CN109814044B - Passive equalization experiment system and method for power battery of electric automobile - Google Patents

Passive equalization experiment system and method for power battery of electric automobile Download PDF

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CN109814044B
CN109814044B CN201910204183.1A CN201910204183A CN109814044B CN 109814044 B CN109814044 B CN 109814044B CN 201910204183 A CN201910204183 A CN 201910204183A CN 109814044 B CN109814044 B CN 109814044B
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module
battery
switch
panel
wiring board
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CN109814044A (en
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龚文资
李志军
李伟亮
张睿
杨丽
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Wuxi Institute of Commerce
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Wuxi Institute of Commerce
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies; Technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/10Energy storage using batteries

Abstract

The invention discloses a passive equalization experiment system for a power battery of an electric automobile, which comprises an electronic controller and an experiment battery pack; the electronic controller is in control connection with the experimental battery pack; the experimental battery pack comprises a plurality of battery modules which are connected in series; the battery module comprises a plurality of single batteries which are connected in parallel; the experimental battery pack comprises a battery pack protection device; the heat dissipation air path is designed in the protection device, so that heat generated in the experiment can be discharged in time, and stable performance of the experiment is ensured.

Description

Passive equalization experiment system and method for power battery of electric automobile
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of battery systems of electric automobiles, in particular to a passive equalization experiment system for a power battery of an electric automobile.
Background
The power battery of the electric automobile is generally formed by connecting a plurality of modules in series, and has higher requirement on the balance of each module. The battery equalization is to use the power electronic technology to keep the voltage deviation of each module within a reasonable range so as to prevent the overcharge and overdischarge of a single module. The battery equalization is divided into active equalization and passive equalization, wherein the active equalization achieves the consistency of all modules through energy transfer and the passive equalization through energy consumption. In order to ensure the safety and stability of the electric automobile in the use process, it is necessary to invent a passive equalization experiment system of the electric automobile power battery with outstanding heat dissipation performance based on the passive equalization principle.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to: in order to overcome the defects in the prior art, the invention provides the passive equalization experimental system for the power battery of the electric automobile, which is based on the passive equalization principle and has outstanding heat dissipation performance.
The technical scheme is as follows: in order to achieve the above purpose, the passive equalization experiment system for the power battery of the electric automobile comprises an electronic controller, a rechargeable battery, a power switch and an experiment battery pack; the electronic controller is in control connection with the experimental battery pack; the electronic controller, the rechargeable battery, the power switch and the experimental battery pack are arranged in series; the experimental battery pack comprises a plurality of battery modules which are connected in series; the battery module comprises a plurality of single batteries which are connected in parallel; the battery module further comprises a discharging resistor and an electronic switch which are connected in series.
Further, the battery module comprises a first module, a second module and a third module; the electronic controller is electrically connected with a charging switch, a first module discharging switch, a second module discharging switch, a third module discharging switch and an equalizing switch; a normally open relay is also arranged on the series circuit of the plurality of battery modules; the first module is provided with a first module electronic switch and a first module discharge resistor in parallel; the second module is provided with a second module electronic switch and a second module discharge resistor in parallel; the third module is provided with a third module electronic switch and a third module discharging resistor in parallel.
Further, the experimental battery pack comprises a battery pack protection device; the battery pack protection device comprises a first wiring board and a second wiring board which are electrically connected with each other; the single batteries are clamped and arranged between the first wiring board and the second wiring board; a first heat conducting plate is attached to one side, back to the single battery, of the first wiring board; a second heat conducting plate is attached to one side, back to the single battery, of the second wiring board; a first panel and a second panel are arranged at two ends of the first heat-conducting plate along the length direction of the first heat-conducting plate; a third wiring board is embedded on the first panel; one side of the third wiring board facing the single battery is electrically connected with the first wiring board and the second wiring board; and a wiring hole is formed in one side, facing away from the single battery, of the third wiring board.
Further, a ventilation board is arranged on one side of the first heat conduction plate, which is away from the first wiring board; the ventilation plate is internally provided with a flow hole along the length direction of the first heat conducting plate; an exhaust fan is correspondingly arranged at one end of the circulation hole, which is close to the first panel; a first ventilation opening is formed in the first panel; the first ventilation opening corresponds to the exhaust fan in position; a second vent is arranged on one side of the second panel, which is close to the second wiring board; a first protection plate and a second protection plate are connected and installed between the first heat conduction plate and the second heat conduction plate; the two ends of the first protection plate along the length direction of the first heat conducting plate are respectively connected with the first panel and the second panel; the second protection plate is connected with the first panel and the second panel along two ends of the length direction of the first heat conducting plate respectively.
Further, a plurality of circulation holes are arranged in the ventilation plate at intervals, and the ventilation plate comprises a first circulation hole and a second circulation hole; the air inlet of the exhaust fan is correspondingly matched with the first flow hole; the second flow holes are distributed around the first flow holes; the second flow hole is communicated with the first flow hole.
Further, an air inlet device is arranged at a second air vent on the second panel; the bottom of the air inlet device is provided with an air hole; a gas channel is arranged in the gas inlet device; the air hole is communicated with the second air vent through the air channel; a filter plate is embedded in the side surface of the air inlet device; the filter plates are correspondingly arranged on the paths of the gas channels; the top of the air inlet device is provided with a storage groove; the top of the storage tank is hinged with a flip cover.
