctuation is big, production stability is poor.For example application number 201310212573.6 is that Chinese patent literature discloses a kind of vanadium titanium spheroidal graphite Castiron Melting method, the V Ti nodular cast iron chemical component obtained after casting are as follows: C3.47%, Si2.8%, Mn0.25%, P0.061%, S0.036%, V0.118%, Ti0.03%, Re0.061%, Mg0.055%, nodulizing grade reach 2~3 grades, casting State tissue is 85%F+15%P, and tensile strength sigma b is 480MPa, and elongation δ is 14%.During application number 201410222961.7 is State's patent document discloses a kind of vanadium titanium ferrite ductile cast iron and preparation method thereof, based on mass percentage comprising with Lower chemical component, C:3.3~3.6%, Si:3.0~3.4%, V:0.12~0.18%, Ti:0.05~0.10%, RE:0.040 ~0.060%, Mg:0.040~0.060%, Mn:0.0%~0.4%, Cr:0.0%~0.08%, surplus is Fe and other are micro- Secondary element and impurity.Spheroidization of graphite rank is 1~3 grade in the vanadium ferrotianium ferritic Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron Metallographic Structure tissue, ferrite in matrix Content >=70%, intensity are 550MPa~650MPa, elongation percentage 12%~17%.
Spheroidal graphite cast-iron disclosed in above-mentioned document is V Ti nodular cast iron, and titanium and vanadium are usually played in iron liquid with melting admittedly Effect, to enhance the tensile strength of spheroidal graphite cast-iron.But titanium is a kind of tension-active element for spheroidal graphite cast-iron, for vanadium Ti nodular cast iron steady production increases difficulty, because the graphite nodule of generation is possible to touch in the growth course of globular graphite On melt the titanium in iron liquid admittedly, even a small amount of titanium, can also interfere strongly to graphite balling-up.Containing 0.02% in usual magnesium iron Trace amount of titanium can promote globular graphite to develop to sheet.Therefore the requirement at present to the roundness of guarantee graphite nodule, to technique It is very high, it is also required to add other alloying components in spheroidal graphite cast-iron to inhibit anti-nodularization.But it if not adding titanium, just will affect The tensile strength of spheroidal graphite cast-iron.
Summary of the invention
The main purpose of the present invention is to provide a kind of ductile cast iron material, preparation method and applications, existing to solve Spheroidal graphite cast-iron preparation complexity, the problem at high cost of high elongation after fracture and high-tensile in technology.
To achieve the goals above, according to an aspect of the invention, there is provided a kind of ductile cast iron material, with weight hundred Divide than meter, ductile cast iron material includes: carbon 3.40%~3.70%, silicon 2.40%~2.70%, manganese 0.30%~0.50%, phosphorus ≤ 0.03%, sulphur≤0.03%, copper 0.30%~0.50%, vanadium 0.04%~0.06%, surplus are iron and other are inevitable Impurity.
Further, the quality percentage of the manganese in above-mentioned ductile cast iron material and copper and be 0.75%~0.85%.
Further, the weight percentage of above-mentioned vanadium is 0.049%~0.050%.
Further, the weight percentage of above-mentioned carbon is 3.61%~3.66%.
Further, the weight percentage of above-mentioned silicon is 2.51%~2.58%.
Further, the sum of mass percentage of above-mentioned p and s≤0.035%.
According to another aspect of the present invention, a kind of preparation method of ductile cast iron material is provided, which includes: Step S1, according to the ratio preparation raw material of each element of any of the above-described kind of ductile cast iron material;Step S2, raw material is melted Refining, obtains melt iron;Melt iron is carried out nodularization under the action of nodulizer and inovulant and bred, obtained by step S3 Breed molten iron;Step S4 will breed molten iron and be poured, obtains ductile cast iron material.
Further, above-mentioned steps S1 includes: to weigh foundry returns, life according to the ratio of each element of ductile cast iron material Iron, alloy, vanadium iron and steel scrap;Sequentially added into medium-frequency induction furnace foundry returns weight 10%~15%, pig iron weight 45%~55%, vanadium iron, the remaining pig iron, alloy, steel scrap and remaining foundry returns, complete the preparation of raw material;It is preferred that with weight Percentages, phosphorus≤0.03%, S≤0.02% in the pig iron.
Further, above-mentioned steps S2 include: raw material is melted at 1510 DEG C~1550 DEG C and keep the temperature 2~5 minutes into Row melting, obtains melt iron.
Further, the nodularization of above-mentioned steps S3 includes: that nodulizer is added into packet hole and consolidates, the additional amount of nodulizer It is the 1.0%~1.5% of melt iron weight;Chemical coverture is placed on nodulizer and is consolidated, chemical coverture adds Enter 0.2%~0.4% that amount is melt iron weight;Physics coverture is placed on chemical coverture and is consolidated, physics covering The additional amount of agent is the 1.0%~1.5% of melt iron weight, for use;And melt iron is down to 1480 DEG C~1500 DEG C Afterwards, the melt iron that 1480 DEG C~1500 DEG C are poured out into packet hole, obtains spheroidization molten iron to carry out nodularization, preferred steps S3's is pregnant Educating includes: that inovulant is poured into spheroidization molten iron, and the additional amount of inovulant is melt iron weight 0.2%~0.4%, is carried out pregnant It educates;It skims to the molten iron for breeding completion, obtains breeding molten iron, preferably inovulant selects Si-Ca-Ba or ferrosilicon.
Further, above-mentioned will breed after molten iron is cooled to 1340 DEG C~1390 DEG C is poured, and in casting process Random inoculant is added with stream, the additional amount of random inoculant is the 1.0%~1.5% of melt iron weight, obtains spheroidal graphite casting Iron material, preferably random inoculant select Si-Ca-Ba or ferrosilicon.
