CN109890943A - A kind of cracking reduction transformation processing method of domestic organic garbage - Google Patents

A kind of cracking reduction transformation processing method of domestic organic garbage Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109890943A
CN109890943A CN201880003660.1A CN201880003660A CN109890943A CN 109890943 A CN109890943 A CN 109890943A CN 201880003660 A CN201880003660 A CN 201880003660A CN 109890943 A CN109890943 A CN 109890943A
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organic materials
reduction treatment
cylinder
domestic
fuel gas
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董平年
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Priority claimed from CN201711094259.7A external-priority patent/CN107626726A/en
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B09DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE; RECLAMATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL
    • B09BDISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B09B3/00Destroying solid waste or transforming solid waste into something useful or harmless
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10BDESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF CARBONACEOUS MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF GAS, COKE, TAR, OR SIMILAR MATERIALS
    • C10B53/00Destructive distillation, specially adapted for particular solid raw materials or solid raw materials in special form
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P20/00Technologies relating to chemical industry
    • Y02P20/141Feedstock
    • Y02P20/145Feedstock the feedstock being materials of biological origin

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  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Chemical & Material Sciences (AREA)
  • Oil, Petroleum & Natural Gas (AREA)
  • Materials Engineering (AREA)
  • Organic Chemistry (AREA)
  • Environmental & Geological Engineering (AREA)
  • Processing Of Solid Wastes (AREA)

Abstract

A kind of cracking method of reduction treatment of domestic organic garbage, domestic organic garbage includes organic materials, organic materials is placed in closed cylinder, and in a manner of lasting overturning and indirect heating, organic materials is made to completely cut off air, thermally equivalent.This method can be such that organic materials persistently stirs in reaction unit kind, thermally equivalent, react fully completely, can the farthest resources product such as output fuel gas, tar, and the generation of other noxious products is made to reach minimum, has been truly realized innoxious;Overall process from cracking to gas treatment is run using closed circulation, makes the organic materials isolation air, and treatment process and discharge are entirely controlled, and the reaction process of organic materials is stable, output is stablized;Whole system reaches stable energy circulation, and system itself minimizes the demand for externally supplying fuel, thus greatly reduces energy consumption and operating cost.

Description

A kind of cracking reduction transformation processing method of domestic organic garbage Technical field
The present invention relates to the cracking of a kind of domestic organic garbage processing technology field, especially organic matter to restore conversion processing technical field.
Background technique
With the continuous expansion in the rapid growth cities and towns of population, domestic organic garbage yield and day increase, and seriously polluted cities and towns and surrounding enviroment, but also can cause serious harm to the body of surrounding resident, the processing of domestic organic garbage has been extremely urgent.However, reducing the integrated treatment cost of organic waste, the economic benefit of organic waste is improved, its is innoxious, minimizing, recycling are the important critical issues that the whole society promotes organic garbage treatment.
The current main processing method of China's domestic organic garbage is mostly oxidized burning decomposition technique (power generation by waste combustion), incomplete oxidation cracking gasification technology, the rotten gasification technology of biofermentation landfill.Since the complicated component of the organic waste in China cities and towns, calorific value are low, power generation by waste combustion, cracking need to add auxiliary fuel when gasifying, so that processing cost expense increases.Because the factors such as technology, operation can generate the harmful substances such as dioxin when power generation by waste combustion is run.Landfill disposal occupies a large amount of soil, while serious pollution atmosphere and underground water source.
And to organic waste carry out cracking gasification and second-time burning be referred to as third generation processing technique, however show that cracking gasification technical treatment organic waste is minimizing, innoxious, recycling effective way through research practice, but so that this technology is reached practicability there are also many technical problems.The cracking gasification technology illustrated such as the patent document of Publication No. CN101457147A, Publication No. CN206219517U, Publication No. CN106949479A is that there is no problem from point of theory, in practice it finds that the undesirable problem of generally existing implementation result, therefore can not be promoted always in industry.
In some equipment due to can not during dry distillation reactor complete starvation, make crack gasification furnace finally actually become small incinerator, still inevitably bring the environmental problems such as dioxin.
There are also the complicated components for being included by organic waste in some equipment are changeable, requirement of the material that water content is different, density is different to cracking reaction is different, and equipment can not identify the difference of these components, and correspondingly adjusting process parameter;In addition, the defect of itself design often results in treatment process, burning zone stacking pressure, blocking oxygen supply causes to burn irregular, so that the even dead fire of capacity of furnace cycle interruption, causes dry distillation reactor unstable.In the case that dry distillation reactor is unstable, fuel gas output is also sometimes fast and sometimes slow, keeps air-flow extremely unstable.Further, due to the burning of combustion chamber depend on destructive distillation generation fuel gas, because and cause combustion chambers burn unstable, combustion chambers burn is unstable, on the one hand imperfect combustion itself produce the discharge of harmful substance;On the other hand complete dry distillation reactor can not be carried out by further resulting in pyrolysis furnace, finally pyrolysis furnace be made only to constitute smoldering furnace.