Further, a first caulking groove is formed in the inner side of one end, facing the first panel, of the first protection plate; a second caulking groove is formed in the inner side of one end, facing the first panel, of the second protection plate; a first conducting strip and a second conducting strip are arranged on one side of the first panel, which faces the second panel; the first conducting strip is in nested fit with the first caulking groove, and a first temperature sensor is arranged on one side of the first conducting strip, which is away from the first caulking groove; the second conducting strip is in nested fit with the second caulking groove, and a second temperature sensor is arranged on one side, back to the second caulking groove.
An experimental method of a passive equalization experimental system of an electric automobile power battery comprises the following steps: comprises the steps of,
step one, an experimental battery pack charging stage; the power switch and the charging switch are closed, the electronic controller controls the contact of the normally open relay to be closed, the charging battery adopts a 12V storage battery to charge 3 battery modules, the voltage value of each battery module is fed back to the electronic controller, and when the voltage value of one battery module reaches the highest limit value, the electronic controller is triggered to control the contact of the normally open relay to be opened; the voltage of each module is monitored by using a voltmeter, a charging switch can be manually disconnected according to the requirement, and the charging working condition is exited;
step two, a battery module discharging stage; the power switch is closed, and the first module discharging switch, the second module discharging switch and the third module discharging switch are partially or completely closed; the electronic controller controls the electronic switch of the corresponding battery module to be conducted, the corresponding module discharging resistor heats and consumes module electric energy, the voltage of each battery module is monitored by using the voltmeter, the corresponding module discharging switch can be manually disconnected according to the requirement, and the module discharging working condition is exited; when the voltage value of a certain battery module reaches the minimum value, the electronic controller also automatically turns off the corresponding module electronic switch to enable the module to exit the discharging working condition;
step three, a battery module balancing stage; the power switch and the equalization switch are closed, the electronic controller determines whether equalization is needed according to the voltage value of each battery module, if equalization is needed, the electronic controller controls the corresponding module electronic switch of the battery module with high voltage to be conducted, and the corresponding module resistor discharges, heats and consumes module electric energy until the target value is reached; if the balance is not needed, the battery module can be discharged first and then the balance experiment can be carried out.
The beneficial effects are that: the invention relates to a passive equalization experiment system for an electric automobile power battery, which comprises an electronic controller and an experiment battery pack; the electronic controller is in control connection with the experimental battery pack; the experimental battery pack comprises a plurality of battery modules which are connected in series; the battery module comprises a plurality of single batteries which are connected in parallel; the experimental battery pack comprises a battery pack protection device; the heat dissipation air path is designed in the protection device, so that heat generated in the experiment can be discharged in time, and stable performance of the experiment is ensured.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of an experimental system circuit;
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of the whole structure of the protection device;
fig. 3 is a schematic diagram of the structure of the air intake device.
Description of the embodiments
The invention will be further described with reference to the accompanying drawings.
A passive equalization experiment system of an electric automobile power battery is shown in figure 1, and comprises an electronic controller 1 and an experiment battery pack 10; the electronic controller 1 is in control connection with the experimental battery pack 10; the experimental battery pack 10 comprises a plurality of battery modules 20 which are connected in series; the battery module 20 includes a plurality of unit batteries 201 connected in parallel with each other; the electronic controller 1 specifically adopts a commercially available singlechip module (such as STM32 series singlechip), the battery can be purchased from a lithium battery on the market, and other elements such as a switch, a resistor and the like are all general components in circuit construction, and are not described herein.
The experimental battery of the experimental device uses a single lithium battery with nominal voltage of 3.7V, the highest and the lowest set limit values are 4.2V and 3V,3 single batteries are connected in parallel to form 1 battery module 20, and then 3 battery modules 20 are connected in series to form the experimental device; the experimental device can intuitively display the voltage of each module and has the characteristics of simple structure, safe use and convenient operation.
The passive equalization experiment system also comprises a rechargeable battery 2 and a power switch 3; the rechargeable battery 2 and the power switch 3 are connected with the experimental battery pack 10 in series; the battery module 20 further includes a discharge resistor and an electronic switch connected in series with each other.
The battery module 20 includes a first module 61, a second module 62, and a third module 63; the electronic controller 1 is electrically connected with a charging switch 4, a first module discharging switch 5, a second module discharging switch 6, a third module discharging switch 7 and an equalizing switch 8; a normally open relay 9 is also arranged on the serial circuit of the plurality of battery modules 20; the first module 61 is provided with a first module electronic switch 11 and a first module discharging resistor 12 in parallel; the second module 62 is provided with a second module electronic switch 13 and a second module discharging resistor 14 in parallel; the third module 63 is provided with a third module electronic switch 15 and a third module discharging resistor 16 in parallel; the experimenter controls the charging switch 4, the first module discharging switch 5, the second module discharging switch 6, the third module discharging switch 7 and the equalizing switch 8, and then the electronic controller 1 specifically controls the electronic switch and the discharging resistor in each battery module 20.
As shown in fig. 2 and 3, the experimental battery pack 10 includes a battery pack protection device 21; the battery pack protection device 21 comprises a first wiring board 22 and a second wiring board 23 which are electrically connected with each other; the single batteries 201 are clamped and arranged between the first wiring board 22 and the second wiring board 23; etched circuits are distributed on the first wiring board 22 and the second wiring board 23, and the two wiring boards are electrically connected, so that a plurality of single batteries 201 can be connected together; when the number of the battery modules 20 or the number of the contained single batteries 201 is required to be changed, only the wiring board is required to be replaced, so that a large amount of wiring time is saved, and the experiment efficiency is obviously improved; a first heat-conducting plate 24 is attached to one side of the first wiring board 22 facing away from the single battery 201; a second heat conducting plate 25 is attached to one side of the second wiring board 23 facing away from the single battery 201; the first heat-conducting plate 24 is provided with a first panel 26 and a second panel 27 at two ends along the length direction thereof; a third patch panel 266 is embedded on the first panel 26; the third wiring board 266 is electrically connected to the first wiring board 22 and the second wiring board 23 on the side facing the single battery 201; a wiring hole is formed in one side of the third wiring board 266, which faces away from the single battery 201; the battery is connected to the corresponding electronic controller 1, various switches and resistors by a third wiring board 266.