According to another aspect of the invention, a kind of ductile cast iron material is provided, using any of the above-described kind of preparation method It is prepared.
In accordance with a further aspect of the present invention, a kind of components of railway freight-car are provided, which uses spheroidal graphite cast-iron Material is prepared, which is above-mentioned ductile cast iron material.
In accordance with a further aspect of the present invention, a kind of railway freight-car, including components are provided, which is above-mentioned zero Component.
It applies the technical scheme of the present invention, titanium elements is not contained in the ductile cast iron material of the application, therefore avoid it The problem of caused anti-nodularization.Alloy adds type and addition content, especially strict control through reasonable settings simultaneously The spheroidal graphite cast-iron chemical composition of the content of manganese, copper and vanadium, acquisition is simple, and metallographic structure photo is shown, spheroidal graphite produced by the present invention The metallographic structure of cast iron be pearlite+ferritic structure, as cast condition tensile strength >=640MPa, as cast condition elongation after fracture >=9%, Intensity and toughness good combination property are suitable for manufacture rail traffic components, it can also be used to manufacture other same mechanical performances and want The components asked.The effect of each element and mutual synergistic effect are analyzed below.
Detailed description of the invention
The accompanying drawings constituting a part of this application is used to provide further understanding of the present invention, and of the invention shows Examples and descriptions thereof are used to explain the present invention for meaning property, does not constitute improper limitations of the present invention.In the accompanying drawings:
Metallographic microscope at 100 times is amplified in the metallographic structure that Fig. 1 shows the spheroidal graphite cast-iron of embodiment 1;And
Fig. 2 shows the metallographic microscopes under the metallographic structure etch state of the spheroidal graphite cast-iron of embodiment 1 at 100 times of amplification.
Specific embodiment
It should be noted that in the absence of conflict, the features in the embodiments and the embodiments of the present application can phase Mutually combination.The present invention will be described in detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings and embodiments.
As the application background technique is analyzed, in spheroidal graphite cast-iron although the tension of spheroidal graphite cast-iron is can be improved in the presence of titanium Intensity, but anti-nodularization is also resulted in simultaneously, leading to nodularization in the prior art and high-tensile, there are contradictions, in order to solve The problem, this application provides a kind of ductile cast iron materials and preparation method thereof.
In a kind of typical embodiment of the application, a kind of ductile cast iron material, by weight percentage, ball are provided Black cast iron materials include: carbon 3.40%~3.70%, silicon 2.40%~2.70%, manganese 0.30%~0.50%, phosphorus≤0.03%, Sulphur≤0.03%, copper 0.30%~0.50%, vanadium 0.04%~0.06%, surplus are iron and other inevitable impurity.
Not the problem of not containing titanium elements in the ductile cast iron material of the application, therefore avoiding the anti-nodularization caused by it. Alloy adds type and addition content, the especially content of strict control manganese, copper and vanadium through reasonable settings simultaneously, acquisition Spheroidal graphite cast-iron chemical composition is simple, and metallographic structure photo is shown, the metallographic structure of spheroidal graphite cast-iron produced by the present invention be pearlite+ Ferritic structure, as cast condition tensile strength >=640MPa, as cast condition elongation after fracture >=9%, intensity and toughness good combination property are fitted For manufacturing rail traffic components, it can also be used to manufacture the components of other same mechanical property requirements.Below to each element Effect and mutual synergistic effect analyzed.
C element: C element content is high, and the graphite of precipitation is more, and number of graphite ball is more, and sphere diameter size is small, and roundness increases. Therefore improving phosphorus content can reduce shrinkage cavity volume, reduce shrinkage porosite area, and casting can be made fine and close;But phosphorus content is excessively high, reduces The effect of shrinkage porosite is unobvious, will appear serious graphite floatation instead.Present inventor is in C content to the mechanics of spheroidal graphite cast-iron The discovery when influence of performance is studied: for cast condition ductile iron, free cementite can be reduced by increasing C content;C content When close to 3.0%, cementite disappears;When C content is more than 3.0%, start ferrite occur;Continue growing C content, tensile strength Decline with yield strength, elongation after fracture rises;And when further increasing C content, (carbon is higher than 3.2% range) impact flexibility It can be improved.Preferably, the weight percentage of above-mentioned carbon is 3.61%~3.66%.
Si element: in spheroidal graphite cast-iron, silicon is second element having a major impact, it can not only effectively reduce white Mouth tendency increases ferrite content, and has refining eutectic group, improves the effect of graphite nodule roundness.Silicon is in Fe-C alloy The element in the area γ can be closed, solubility of the carbon in γ-Fe is reduced, reduces the phosphorus content of eutectoid point, improve eutectic temperature And eutectoid.Silicone content increases, and ferrite content increases, so as to change the pearlite and iron element in magnesium iron tissue The ratio of body.Meanwhile silicon is also to promote graphited element, and then make the reduction of eutectic phosphorus content.But the present application human hair Existing: silicon can be improved the tough brittle transition temperature of cast iron, reduce impact flexibility, therefore silicone content is unsuitable excessively high, especially works as casting Manganese and when higher phosphorus content in iron, with greater need for the content of strict control silicon.Preferably, the weight percentage of above-mentioned silicon is 2.51%~2.58%.
Mn element: manganese is the element for expanding the area γ in spheroidal graphite cast-iron, and manganese is diffused in α-Fe and γ-Fe to exist than carbon It is wherein diffused difficulty very much, is mainly manifested in the stability for increasing pearlite, help forms manganess carbide, cementite.These Carbide segregation influences the toughness of spheroidal graphite cast-iron very big in crystal boundary.In addition, manganese can also improve the tough crisp of ferrite ductile cast iron Sex reversal temperature, manganese content is every to increase by 0.1%, and brittle transition temperature improves 10 DEG C~12 DEG C.Meanwhile in ductile iron solidification When, manganese increases chilling tendency, from the aspects of, in spheroidal graphite cast-iron manganese content be usually it is lower better.But the application Inventor's discovery: although manganese content, which reduces, has above-mentioned advantage, when manganese content is too low, the tensile strength and surrender of material Intensity is substantially reduced.