Summary of the invention
(1) technical problems to be solved
Present invention aim to overcome the defect of above method technology, provide it is a kind of can be realized domestic organic garbage sufficiently crack reduction treatment reaction, by domestic organic garbage environmental protection, efficiently, fully become resource substance cracking restore transformation processing method.
(2) technical solution
In order to achieve the above object, the main technical schemes that the present invention uses include:
A kind of cracking method of reduction treatment of domestic organic garbage, the domestic organic garbage includes organic materials, which is characterized in that so that it is completely cut off air organic materials merging closed cylinder, and makes its persistently overturning and indirectly thermally equivalent in the closed cylinder.
It is described heated to include:
The organic materials is heated to 100 DEG C~200 DEG C and is dried by drying stage;
The organic materials is to slowly warm up to 450 DEG C~550 DEG C and kept by the dry distillation reactor stage, and the organic materials after making drying carries out dry distillation reactor;
Carbonation stage is warming up to 580 DEG C~640 DEG C after the dry distillation reactor, and the organic materials after making reaction is gradually carbonized.
Preferably, the organic materials is 50~100 millimeters through broken size before being placed in the closed cylinder.
Preferably, the lasting overturning includes that the ontology of the closed cylinder is rotated around the horizontal axis of its own.
Preferably, in the dry distillation reactor stage, the rate that the organic materials slowly heats up is 15 DEG C~20 DEG C/min.
Preferably, the gas-phase product that the dry distillation reactor generates is collected, purifies and is separated into fuel gas, tar and water.
Preferably, the gas-phase product is collected via the collecting pipe being connected to the closed cylinder.
Preferably, the separation is by being cooled to 10 DEG C of realizations for the gas-phase product.
Preferably, the fuel gas is for closed cylinder and organic materials therein described in indirect heating after burning.
Preferably, the rate for being passed through the fuel gas of burner is adjusted according to the temperature requirement of the organic materials in the closed cylinder, and the fuel gas includes the fuel gas.
Preferably, the ratio of the air and fuel gas that are passed through burner is adjusted according to the CO emission of on-line checking, makes the CO emission minimum always, the fuel gas includes the fuel gas.
Preferably, in drying stage, the humidity in the closed cylinder is detected, is judged as dry completion when humidity drops to setting humidity.
Preferably, in the dry distillation reactor stage, the pH value in the closed cylinder is detected, when pH value deviates setting pH value, addition acid or alkali in Xiang Suoshu closed cylinder stablize pH value in setting pH value.
Preferably, in the dry distillation reactor stage, the pressure in the closed cylinder is detected, when detecting pressure decline, is then judged as that dry distillation reactor terminates.
(3) beneficial effect
Method of the invention can sufficiently carry out cracking reduction treatment reaction, simulate the coal of nature, the generating process of oil and natural gas, this is not only needed to the reaction process of hundreds of years in nature, by under the conditions of temperature appropriate, pressure, time and pH value (pH value), it is reproduced in a few hours, and organic materials sufficiently can be subjected to above-mentioned reaction, it avoids reacting insufficient bring environmental problem.Pernicious gas production quantity is lower than international standard and national standard in treatment process, such as dioxin standard is 0.1ng, and the discharge amount for using equipment of the invention to carry out domestic organic garbage generation dioxin is lower than 0.02ng, is only 0.005ng under some sample conditions, is much better than discharge standard.
Method of the invention can be really achieved cracking reduction treatment reaction theory effect, domestic organic garbage fully can be changed into harmless object character state by harmless approach, and constituted according to the organic molecule that its own includes, it is converted into the resource substances such as " oil, gas, carbon " class.
More specifically, beneficial effects of the present invention further include:
1, cracking reduction conversion reaction is carried out in the closed cylinder of rotation, organic materials persistently stirs in reaction unit, thermally equivalent, it reacts fully completely, it being capable of the farthest resources product such as output fuel gas, tar, and the generation of other noxious products is made to reach minimum, it has been truly realized innoxious;
2, the overall process from cracking to gas treatment is run using closed circulation, makes the organic materials isolation air, and treatment process and discharge are entirely controlled, and the reaction process of organic materials is stable, output is stablized;
3, the burner for providing heat for closed cylinder is independently arranged, and only provides heat, i.e. indirect heating to closed cylinder, without introducing wherein open fire.This mode is convenient for that environment information acquisition device is arranged in cylinder and then facilitates accurately to control the intracorporal internal environment of cylinder.
4, fuel gas used in burner combustion restores conversion reaction at least partially from the cracking of sealed rotary.Since cracking reduction conversion reaction is substantially stabilized, the output of fuel gas can reach maximum, quality height and stability of flow, so that the flameholding of burner be effectively ensured, self output utmostly meets self energy demand.Whole system reaches stable energy circulation, and system itself minimizes the demand for externally supplying fuel, thus greatly reduces energy consumption and operating cost.