The side of the first heat-conducting plate 24 facing away from the first wiring board 22 is provided with a ventilation board 28; the ventilation plate 28 is provided with a flow hole 281 along the length direction of the first heat conduction plate 24; the ventilation hole 281 is correspondingly provided with an exhaust fan 282 at one end close to the first panel 26; the first panel 26 is provided with a first ventilation opening 261; the ventilation opening 261 corresponds to the exhaust fan 282 in position; a second ventilation opening 271 is formed in one side of the second panel 27, which is close to the second wiring board 23; a first protection plate 29 and a second protection plate 30 are connected and installed between the first heat-conducting plate 24 and the second heat-conducting plate 25; the first protection plate 29 is connected to the first panel 26 and the second panel 27 along two ends of the first heat conducting plate 24 in the length direction; the second protection plate 30 is connected to the first panel 26 and the second panel 27 along two ends of the first heat conducting plate 24 in the length direction; the first panel 26, the second panel 27, the first heat-conducting plate 24, the second heat-conducting plate 25, the first protection plate 29 and the second protection plate 30 jointly enclose a closed space, cold air is flushed into the second air vent 271 near the lower end of the protection device 21, flows in the protection device 21 and is finally pumped out by the exhaust fan 282 from the first air vent 261, so that heat generated in the working of an experimental system can be timely discharged, and stable experiment is ensured; meanwhile, the first protection plate 29 and the second protection plate 30 are hinged with the first heat-conducting plate 24, and when maintenance and replacement are needed inside the system, the operation can be completed only by lifting the protection plates, so that the conventional process of disassembling and assembling the structure with great expense is avoided.
The ventilation board 28 has a plurality of ventilation holes 281 spaced apart from each other, and specifically includes a first ventilation hole 288 and a second ventilation hole 283; the air inlet of the exhaust fan 282 is correspondingly matched with the first flow hole 288; a plurality of the second flow holes 283 are distributed around the first flow holes 288; the second flow hole 283 is provided in communication with the first flow hole 288; thus, the exhaust outlet is more centralized, and the utilization efficiency of the exhaust fan 282 is improved.
An air inlet device 31 is arranged at a second air vent 271 on the second panel 27; the bottom of the air inlet device 31 is provided with an air hole; a gas channel is arranged in the gas inlet device 31; the air hole is communicated with the second air vent 271 through an air channel; a filter plate 312 is embedded on the side surface of the air inlet device 31; the filter plates 312 are correspondingly arranged on the paths of the gas channels; suspended flocculent impurities, dust and the like in the sucked air can be effectively intercepted outside through the filter plate 312, the inside of the experiment system is tidy, and when the filter plate needs to be cleaned, the filter plate needs to be pulled out to rapidly finish the replacement operation; a storage groove is formed in the top of the air inlet device 31; the flip 314 is hinged at the top of the storage tank, so that common tools such as screwdrivers can be placed, and the experimental system has a storage function.
The first shielding plate 29 is provided with a first caulking groove 291 facing the inner side of one end of the first panel 26; a second caulking groove 301 is formed on the inner side of one end of the second protection plate 30 facing the first panel 26; the first panel 26 is provided with a first conductive tab 262 and a second conductive tab 263 on a side facing the second panel 27; the first conductive sheet 262 is in nested fit with the first caulking groove 291, and a first temperature sensor is arranged at one side facing away from the first caulking groove 291; the second conductive piece 263 is in nested fit with the second caulking groove 301, and a second temperature sensor is disposed on a side facing away from the second caulking groove 301; because the temperature of the portion near the first panel 27, which is far from the first vent 261, is high from the air flow path, it is possible to grasp the overall heat dissipation of the experimental system by monitoring the temperature at this point.
An experimental method of a passive equalization experimental system of an electric automobile power battery comprises the following steps: comprises the steps of,
step one, a charging stage of the experimental battery pack 10; the power switch 3 and the charging switch 4 are closed, the electronic controller 1 controls the contacts of the normally open relay 9 to be closed, the rechargeable battery 2 charges the 3 battery modules 20 by adopting a 12V storage battery, the voltage value of each battery module 20 is fed back to the electronic controller 1, and when the voltage value of one battery module 20 reaches the highest limit value, the electronic controller 1 is triggered to control the contacts of the normally open relay 9 to be opened; the voltage of each module is monitored by using a voltmeter, the charging switch 4 can be manually disconnected according to the requirement, and the charging working condition is exited;
step two, a discharging stage of the battery module 20; the power switch 3 is closed, and the first module discharging switch 5, the second module discharging switch 6 and the third module discharging switch 7 are partially or completely closed; the electronic controller 1 controls the electronic switch of the corresponding battery module 20 to be turned on, the corresponding module discharging resistor heats and consumes module electric energy, the voltage of each battery module 20 is monitored by using the voltmeter, the corresponding module discharging switch can be manually turned off according to the requirement, and the module discharging working condition is exited; when the voltage value of a certain battery module 20 reaches the minimum value, the electronic controller 1 will also automatically turn off the corresponding module electronic switch to make the module exit the discharging condition;
step three, a battery module 20 balancing stage; the power switch 3 and the equalization switch 8 are closed, the electronic controller 1 determines whether equalization is needed according to the voltage value of each battery module 20, if equalization is needed, the electronic controller 1 controls the corresponding module electronic switch of the battery module 20 with high voltage to be conducted, and the corresponding module resistor discharges, heats and consumes module electric energy until reaching the target value; if equalization is not needed, the battery module 20 can be discharged first and then an equalization experiment can be performed.
The foregoing is only a preferred embodiment of the invention, it being noted that: it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various modifications and adaptations can be made without departing from the principles of the present invention, and such modifications and adaptations are intended to be comprehended within the scope of the invention.