S element: S is a kind of tension-active element, belongs to objectionable impurities.It enters in spheroidal graphite cast-iron with furnace charge, fuel tape, because This, there is always some sulphur in spheroidal graphite cast-iron.When using rare earth magnesium nodularizer processing iron liquid, the nodularizations element such as sulphur and magnesium, rare earth There is very strong affinity, the presence of sulphur can largely consume the nodularization element in iron liquid, form the sulfide of magnesium and rare earth, cause to press from both sides The casting flaws such as slag, stomata, remaining rare earth and magnesium just play spheroidizing.Sulphur is dissolved in iron liquid, and is almost not dissolved in α- In Fe and γ-Fe, iron and sulphur can form various sulfide, be easy to produce hot tearing.
P element: P is also a kind of harmful element, is soluble in iron liquid, reduces eutectic phosphorus content, reduces eutectic temperature With beginning setting temperature, iron phosphide eutectic is formed, generates segregation.Phosphorus is usually to enter in spheroidal graphite cast-iron with metal charge, therefore, ball Also there is always some phosphorus in black cast iron.Its solubility in cast iron is extremely low, when its content is less than 0.03%, is solid-solution in matrix In, mechanical property is had little effect.When content is greater than 0.03%, phosphorus is easily segregated in eutectic cell boundary, formed binary, Ternary or compound iron phosphide eutectic, reduce the toughness of cast iron.Therefore, fully consider spheroidal graphite cast-iron continuous production and sulphur, phosphorus The effect of element, the application is preferably by sulphur, phosphorus content control below 0.03%.In addition, in order to reduce sulphur phosphorus as far as possible to mentioning The negative effect of high ductile cast iron material, preferably the sum of mass percentage of p and s≤0.035%.
Cu element: when Cu too high levels, the tensile strength and yield strength of sample are higher, and elongation reduces and is lower than standard Value;When Cu content is lower, the ferrite in matrix is more, and in flakes, intensity damage is larger for connection.And the Cu element of the application Content is moderate, therefore the nodularization effect of spheroidal graphite cast-iron can be improved, and increases the intensity of content of pearlite in alloy and spheroidal graphite cast-iron sample, changes The uniformity of kind casting section microstructure and property.
V element: V can form several stable carbide in cast iron, it is intended to promote to be formed and keep in cast iron matrix Pearlite and sorbite, to improve the intensity of cast iron, hardness and wearability.V also can increase pearlite and sorbitic High-temperature stability, to improve the heat resistance of cast iron.V can refine graphite, promote graphite to be uniformly distributed, improve the sensitivity of section Property.Preferably, the weight percentage of above-mentioned vanadium is 0.049%~0.050%.
In a preferred embodiment of the present application, the quality percentage of the manganese and copper in ductile cast iron material is further controlled Be 0.75%~0.85%.The cooperation of above-mentioned manganese and copper is the most obvious for the effect for improving the tensile strength of spheroidal graphite cast-iron.
In another typical embodiment of the application, a kind of preparation method of ductile cast iron material is provided, the system Preparation Method includes: step S1, according to the ratio preparation raw material of each element of any of the above-described kind of ductile cast iron material;Step S2, will Raw material carries out melting, obtains melt iron;Step S3, under the action of nodulizer and inovulant by melt iron carry out nodularization and It breeds, obtains breeding molten iron;Step S4 will breed molten iron and be poured, obtains spheroidal graphite cast-iron.
Due to not containing titanium elements in the raw material of the application, avoid during nodularization caused by titanium elements presence Anti- nodularization.Simultaneously as the content of strict control manganese, copper and vanadium so that the tensile strength of spheroidal graphite cast-iron 600MPa or more (and The tensile strength of V Ti nodular cast iron in the prior art is suitable), and elongation at break can also maintain 7% or more.
The raw material of the application can be similar with preparing for conventional spheroidal graphite cast-iron, uses some foundry returns and steel scrap to recycle Waste material and save the cost.In addition to each element in subsequent fusion process is promoted sufficiently to be sufficiently mixed in time, the charging of raw material Journey is also optimized, i.e., preferred above-mentioned steps S1 include: according to the ratio of each element of ductile cast iron material weigh foundry returns, The pig iron, alloy, vanadium iron and steel scrap;Sequentially added into frequency electric induction furnace foundry returns weight 10%~15%, pig iron weight 45%~55%, vanadium iron, the remaining pig iron, alloy, steel scrap and remaining foundry returns, complete the preparation of raw material.
Sulphur and phosphorus in spheroidal graphite cast-iron are mainly derived from the pig iron, in order to control its content as far as possible, preferably with weight hundred Divide than counting, phosphorus≤0.03%, S≤0.02% in the above-mentioned pig iron.
In a preferred embodiment of the present application, above-mentioned steps S2 includes: to melt raw material at 1510 DEG C~1550 DEG C Change and keep the temperature progress melting in 2~5 minutes, obtains melt iron.By carrying out melting in 2~5 minutes at the temperature disclosed above, so that Melt iron is pure, and ingredient is uniform, eliminates the harmful structure of raw material heredity.