5, this method further includes receiving environmental data feedback, carries out accurate state modulator to the process of cracking reduction conversion reaction, and cyclic balance and the reaction to guarantee entire technique are abundant.For example, controlling the interior environment in cylinder by temperature, pressure, humidity and pH value data in acquisition cylinder and keeping perfect condition or reacted according to ideal control process;In another example, by controlling the cooling temperature of gas-phase product, keeps the separation of tar oil gas more thorough, avoid the undesirable fuel gas quality decline for mixing and causing to obtain after separation, undesirable noxious products are generated in subsequent burning, or even influence the temperature in reaction chamber.
6, high degree of automation, easy to operate.Data feedback and the method for processing can be such that program step all in technique all automatically completes, and be not necessarily to artificial intervention, and the requirement to operator is very low.
7, this process can carry out the sorting of material automatically, be crushed, the ingredient and form of material are controlled effectively, to provide ideal material for cracking reaction, it can be avoided that materials quality is irregular to impact the extent of reaction, suitable for recycling the house refuse containing biomass of various qualities.
8, this cracking reduction transformation processing method can not mix with gas-phase product directly by solid product " carbon " individually discharge and/or recycling, convenient for separation, recycle.
9, the gas-phase product that gas treating process therein can obtain cracking reduction conversion reaction device is kept completely separate, and " tar, fuel gas and water " is separated into, consequently facilitating being respectively individually recycled.
Detailed description of the invention
Attached drawing 1 is the cracking reduction treatment artwork of domestic organic garbage in the embodiment of the present invention.
Attached drawing 2 is the schematic diagram of the cracking reduction conversion reaction processing equipment of domestic organic garbage used by implementing processing of the invention.
[appended drawing reference]
1: weighbridge;2: grabbing installation;3: Belt Conveying magnetic separator;4: crusher;5: belt conveyor;6: feeding magazine;7: material propulsion device;8: sealed rotary cracking reduction conversion reaction device;9: cylinder;10: stud ring transmission mechanism;11: sealing uses bellows machinery combination sealing arrangement;12: spiral material stock guide;13: water cooling outfeed belt conveyor;14: entrance lock;15: discharging sealing device;16: heating device;17: thermally conductive room;18: self wind distribution combustor;19: proportional control valve;20: gas purifier;21: depositing dust clarifier;22: vapor condensation beaming device;23: dividing drum;24: cooling and dedusting tower;25: oil gas water separator;26: oxygen supply blower;27: organic carbon storage device;28: Fuel Tanking Unit;29: cyclic water tank;30, discharging spiral conveyor.
Specific embodiment
In order to preferably explain the present invention, in order to understand, with reference to the accompanying drawing, by specific embodiment, the present invention is described in detail.
The present invention relates to a kind of cracking method of reduction treatment of domestic organic garbage, this method is by providing a kind of cracking reduction conversion reaction processing environment, it creates conditions and substance is guided to carry out reduction decomposition naturally according to the attribute of its most script, the harmless object character state before coming back to organic substance.The specific practice: by domestic organic garbage by pretreatment system, cracking reduction conversion reaction system, gas handling system, state modulator etc., domestic organic garbage is handled so that it becomes resource substance.
As shown in Figure 1, the cracking reduction transformation processing method of domestic organic garbage of the invention generally comprises following steps:
Firstly, organic waste materials (i.e. domestic organic garbage) are used as stand-by raw material after metering storage after marching into the arena, preposition processing is first carried out, including but not limited to through inorganics wastes such as concentration equipment removal metal batteries.
It is reacted secondly, obtained organic materials enters in cracking reduction reaction device through screw propulsion, reaction includes drying steps, dry distillation reactor step and carburising step.
Then, the gas-phase product that cracking reduction reaction obtains carries out combustion gas processing, and Oil, Water, Gas separation is carried out in condenser system, which is connected with circulating water pool, to ensure that condenser system provides temperature appropriate to gas-phase product.
Then, separating obtained tar stores the major product as this domestic organic garbage, can be to market sale;Purification of the resulting fixed gas (main component is fuel gas) Jing Guo purification system obtains high-purity fuel gas, imports heating device burning and generates heat, is supplied to cracking reduction reaction device for used in cracking reduction treatment.Gaseous product after gas fuel burning can qualified discharge through dedusting.
On the other hand, the solid product that cracking reduction reaction obtains is organic matter carbon, individually carries out cooling, recycles, and is stored in the form of solid organic matter carbon after cooling.
The overall process of above-mentioned cracking reduction reaction carries out state modulator by parameter control system, to guarantee that reaction is carried out according to ideal condition.It carries out reaction uniformly, sufficiently, and makes full use of the fuel gas of recycling as fuel, provide heat for material reaction.
The cracking reduction treatment equipment of above-mentioned cracking method of reduction treatment, domestic organic garbage as shown in Figure 2 realizes that domestic organic garbage realizes that constituting for bonding apparatus is described the detailed process of cracking reduction treatment by the cracking reduction treatment equipment.