Nodularization use for the ease of the popularization and application of the preparation method of the application, preferably the application is commonly used in the prior art The nodularization of packet bottom.Nodularization effect, preferably above-mentioned steps S3 are advanced optimized additionally by the addition to raw material in packet bottom nodularization Nodularization include: to be added nodulizer and to consolidate into packet hole, the additional amount of nodulizer be melt iron weight 1.0%~ 1.5%, chemical coverture is placed on nodulizer and is consolidated, the additional amount of chemical coverture is melt iron weight 0.2%~0.4%, physics coverture is placed on chemical coverture and is consolidated, the additional amount of physics coverture is melt iron The 1.0%~1.5% of weight, for use;And after molten iron is down to 1480 DEG C~1500 DEG C, poured out into packet hole 1480 DEG C~ 1500 DEG C of melt iron controls temperature to ensure that nodularization effect is best, obtains spheroidization molten iron to carry out nodularization.It is wherein above-mentioned Chemical coverture effect is the core of increase liquid iron balling, and to obtain outstanding graphite nodule, the effect of physics coverture is Guarantee that the nodularization time started leads to decaying spheroidisation to prevent the nodularization time started too early.The nodulizer that above-mentioned nodularization process uses It can be nodulizer conventional in the prior art, preferably the nodulizer is rare-earth and Mg nodulizer, and chemical coverture is ferrosilicon covering Agent, common and at low cost, physics coverture is steel disc of the diameter X with a thickness of (5mm~15mm) X (1mm~2mm).Above-mentioned tamping Degree be subject in the prior art conventional tamping degree, repeat no more.
Further, it is preferable to which breeding for above-mentioned steps S3 includes: to pour inovulant into spheroidization molten iron, bred, it is pregnant The additional amount for educating agent is melt iron weight 0.2%~0.4%;It skims to the molten iron for breeding completion, obtains breeding molten iron.
It is preferred that inovulant selects Si-Ca-Ba or ferrosilicon, Si-Ca-Ba to belong to long-acting inovulant, it may further ensure that molten iron is pregnant Quality is educated, what lower malfunction may cause, which breeds quality, reduces risk, and silicon iron inoculator is stringent for operating process and steady Timing is used, at low cost.
In order to further enhance the intensity of ductile cast iron material, 1340 DEG C~1390 DEG C preferably are cooled to molten iron will be bred After be poured, and random inoculant is added with stream in casting process, the additional amount of random inoculant is melt iron weight 1.0%~1.5%, obtain spheroidal graphite cast-iron, further preferred random inoculant selects Si-Ca-Ba or ferrosilicon.
Breeding is one of the important means of the metallurgical technology for improving spheroidal graphite cast-iron quality, and one time inoculation is easily bred Decline, is further obviously improved, matrix medium pearlite using the graphite structure of the spheroidal graphite cast-iron of Multi inoculation is available Content be increased slightly, intensity, hardness improve.This method passes through packet bottom chemistry coverture+pour inovulant+random inoculant three The secondary mode bred greatly ensures the quality that breeds of molten iron, improves material property.
In another typical embodiment of the application, a kind of ductile cast iron material is provided, using any of the above-described kind Preparation method be prepared.Due to not containing titanium elements in the raw material of the application, titanium member during nodularization is avoided There are caused anti-nodularizations for element.Simultaneously as the content of strict control manganese, copper and vanadium, so that the tensile strength of spheroidal graphite cast-iron exists 640MPa or more (suitable with the tensile strength of V Ti nodular cast iron in the prior art), and elongation at break can also maintain 9% or more.
In the application in another typical embodiment, a kind of components of railway freight-car are provided, which adopts It is prepared with ductile cast iron material, which is above-mentioned ductile cast iron material.In the application, another is typical Embodiment in, provide a kind of railway freight-car, including components, the components be above-mentioned components.Due to the application Ductile cast iron material have above-mentioned excellent mechanical property, therefore using its make components also there is excellent mechanical property Can, meet the requirement of more railway freight-cars.
Below with reference to embodiment and comparative example, the beneficial effect of the application is further illustrated.
Nodulizer used in following embodiment and comparative example, chemical coverture, physics coverture, inovulant and with stream Inovulant is selected from following substance: nodulizer used is common H-2 rare earth magnesium nodularizer, and chemical coverture is FeSi75Al1.5-B 10-20 coverture, physics coverture are broken steel of the diameter X with a thickness of (5mm~15mm) X (1mm~2mm) Piece, inovulant are low aluminum silicon calcium barium, and random inoculant is FeSi75Al1.5-B 0.2-0.7 inovulant.
Embodiment 1
The chemical component (mass percentage) of high-strength and high ductility spheroidal graphite cast-iron containing vanadium of the present embodiment are as follows: carbon 3.65%, silicon 2.61%, manganese 0.51%, phosphorus 0.03, sulphur 0.012%, copper 0.34%, vanadium 0.06%, surplus is iron and other are inevitably miscellaneous Matter, impurity content are lower than 0.1%;The sum of mass percentage of manganese and copper is 0.85% in spheroidal graphite cast-iron.
The preparation method of high-strength and high ductility spheroidal graphite cast-iron containing vanadium of the present embodiment the following steps are included:
1. shove charge: being carried out according to the chemical component of spheroidal graphite cast-iron using foundry returns, the pig iron, vanadium iron, alloy, steel scrap as furnace charge Ingredient, wherein phosphorus≤0.03%, S≤0.02% in the pig iron, alloy include iron-silicon alloy, iron-manganese alloy, copper.
Sequentially add 10% in foundry returns into medium-frequency induction furnace, 50% in the pig iron, vanadium iron, the remaining pig iron, Alloy, steel scrap and remaining foundry returns.
2. fusing: it is completely melt the furnace charge being added furnace charge heating, 1530 DEG C of fusion temperature, and keep the temperature at such a temperature 4 minutes, obtain melt iron.