Domestic organic garbage and organic materials
Domestic organic garbage involved in the present invention refers to fruits and vegetables skin stalk, swill, stalk, deadwood, leaf for generating in mankind's daily life etc. with biological organic matter rubbish as main component.Under the conditions of current country's garbage classification is incomplete, offending, these domestic organic garbages inevitably adulterate some inorganic matter waste materials, such as glass bottle and jar, building waste, metal, battery etc..In order to better implement the present invention, present invention needs, which pre-process the domestic organic garbage of collection, constitutes the organic materials for eventually entering into equipment by carbon, hydrogen, three element of oxygen.
Pretreatment system equipment
In the cracking reduction treatment equipment of domestic organic garbage shown in Fig. 2, pretreatment system equipment includes: weighbridge 1, grabs installation 2, Belt Conveying magnetic separator 3 and crusher 4.
It operates vehicle-mounted domestic organic garbage to march into the arena, storage room is discharged into after weighbridge 1 calculates the weight;By means of the non-organic object, such as building waste, bottle, tank etc. in artificial or screening installation removal domestic organic garbage;The ingredients such as metal and battery are removed to Belt Conveying magnetic separator 3 using 2 feedings of installation are grabbed;Be conveyed to crusher 4 be broken into 50~100 mm in size, less than 15 mm of thickness homogeneous bulky organic materials.
By means of this pretreatment system equipment, the good organic materials of quality is obtained, facilitates the progress of subsequent cracking reduction conversion reaction.Certainly, the quality for being also not excluded for having collected organic domestic waste itself is good, and in this case, pretreatment system equipment can be omitted.According to the actual situation, under the premise of not influencing processing, some or all of pretreatment system equipment device be can be omitted.
Cracking reduction conversion reaction system equipment
Cracking reduction conversion reaction system equipment includes: cracking reduction conversion reaction device 8, discharging spiral conveyor 30 and the heating device 16 of belt conveyor 5, charging magazine 6, material propulsion device 7, sealed rotary.
The belt conveyor 5 is used to for the organic materials obtained after pretreatment to be transported to the charging magazine 6 for cracking reduction 8 side of conversion reaction device positioned at sealed rotary.Material enters material propulsion device 7 from charging magazine 6 and restores conversion reaction device 8 by the cracking that the material propulsion device 7 is forced into the sealed rotary.
Material propulsion device 7
The material propulsion device 7 includes the screw rod arranged in the horizontal direction in the housing in shell and setting, and the first end of the shell connects the charging magazine 6, and second end connects the cracking reduction conversion reaction device 8 of the sealed rotary.The screw rod of the level extends to second end from the first end always, even extend to the inside of cracking reduction conversion reaction device 8, the continuous blade along spiral of Archimedes setting is formed on screw rod, will be advanced in the cracking reduction conversion reaction device 8 of the sealed rotary from the charging received organic materials of magazine 6 with Archimedian screw propulsion mode.Or optionally, material propulsion device can also promote material using hydraulic way.Material is laterally pushed to inside sealed rotary cracking reduction conversion reaction device 8 by material propulsion device 7.
Operable locking device is provided in the first end of the material propulsion device 7 or on the charging magazine 6, after the organic materials of expection weight or volume enters in sealed rotary cracking reduction conversion reaction device 8, before starting reaction, the locking device is closed, makes to form closing oxygen-free space inside sealed rotary cracking reduction conversion reaction device 8.
The sealed rotary cracking reduction conversion reaction device 8
The sealed rotary cracking reduction conversion reaction device 8 includes horizontal cylinder 9, the cylinder 9 is rotated around horizontal axis at work, to guarantee distribution that material is dynamically kept in balance always in cylinder and guarantee that the material at any position in cylinder has identical or essentially identical temperature in synchronization.The rotation includes rotating clockwise and/or rotating counterclockwise, i.e., the described cylinder 9 can be rotated forward and be overturn.
Preferably, there is cylinder circle, polygon etc. to surround the centrosymmetric cross section of the horizontal axis.The cylinder 9 is designed as horizontal, on the one hand, facilitate the rotation for realizing cylinder;On the other hand, horizontal cylinder 9 will drive organic materials and throw, fall, this rotated versions are particularly advantageous to stir evenly organic materials when rotating around horizontal axis.It is pointed out that horizontal axis signified herein, is not limited to stringent level, it will be appreciated that cylinder is set as being slightly slanted, as long as not influencing material in the intracorporal overturning stirring of cylinder, all within protection scope of the present invention.Similarly, the horizontal screw bolt for feeding and discharging is also and nonessential stringent level.Horizontally disposed is only preferred scheme.
The rotation of cylinder 9 is realized by means of motor and the stud ring transmission device being driven by motor.Specifically, ring gear, the rotation axis of center line, that is, cylinder 9 of the ring gear can be fixedly installed in the outer surface of cylinder 9.Motor is engaged by transmission device with the ring gear, and cylinder 9 is driven to rotate.The ring gear according to the scale of cylinder 9 be arranged one, it is two or more.
Motor allows cylinder 9 to rotate forward or backwards when needed, so that switching to reversely rotate spreads more evenly across material in cylinder, to further promote thermally equivalent when rotation leads to material accumulation in cylinder in one direction.
The inlet port and outlet port of cylinder 9 are located at cylinder both ends, and feed inlet is connect using sealing device 11 with the housing seal of material propulsion device 7.Preferably, the sealing device is bellows machinery combination sealing arrangement 11.Discharge port equally uses bellows machinery combination sealing arrangement 11 to connect with the housing seal of discharging spiral conveyor 30.
The feed inlet that the screw rod of material propulsion device 7 passes through cylinder 9 protrudes into cylinder 9.9 inner wall of cylinder is equipped with spiral material stock guide 12, and material is oriented to discharge port inside cylinder 9 for the spinning movement by means of cylinder 9.
Discharging spiral conveyor 30 is discharged and/or recycles from discharge port as the solid product after material conveying device is used to react is gone out.The discharging spiral conveyor 30 includes shell and the screw rod that setting is arranged in the horizontal direction in the housing, as previously described, one end of its shell is tightly connected and is passed through with the discharge port of the cylinder 9 inside the discharge port and the cylinder 9 and is connected to, screw rod one end is protruded into cylinder 9, and the direction that the other end is directed away from cylinder 9 extends.Similar to the structure of material propulsion device 7, the continuous blade along spiral of Archimedes setting is formed on the screw rod of discharging spiral conveyor 30, to export the material inside cylinder 9 outward with Archimedian screw propulsion mode.
One end on the shell of the discharging spiral conveyor 30 far from the cylinder 9 includes downward closed discharge gate.The discharge gate is closed during reaction, opens the organic matter carbon generated for reaction to be discharged after completion of the reaction.
Water cooling outfeed belt conveyor 13 of the discharge gate by means of the connection of discharging sealing device 15 vertically downward.Water cooling outfeed belt conveyor 13 includes the water jacket being arranged in outside discharge pipe, and the organic matter carbon into discharge pipe provides water-jacket typ water circulating cooling, is transported in organic matter Carbon stock device 27 after so that the drop temperature of organic matter carbon is reduced to safe temperature.
9 inside of cylinder is connected to a collecting pipe, for collecting the gas-phase product generated during dry distillation reactor.In the illustrated embodiment, collecting pipe is connected in the housing sidewall of material propulsion device 14, to be connected to the internal gas of cylinder 9.Collecting pipe is not arranged on the side wall of cylinder 9 of rotation, but the complexity of connection structure can be reduced by being arranged in the housing sidewall of fixed material propulsion device 14.Meanwhile when generating gas-phase product in cylinder 9, almost without material in material propulsion device 14, there is no the risks of entrance blocking.
Heating device
Heating device 16 is used to heat cracking reduction conversion reaction device 8, to remove the moisture in the material inside cylinder 9, is improved the calorific value of material, promotes the generation of cracking reduction conversion reaction.One or more can be set in the heating device 16, in the case where heating device setting is multiple, can start one or more according to the demand of heating.In such manner, it is possible to realize to the flexible heating of cracking reduction conversion reaction device 8, meet requirement of the organic materials to temperature in cylinder 9.
The heating device 16 includes the thermally conductive room 17 that heat transfer can be carried out at least part of cylinder 9.For example, the bottom of cylinder 9 is arranged in thermally conductive room 17, the bottom of the cylinder is covered along the generatrix direction of cylinder, and by the heat transfer to cylinder 9 generated in thermally conductive room 17 by way of heat transfer, to realize the indirect heating to material in cylinder.When cylinder 9 rotates, heat can pass to material in cylinder from the different location on 9 surface of cylinder.
By fuel (such as separating the fuel gas obtained from the gas-phase product of cracking reduction conversion reaction device 8), burnt by means of self wind distribution combustor 18 is generated heat in the thermally conductive room 17, and oxygen supply blower 26 is for supplying air or oxygen into burner 18.The inside of thermally conductive room 17 is made of flame-proof thermal insulation material, to guarantee that the heat of maximum ratio will all be passed to cylinder 9 rather than loss.
The ratio that proportional control valve 19 is used to control air and combustion gas enters is provided in the gas pipeline or air pipeline being connected with burner 18, the amount of heat that burning generates can be controlled, to be accurately controlled the internal temperature of thermally conductive room 17 according to set temperature curve.When reaching thermal balance in burner and in cylinder, the temperature of the two is identical.
Proportional control valve 19 is connect with a PLC controller, and PLC controller controls proportional control valve 19 according to following thermotonus conditions of material in cylinder 9.
Fuel gas burn in the burner hearth of burner 18 caused by flue gas through cooling and dedusting tower 24 remove impurity after direct qualified discharge.Optionally, further include wet method filtration device, the deleterious acidic gas in flue gas is removed by the lye hybrid reaction sprayed with 5% concentration.