3. melt iron nodularization, inoculation: nodulizer being added into packet hole and consolidates;Chemical coverture is placed on packet On nodulizer in hole and consolidate;Physics coverture is placed on the chemical coverture in packet hole and tamping is stand-by, wherein nodularization The additional amount of agent is the 1.0% of melt iron weight;The additional amount of chemical coverture is the 0.3% of melt iron weight;Physics The additional amount of coverture is the 1.0% of melt iron weight, and chemical coverture is Si-Ca-Ba coverture.
After part melt iron temperature after step 2. melting and heat preservation is down to 1490 DEG C, melting is poured out into above-mentioned packet hole Inovulant is poured in molten iron, nodularization detonation into molten iron after terminating, inovulant selects Si-Ca-Ba;Then it pours out remaining in melting furnace Melt iron is sufficiently stirred, and skims clean.The additional amount of inovulant is melt iron weight 0.3%.
4. being poured after the molten iron temperature obtained 3. step is bred after is down to 1370 DEG C, casting process is added with stream Random inoculant carries out current-following inoculation, and random inoculant selects Si-Ca-Ba, the ductile cast iron material of the present embodiment is obtained after casting. The additional amount of random inoculant is the 1.0% of melt iron weight.
One sample is extracted out using OLYMPUS BH2-UMA optical metallographic microscope at random, to the microscopic structure of embodiment 1 It is detected, obtains metallographic structure as illustrated in fig. 1 and 2.Pearlite+ferrite metallographic pattern as we can see from the figure, it is dark-grey Black portions are pearlite, and bright gray parts are ferrite.Wherein ferrite content be 35%, 2 grades of nodulizing grade.
It is detected according to mechanical property of the GD/T 1348-2009 method to the present embodiment spheroidal graphite cast-iron, tensile strength is 672Mpa, elongation after fracture 9.5%.
Embodiment 2 is to embodiment 15 and comparative example 1 to 8
Embodiment 2 to embodiment 15 and comparative example 1 to 8 spheroidal graphite cast-iron chemical component such as the following table 1, each embodiment Inevitable impurity content is lower than 0.10% in spheroidal graphite cast-iron:
1 chemical component of table (wt%), remaining is iron and inevitable impurity
Above embodiments 2 to embodiment 15 and comparative example 1 to 8 spheroidal graphite cast-iron preparation method and embodiment 1 system Preparation Method is identical.
Embodiment 16
The chemical component of the spheroidal graphite cast-iron of embodiment 16 with embodiment 5, the preparation method is as follows:
1. shove charge: being carried out according to the chemical component of spheroidal graphite cast-iron using foundry returns, the pig iron, vanadium iron, alloy, steel scrap as furnace charge Ingredient, wherein phosphorus≤0.03%, S≤0.02% in the pig iron, alloy include iron-silicon alloy, iron-manganese alloy, copper.
Sequentially add 10% in foundry returns into medium-frequency induction furnace, 50% in the pig iron, vanadium iron, the remaining pig iron, Alloy, steel scrap and remaining foundry returns.
2. fusing: it is completely melt the furnace charge being added furnace charge heating, 1510 DEG C of fusion temperature, and keep the temperature at such a temperature 5 minutes, obtain melt iron.
3. melt iron nodularization, inoculation: nodulizer being added into packet hole and consolidates;Chemical coverture is placed on packet On nodulizer in hole and consolidate;Physics coverture is placed on the chemical coverture in packet hole and tamping is stand-by, wherein nodularization The additional amount of agent is the 1.0% of melt iron weight;The additional amount of chemical coverture is the 0.3% of melt iron weight;Physics The additional amount of coverture is the 1.0% of melt iron weight, and chemical coverture is Si-Ca-Ba coverture.
After part melt iron temperature after step 2. melting and heat preservation is down to 1480 DEG C, melting is poured out into above-mentioned packet hole Inovulant is poured in molten iron, nodularization detonation into molten iron after terminating, inovulant selects Si-Ca-Ba;Then remaining smelting iron is poured out Water is sufficiently stirred, and skims clean.The additional amount of inovulant is melt iron weight 0.3%.
4. being poured after the molten iron temperature obtained 3. step is bred after is down to 1390 DEG C, casting process is added with stream Random inoculant carries out current-following inoculation, and random inoculant selects Si-Ca-Ba, the ductile cast iron material of the present embodiment is obtained after casting. The additional amount of random inoculant is the 1.0% of melt iron weight.
Embodiment 17
The chemical component of the spheroidal graphite cast-iron of embodiment 17 with embodiment 5, the preparation method is as follows:
1. shove charge: being carried out according to the chemical component of spheroidal graphite cast-iron using foundry returns, the pig iron, vanadium iron, alloy, steel scrap as furnace charge Ingredient, wherein phosphorus≤0.03%, S≤0.02% in the pig iron, alloy include iron-silicon alloy, iron-manganese alloy, copper.
Sequentially add 10% in foundry returns into medium-frequency induction furnace, 50% in the pig iron, vanadium iron, the remaining pig iron, Alloy, steel scrap and remaining foundry returns.
2. fusing: it is completely melt the furnace charge being added furnace charge heating, 1550 DEG C of fusion temperature, and keep the temperature at such a temperature 2 minutes, obtain melt iron.
3. melt iron nodularization, inoculation: nodulizer being added into packet hole and consolidates;Chemical coverture is placed on packet On nodulizer in hole and consolidate;Physics coverture is placed on the chemical coverture in packet hole and tamping is stand-by, wherein nodularization The additional amount of agent is the 1.0% of melt iron weight;The additional amount of chemical coverture is the 0.3% of melt iron weight;Physics The additional amount of coverture is the 1.0% of melt iron weight, and chemical coverture is Si-Ca-Ba coverture.