Before dust removal and filtration discharge, carbon monoxide detector is preferably set, and connect with the PLC controller, CO emission included in on-line real-time measuremen flue gas in exhaust pipe, and burner proportional control valve 19 is adjusted according to CO emission.Increase oxygen-supplying amount when CO emission is higher than a certain threshold value or increases the ratio of oxygen and fuel gas;It when CO emission is lower than a certain threshold value, keeps oxygen-supplying amount or keeps the ratio of oxygen and fuel gas, in short, CO emission is made to keep minimum, fuel gas is made to reach full combustion in the burner.The fuel gas includes the fuel gas of recycling.
Thermotonus condition in cylinder 9
Specifically, temperature curve can be divided into along chronological order in the entire treatment process of material:
First segment drying stage, temperature is kept for 100~200 DEG C in cylinder 9, and effect is to evaporate the moisture of material in cylinder, is made material thermally equivalent, gradual drying is reached dry materials standard.
The thermally equivalent here and below, refer to that the organic materials at any position in cylinder is identical or essentially identical in the temperature of synchronization, thermally equivalent is one of key technology that the present invention emphasizes, no matter in drying stage, dry distillation reactor stage or carbonation stage, expectation material thermally equivalent in cylinder.Thermally equivalent in the present invention is realized by overturning material persistently in cylinder.So-called lasting overturning refers to that material is discontinuously overturn in each stage whole process of drying, dry distillation reactor or carbonization continuously or with known interval.It that is, lasting overturning is not meant to the required continuous rotation of cylinder, can also rotate, such as rotation 2 minutes, be spaced 0.5 minute at a time interval, then proceed in the same direction or oppositely rotate 2 minutes, then be spaced 0.5 minute etc..
The dry materials standard for usually meeting dry distillation reactor condition is water content 20% or so, this stage duration is adjusted according to the water content for the treatment of material itself.
The degree of drying of detection material can be assisted by the observation window on vapor condensation beaming device in observation collecting pipe in this stage.If material is wet, condensed water will be observed on the observation window of vapor condensation beaming device, with the drying of material, condensed water is gradually decreased, until observation window is dry, material reaches dry standard.
The second segment dry distillation reactor stage continues to make material thermally equivalent and is to slowly warm up to 450 °C~550 DEG C and keeps.The effect in this stage is to generate a large amount of fuel gas and tar oil gas.With 15 DEG C~20 DEG C/min of heating rate persistently overheating since the holding temperature of drying stage.With the heating of this rate, it can guarantee that stablizing for subsequent dry distillation reactor occurs.After being warming up to 300 DEG C, dry distillation reactor takes place, and main product is methane, ethylene, ethane and carbon monoxide.The time of this elementary reaction is different and different according to the component of material.Whether the present invention is completed by monitoring cylinder internal pressure come auxiliary judgment reaction, specifically, pressure is gradually increased in reaction process, reaction coda pressure is gradually reduced.Control device judges that reaction terminates when detecting that pressure reduces.Preferably, when pressure is decreased to tend towards stability, fully reacting terminates, and the gas-phase product generated substantially all is recovered.
Phase III carbonation stage, the temperature in cylinder 9 are maintained at 580 DEG C~640 DEG C, preferably 600 DEG C.It continues to guarantee material thermally equivalent in the process.Wherein the material after abundant dry distillation reactor no longer generates liquid phase product, and is gradually carbonized, and generates solid product organic matter carbon.
The control of three phases temperature can be controlled thermally conductive indoor pressure and be realized by the quantity of heating device.Thermally conductive indoor pressure and the temperature of thermally conductive room directly control the stabilization of a body temperature, best to reach the three phases progress of work and efficiency.
By means of above-mentioned control process, it can make the material in reaction chamber that cracking reduction conversion reaction sufficiently occur, due to being reacted under oxygen free condition of the organic materials in sealed cylinder, material does not burn, pernicious gas, such as dioxin will not be generated, since entire cylinder seals, the particulate pollutants such as dust will not be discharged into environment, all organic materials are fully converted into " oil, gas and carbon ".
Gaseous fuel used in heating device 16 cracks the gas-phase product of reduction conversion reaction device 8 from the sealed rotary.The gas-phase product is not directly used as heating device 16, but needs to carry out a series of gas treatment, will hereinafter be described.
Gas handling system equipment
In order to separate and collect oil, the gas product in above-mentioned cracking reduction conversion reaction, equipment of the invention further includes a gas handling system equipment, comprising: divides drum 23, depositing dust clarifier 21, vapor condensation beaming device 22, oil gas water separator 25, gas purifier 20 and cyclic water tank 29.
Specifically, point drum 23 is provided in collecting pipe on cracking reduction conversion reaction device 8, the acid toxic and harmful gas such as HCl, SOx and HF generated during reduction reaction will be cracked to remove by wet absorption, such as it is absorbed and is removed by alkaline matters such as Ca (OH) 2, NaOH, and remaining gas-phase product is subjected to pressure buffer, enter remaining processing sequences convenient for gas.
Gas-phase product is from dividing drum 23 to enter depositing dust clarifier 21, and the compound particles of dust and oil gas sink under the influence of centrifugal force, and gas is escaped through outlet above, so that entrained solid particulate matter in gas-phase product be removed.
After dust separation, all high temperature organic steams in the gas-phase product, including gas mixture.These steam are transported in vapor condensation beaming device 22.The structure of the vapor condensation beaming device 22 is conventional beaming device structure, carries out external cooling by cyclic water tank 29, so that steam therein is condensed, gas-liquid mixture is obtained after condensation.
Temperature in the vapor condensation beaming device 22 is controlled, on the one hand setting temperature sensor, on the other hand setting temperature-adjusting device, it is connected with parameter control system equipment, the temperature of the vapor condensation beaming device 22 is set to be controlled in 10 DEG C, tar oil gas and fuel gas can be separated thoroughly under the conditions of this temperature.It will be appreciated that temperature sensor and temperature-adjusting device can also be replaced using constant temperature water tank, the temperature of the vapor condensation beaming device 22 can also equally be controlled at 10 DEG C.These temperature control means are all within the scope of the present invention.
The gas-liquid mixture enters grease gas separating device 25, separates to tar, water and fuel gas.After the Oil, Water, Gas separator 25 separation, tar is stored into Fuel Tanking Unit 28, can obtain recycling;Water can be discharged or be recycled;Fuel gas is recycled after the purification of gas purifier 20 as the fuel of heating device 16, the heat that gas fuel burning generates, for temperature needed for maintaining cracking reduction conversion reaction.
The fuel gas of recycling can be passed directly into heating device 16, can also store, be passed through heating device 16 when needed.It include the fuel gas and other fuel gas recycled, supplement of other the described fuel gas as the fuel gas for the fuel gas that burning generates heat in heating device 16.
Fuel gas (including fuel gas) burn in the burner hearth of burner 18 caused by flue gas through cooling and dedusting tower 24 remove impurity after direct qualified discharge.Optionally, further include wet method filtration device, the deleterious acidic gas in flue gas is removed by the lye hybrid reaction sprayed with 5% concentration.
Parameter control system equipment
In order to accurately control the condition of cracking reduction conversion reaction, makes the material in cylinder 9 according to ideal temperature curve thermally equivalent, guarantee the efficient operation of system, the invention also includes a parameter control system equipment.
The parameter control system equipment includes the temperature sensor being arranged in cylinder 9, pressure sensor, humidity sensor, pH meter, carbon monoxide detector, the motor of the driving rotation of cylinder 9, burner proportional control valve 19 and/or oxygen supply blower 26, and the control device being connected with these devices.
The control device is used to that the drying soaking time and pH value of organic materials to be adjusted according to the data that the humidity sensor and/or pH meter are fed back.
The control device includes frequency-variable controller and PLC controller.
Frequency-variable controller is used to adjust the air quantity of oxygen supply blower 26, and PLC controller can adjust burner proportional control valve 19.By adjusting the air quantity of oxygen supply blower 26 and adjusting burner proportional control valve 19, can the temperature requirement according to the organic materials in the closed cylinder, the ratio of the fuel gas rate and fuel gas and air that are passed through burner is adjusted.For example, acquiring the real time temperature in the closed cylinder, compared with set temperature, when real time temperature is lower than set temperature, increases the rate for being passed through the fuel gas of burner, that is, increase fuel gas supply amount;Reduce the rate for being passed through the fuel gas of burner when real time temperature is higher than set temperature, that is, reduces fuel gas supply amount.And it is based on fuel gas supply amount, in the ratio of ideal proportion adjustment fuel gas and air.
For another example PLC controller is also connected with carbon monoxide detector, the CO emission of on-line monitoring burner discharge simultaneously adjusts burner proportional control valve 19 according to CO emission.Increase oxygen-supplying amount when CO emission is higher than a certain threshold value or increases the ratio of oxygen and fuel gas;It when CO emission is lower than a certain threshold value, keeps oxygen-supplying amount or keeps the ratio of oxygen and fuel gas, in short, CO emission is made to keep minimum.
PLC controller is used to control motor, temperature control, pressure control, humid control, reaction time control and pH value control etc..
The control to motor includes control to motor start and stop and to the rotary rpm of cylinder 9 and the control of direction of rotation, to realize material in the intracorporal thermally equivalent of cylinder and feeding and discharging.
The control of the temperature includes detecting and controlling to the temperature of organic materials in cylinder and heating or rate of temperature fall, to ensure that organic materials meets temperature requirement always in cylinder;And according to the temperature of organic materials in cylinder and the rate requirement of heating or cooling, tolerance, rate and the ratio of the oxygen and fuel gas that are passed through burner are adjusted, so that temperature is in desired quantity always.