After part melt iron temperature after step 2. melting and heat preservation is down to 1500 DEG C, melting is poured out into above-mentioned packet hole Inovulant is poured in molten iron, nodularization detonation into molten iron after terminating, inovulant selects Si-Ca-Ba;Then remaining smelting iron is poured out Water is sufficiently stirred, and skims clean.The additional amount of inovulant is melt iron weight 0.3%.
4. being poured after the molten iron temperature obtained 3. step is bred after is down to 1340 DEG C, casting process is added with stream Random inoculant carries out current-following inoculation, and random inoculant selects Si-Ca-Ba, the ductile cast iron material of the present embodiment is obtained after casting. The additional amount of random inoculant is the 1.0% of melt iron weight.
Embodiment 18
The chemical component of the spheroidal graphite cast-iron of embodiment 18 with embodiment 5, the preparation method is as follows:
1. shove charge: being carried out according to the chemical component of spheroidal graphite cast-iron using foundry returns, the pig iron, vanadium iron, alloy, steel scrap as furnace charge Ingredient, wherein phosphorus≤0.03%, S≤0.02% in the pig iron, alloy include iron-silicon alloy, iron-manganese alloy, copper.
Sequentially add 10% in foundry returns into medium-frequency induction furnace, 50% in the pig iron, vanadium iron, the remaining pig iron, Alloy, steel scrap and remaining foundry returns.
2. fusing: it is completely melt the furnace charge being added furnace charge heating, 1500 DEG C of fusion temperature, and keep the temperature at such a temperature 7 minutes, obtain melt iron.
3. melt iron nodularization, inoculation: nodulizer being added into packet hole and consolidates;Chemical coverture is placed on packet On nodulizer in hole and consolidate;Physics coverture is placed on the chemical coverture in packet hole and tamping is stand-by, wherein nodularization The additional amount of agent is the 1.0% of melt iron weight;The additional amount of chemical coverture is the 0.3% of melt iron weight;Physics The additional amount of coverture is the 1.0% of melt iron weight, and chemical coverture is Si-Ca-Ba coverture.
After part melt iron temperature after step 2. melting and heat preservation is down to 1480 DEG C, melting is poured out into above-mentioned packet hole Molten iron, pours inovulant into melt iron after nodularization, inovulant selects Si-Ca-Ba;Then remaining melt iron is poured out, is filled Divide stirring, skims clean.The additional amount of inovulant is melt iron weight 0.3%.
4. being poured after the molten iron temperature obtained 3. step is bred after is down to 1360 DEG C, casting process is added with stream Inovulant carries out current-following inoculation, and random inoculant selects Si-Ca-Ba, the ductile cast iron material of the present embodiment is obtained after casting.With stream The additional amount of inovulant is the 1.0% of melt iron weight.
Embodiment 19
The chemical component of the spheroidal graphite cast-iron of embodiment 19 with embodiment 5, the preparation method is as follows:
1. shove charge: being carried out according to the chemical component of spheroidal graphite cast-iron using foundry returns, the pig iron, vanadium iron, alloy, steel scrap as furnace charge Ingredient, wherein phosphorus≤0.03%, S≤0.02% in the pig iron, alloy include iron-silicon alloy, iron-manganese alloy, copper.
Sequentially add 10% in foundry returns into medium-frequency induction furnace, 55% in the pig iron, vanadium iron, the remaining pig iron, Alloy, steel scrap and remaining foundry returns.
2. fusing: it is completely melt the furnace charge being added furnace charge heating, 1530 DEG C of fusion temperature, and keep the temperature at such a temperature 4 minutes, obtain melt iron.
3. melt iron nodularization, inoculation: nodulizer being added into packet hole and consolidates;Chemical coverture is placed on packet On nodulizer in hole and consolidate;Physics coverture is placed on the chemical coverture in packet hole and tamping is stand-by, wherein nodularization The additional amount of agent is the 1.0% of melt iron weight;The additional amount of chemical coverture is the 0.3% of melt iron weight;Physics The additional amount of coverture is the 1.0% of melt iron weight, and chemical coverture is ferrosilicon coverture.
After part melt iron temperature after step 2. melting and heat preservation is down to 1490 DEG C, melting is poured out into above-mentioned packet hole Molten iron, pours inovulant into molten iron after nodularization, inovulant selects ferrosilicon;Then remaining molten iron is poured out, is sufficiently stirred, is skimmed Completely.The additional amount of inovulant is melt iron weight 0.3%.
4. being poured after the molten iron temperature obtained 3. step is bred after is down to 1370 DEG C, casting process is added with stream Inovulant carries out current-following inoculation, and random inoculant selects ferrosilicon, the ductile cast iron material of the present embodiment is obtained after casting.It is pregnant with flowing The additional amount for educating agent is the 1.0% of melt iron weight.
Embodiment 20
The chemical component of the spheroidal graphite cast-iron of embodiment 20 with embodiment 5, the preparation method is as follows:
1. shove charge: being carried out according to the chemical component of spheroidal graphite cast-iron using foundry returns, the pig iron, vanadium iron, alloy, steel scrap as furnace charge Ingredient, wherein phosphorus≤0.03%, S≤0.02% in the pig iron, alloy include iron-silicon alloy, iron-manganese alloy, copper.
Sequentially add 15% in foundry returns into medium-frequency induction furnace, 45% in the pig iron, vanadium iron, the remaining pig iron, Alloy, steel scrap and remaining foundry returns.
2. fusing: it is completely melt the furnace charge being added furnace charge heating, 1510 DEG C of fusion temperature, and keep the temperature at such a temperature 5 minutes, obtain melt iron.
3. melt iron nodularization, inoculation: nodulizer being added into packet hole and consolidates;Chemical coverture is placed on packet On nodulizer in hole and consolidate;Physics coverture is placed on the chemical coverture in packet hole and tamping is stand-by, wherein nodularization The additional amount of agent is the 1.0% of melt iron weight;The additional amount of chemical coverture is the 0.3% of melt iron weight;Physics The additional amount of coverture is the 1.0% of melt iron weight, and chemical coverture is ferrosilicon coverture.