The pressure control includes that the detection and/or control of the cylinder internal pressure of reduction conversion reaction device 8 are cracked to sealed rotary, and the detection and/or control of thermally conductive room pressure, if detecting that pressure declines in the dry distillation reactor stage, it is judged as that dry distillation reactor terminates.
The humid control includes cracking humidity in the cylinder of reduction conversion reaction device 8 to sealed rotary to control, and determine whether the first drying stage is completed according to humidity.For example, detecting the humidity in the closed cylinder in drying stage, it is judged as dry completion when humidity drops to setting humidity.
The pH value control includes controlling the intracorporal organic materials of cylinder of sealed rotary cracking reduction conversion reaction device 8, if pH value deviates, can launch suitable acid or alkali into cylinder to adjust pH value.It is especially needed to detect the pH value in the closed cylinder in the dry distillation reactor stage, when pH value deviates setting pH value, acid or alkali are added into the closed cylinder, stablize pH value in setting pH value, such as sets pH value as 7-8, to be conducive to dry distillation reactor generation.
Above-mentioned control is to be precisely controlled, and is heated evenly the intracorporal material of cylinder of sealed rotary cracking reduction conversion reaction device 8, meets its scheduled reaction condition that cracking reduction conversion occurs, effectively guarantees the continuous high-efficient operation of system.
The above is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, and for those of ordinary skill in the art, according to the thought of the present invention, there will be changes in the specific implementation manner and application range, and the contents of this specification are not to be construed as limiting the invention.

Claims (14)

  1. A kind of cracking method of reduction treatment of domestic organic garbage, the domestic organic garbage includes organic materials, which is characterized in that so that it is completely cut off air organic materials merging closed cylinder, and makes its persistently overturning and indirectly thermally equivalent in the closed cylinder.
  2. The cracking method of reduction treatment of domestic organic garbage according to claim 1, which is characterized in that
    It is described heated to include:
    The organic materials is heated to 100 DEG C~200 DEG C and is dried by drying stage;
    The organic materials is to slowly warm up to 450 DEG C~550 DEG C and kept by the dry distillation reactor stage, and the organic materials after making drying carries out dry distillation reactor;
    Carbonation stage is warming up to 580 DEG C~640 DEG C after the dry distillation reactor, and the organic materials after making reaction is gradually carbonized.
  3. The cracking method of reduction treatment of domestic organic garbage according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the organic materials is 50~100 millimeters through broken size before being placed in the closed cylinder.
  4. The cracking method of reduction treatment of domestic organic garbage according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the lasting overturning includes that the ontology of the closed cylinder is rotated around the horizontal axis of its own.
  5. The cracking method of reduction treatment of domestic organic garbage according to claim 3, which is characterized in that in the dry distillation reactor stage, the rate that the organic materials slowly heats up is 15 DEG C~20 DEG C/min.
  6. The cracking method of reduction treatment of domestic organic garbage according to claim 3, which is characterized in that the gas-phase product that the dry distillation reactor generates is collected, purifies and is separated into fuel gas, tar and water.
  7. The cracking method of reduction treatment of domestic organic garbage according to claim 6, which is characterized in that the gas-phase product is collected via the collecting pipe being connected to the closed cylinder.
  8. The cracking method of reduction treatment of domestic organic garbage according to claim 6, which is characterized in that the separation is by being cooled to 10 DEG C of realizations for the gas-phase product.
  9. The cracking method of reduction treatment of domestic organic garbage according to claim 6, which is characterized in that closed cylinder and organic materials therein described in indirect heating after the fuel gas is used in burner burn.
  10. The cracking method of reduction treatment of domestic organic garbage according to claim 9, it is characterized in that, the rate for being passed through the fuel gas of burner is adjusted according to the temperature requirement of the organic materials in the closed cylinder, and the fuel gas includes the fuel gas.
  11. The cracking method of reduction treatment of domestic organic garbage according to claim 9, it is characterized in that, the ratio of the air and fuel gas that are passed through burner is adjusted according to the CO emission of on-line checking, keep the CO emission minimum, the fuel gas includes the fuel gas.
  12. The cracking method of reduction treatment of domestic organic garbage according to claim 1, which is characterized in that in drying stage, detect the humidity in the closed cylinder, be judged as dry completion when humidity drops to setting humidity.
  13. The cracking method of reduction treatment of domestic organic garbage according to claim 1, which is characterized in that in the dry distillation reactor stage, detect the pH value in the closed cylinder, when pH value deviates setting pH value, addition acid or alkali in Xiang Suoshu closed cylinder stablize pH value in setting pH value.
  14. The cracking method of reduction treatment of domestic organic garbage according to claim 1, which is characterized in that in the dry distillation reactor stage, detect the pressure in the closed cylinder, when detecting pressure decline, be then judged as that dry distillation reactor terminates.
CN201880003660.1A 2017-11-03 2018-06-28 A kind of cracking reduction transformation processing method of domestic organic garbage Pending CN109890943A (en)

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Application publication date: 20190614