After part melt iron temperature after step 2. melting and heat preservation is down to 1480 DEG C, melting is poured out into above-mentioned packet hole Molten iron, pours inovulant into molten iron after nodularization, inovulant selects ferrosilicon;Then remaining molten iron is poured out, is sufficiently stirred, is skimmed Completely.The additional amount of inovulant is melt iron weight 0.3%.
4. being poured after the molten iron temperature obtained 3. step is bred after is down to 1340 DEG C, casting process is added with stream Inovulant carries out current-following inoculation, and random inoculant selects ferrosilicon, the ductile cast iron material of the present embodiment is obtained after casting.It is pregnant with flowing The additional amount for educating agent is the 1.0% of melt iron weight.
Embodiment 21
Difference from Example 5 is that wherein the additional amount of nodulizer is the 1.5% of melt iron weight;Chemistry covers The additional amount of lid agent is the 0.3% of melt iron weight;The additional amount of physics coverture is the 1.0% of melt iron weight, pregnant The additional amount for educating agent is melt iron weight 0.3%, and the additional amount of random inoculant is the 1.0% of melt iron weight.
Embodiment 22
Difference from Example 5 is that wherein the additional amount of nodulizer is the 1.0% of melt iron weight;Chemistry covers The additional amount of lid agent is the 0.2% of melt iron weight;The additional amount of physics coverture is the 1.0% of melt iron weight, pregnant The additional amount for educating agent is melt iron weight 0.3%, and the additional amount of random inoculant is the 1.0% of melt iron weight.
Embodiment 23
Difference from Example 5 is that wherein the additional amount of nodulizer is the 1.5% of melt iron weight;Chemistry covers The additional amount of lid agent is the 0.4% of melt iron weight;The additional amount of physics coverture is the 1.0% of melt iron weight, pregnant The additional amount for educating agent is melt iron weight 0.3%, and the additional amount of random inoculant is the 1.0% of melt iron weight.
Embodiment 24
Difference from Example 5 is that wherein the additional amount of nodulizer is the 1.5% of melt iron weight;Chemistry covers The additional amount of lid agent is the 0.3% of melt iron weight;The additional amount of physics coverture is the 1.5% of melt iron weight, pregnant The additional amount for educating agent is melt iron weight 0.3%, and the additional amount of random inoculant is the 1.0% of melt iron weight.
Embodiment 25
Difference from Example 5 is that wherein the additional amount of nodulizer is the 1.5% of melt iron weight;Chemistry covers The additional amount of lid agent is the 0.3% of melt iron weight;The additional amount of physics coverture is the 1.0% of melt iron weight, pregnant The additional amount for educating agent is melt iron weight 0.2%, and the additional amount of random inoculant is the 1.0% of melt iron weight.
Embodiment 26
Difference from Example 5 is that wherein the additional amount of nodulizer is the 1.5% of melt iron weight;Chemistry covers The additional amount of lid agent is the 0.3% of melt iron weight;The additional amount of physics coverture is the 1.0% of melt iron weight, pregnant The additional amount for educating agent is melt iron weight 0.4%, and the additional amount of random inoculant is the 1.0% of melt iron weight.
Embodiment 27
Difference from Example 5 is that wherein the additional amount of nodulizer is the 1.5% of melt iron weight;Chemistry covers The additional amount of lid agent is the 0.3% of melt iron weight;The additional amount of physics coverture is the 1.0% of melt iron weight, pregnant The additional amount for educating agent is melt iron weight 0.3%, and the additional amount of random inoculant is the 1.5% of melt iron weight.
Embodiment 28
Difference from Example 5 is that wherein the additional amount of nodulizer is the 1.7% of melt iron weight;Chemistry covers The additional amount of lid agent is the 0.45% of melt iron weight;The additional amount of physics coverture is the 1.0% of melt iron weight, pregnant The additional amount for educating agent is melt iron weight 0.3%, and the additional amount of random inoculant is the 1.5% of melt iron weight.
Comparative example 9
The chemical component of the spheroidal graphite cast-iron of comparative example 9 with embodiment 5, the preparation method is as follows:
1. shove charge: being carried out according to the chemical component of spheroidal graphite cast-iron using foundry returns, the pig iron, vanadium iron, alloy, steel scrap as furnace charge Ingredient, wherein phosphorus≤0.03%, S≤0.02% in the pig iron, alloy include iron-silicon alloy, iron-manganese alloy, copper.
Sequentially add 10% in foundry returns into medium-frequency induction furnace, 50% in the pig iron, vanadium iron, the remaining pig iron, Alloy, steel scrap and remaining foundry returns.
2. fusing: it is completely melt the furnace charge being added furnace charge heating, 1530 DEG C of fusion temperature, and keep the temperature at such a temperature 4 minutes, obtain melt iron.
3. melt iron nodularization, inoculation: nodulizer being added into packet hole and consolidates;Chemical coverture is placed on packet On nodulizer in hole and consolidate;Physics coverture is placed on the chemical coverture in packet hole and tamping is stand-by, wherein nodularization The additional amount of agent is the 1.0% of melt iron weight;The additional amount of chemical coverture is the 0.3% of melt iron weight;Physics The additional amount of coverture is the 1.0% of melt iron weight.
After part melt iron temperature after step 2. melting and heat preservation is down to 1490 DEG C, melting is poured out into above-mentioned packet hole Molten iron, pours inovulant into molten iron after nodularization, inovulant selects ferrosilicon;Then remaining melt iron is poured out, is sufficiently stirred, It skims clean.The additional amount of inovulant is melt iron weight 0.3%.
4. being poured after the molten iron temperature obtained 3. step is bred after is down to 1370 DEG C, this example is obtained after casting Ductile cast iron material.
Comparative example 10
The chemical component of the spheroidal graphite cast-iron of comparative example 10 increases 0.06% titanium relative to embodiment 5, and preparation method is same Embodiment 1.
Ferrite in the spheroidal graphite cast-iron of the various embodiments described above and comparative example is detected using the identical method of same embodiment 1 to contain Amount, nodulizing grade and mechanical property, detection data see the table below 2.
Table 2
Although the above-mentioned each parameter for the ductile cast iron material that embodiment 16 to 28 obtains is varied relative to embodiment 1, But ferrite content fluctuates between 33~36%, nodulizing grade is 2 grades, and tensile strength is had no progeny and stretched in 640PMa or more Long rate is 9.0% or more.
It can be seen from the above description that the above embodiments of the present invention realized the following chievements:
Not the problem of not containing titanium elements in the ductile cast iron material of the application, therefore avoiding the anti-nodularization caused by it. Alloy adds type and addition content, the especially content of strict control manganese, copper and vanadium through reasonable settings simultaneously, acquisition Spheroidal graphite cast-iron chemical composition is simple, and metallographic structure photo is shown, the metallographic structure of spheroidal graphite cast-iron produced by the present invention be pearlite+ Ferritic structure, as cast condition tensile strength >=640MPa, as cast condition elongation after fracture >=9%, intensity and toughness good combination property are fitted For manufacturing rail traffic components, it can also be used to manufacture the components of other same mechanical property requirements.
The foregoing is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, is not intended to restrict the invention, for the skill of this field For art personnel, the invention may be variously modified and varied.All within the spirits and principles of the present invention, made any to repair Change, equivalent replacement, improvement etc., should all be included in the protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (14)

1. a kind of ductile cast iron material, which is characterized in that by weight percentage, the ductile cast iron material includes:
Carbon 3.40%~3.70%, silicon 2.40%~2.70%, manganese 0.30%~0.50%, phosphorus≤0.03%, sulphur≤0.03%, Copper 0.30%~0.50%, vanadium 0.04%~0.06%, surplus are iron and other inevitable impurity.
2. ductile cast iron material according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the manganese in the ductile cast iron material and The quality percentage of the copper and be 0.75%~0.85%.
3. ductile cast iron material according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the weight percentage of the vanadium is 0.049%~0.050%.
4. ductile cast iron material according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the weight percentage of the carbon is 3.61% ~3.66%.
5. ductile cast iron material according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the weight percentage of the silicon is 2.51% ~2.58%.
6. ductile cast iron material according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the mass percentage of the phosphorus and the sulphur The sum of≤0.035%.
7. a kind of preparation method of ductile cast iron material, which is characterized in that the preparation method includes:
Step S1, according to the ratio preparation raw material of each element of ductile cast iron material described in any one of claims 1 to 6;
The raw material is carried out melting, obtains melt iron by step S2;
The melt iron is carried out nodularization under the action of nodulizer and inovulant and bred, obtains breeding molten iron by step S3;
The molten iron that breeds is poured, obtains the ductile cast iron material by step S4.
8. preparation method according to claim 7, which is characterized in that the step S1 includes:
Foundry returns, the pig iron, alloy, vanadium iron and steel scrap are weighed according to the ratio of each element of the ductile cast iron material;
Sequentially added into medium-frequency induction furnace foundry returns weight 10%~15%, the 45%~55% of pig iron weight, vanadium iron, The remaining pig iron, alloy, steel scrap and the remaining foundry returns, complete the preparation of the raw material;It is preferred that with weight percent Than counting, phosphorus≤0.03%, S≤0.02% in the pig iron.
9. preparation method according to claim 7, which is characterized in that the step S2 includes: by the raw material 1510 DEG C~1550 DEG C at melt and keep the temperature progress melting in 2~5 minutes, obtain the melt iron.
10. preparation method according to claim 7, which is characterized in that the nodularization of the step S3 includes:
The nodulizer is added into packet hole and consolidates, the additional amount of the nodulizer is the 1.0% of the melt iron weight ~1.5%;Chemical coverture is placed on the nodulizer and is consolidated, the additional amount of the chemistry coverture is the melting The 0.2%~0.4% of weight of molten iron;Physics coverture is placed on the chemical coverture and is consolidated, the physics coverture Additional amount be the melt iron weight 1.0%~1.5%, for use;And
After the melt iron is down to 1480 DEG C~1500 DEG C, described 1480 DEG C~1500 DEG C molten is poured out into the packet hole Water is smelted iron, obtains spheroidization molten iron to carry out nodularization, preferably described the breeding for step S3 includes:
The inovulant is poured into the spheroidization molten iron, the additional amount of the inovulant is the melt iron weight 0.2% ~0.4%, it is bred;
It skims to the molten iron for breeding completion, obtains breeding molten iron, the preferably described inovulant selects Si-Ca-Ba or ferrosilicon.
11. preparation method according to claim 10, which is characterized in that by it is described breed molten iron be cooled to 1340 DEG C~ It is poured after 1390 DEG C, and random inoculant is added with stream in casting process, the additional amount of the random inoculant is institute The 1.0%~1.5% of melt iron weight is stated, the ductile cast iron material is obtained, the preferably described random inoculant selects silico-calcium Barium or ferrosilicon.
12. a kind of ductile cast iron material, which is characterized in that using preparation method system described in any one of claim 7 to 11 It is standby to form.
13. a kind of components of railway freight-car, the components are prepared using ductile cast iron material, which is characterized in that institute Stating ductile cast iron material is ductile cast iron material described in any one of claim 1 to 6 and claim 12.
14. a kind of railway freight-car, including components, which is characterized in that the components are components described in claim 13.
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