Claims (5)

1. The passive equalization experiment system for the power battery of the electric automobile is characterized in that: the device comprises an electronic controller (1), a rechargeable battery (2), a power switch (3) and an experimental battery pack (10); the electronic controller (1) is in control connection with the experimental battery pack (10); the electronic controller (1), the rechargeable battery (2) and the power switch (3) are connected in series with the experimental battery pack (10); the experimental battery pack (10) comprises a plurality of battery modules (20) which are connected in series; the battery module (20) comprises a plurality of single batteries (201) which are connected in parallel; the battery module (20) further comprises a discharge resistor and an electronic switch which are connected in series;
the experimental battery pack (10) comprises a battery pack protection device (21); the battery pack protection device (21) comprises a first wiring board (22) and a second wiring board (23) which are electrically connected with each other; the single batteries (201) are clamped and arranged between the first wiring board (22) and the second wiring board (23); a first heat conducting plate (24) is attached to one side, facing away from the single battery (201), of the first wiring board (22); a second heat conducting plate (25) is attached to one side, facing away from the single battery (201), of the second wiring board (23); the first heat-conducting plate (24) is provided with a first panel (26) and a second panel (27) along two ends of the length direction of the first heat-conducting plate; a third wiring board (266) is embedded on the first panel (26); one side of the third wiring board (266) facing the single battery (201) is electrically connected with the first wiring board (22) and the second wiring board (23); a wiring hole is formed in one side, facing away from the single battery (201), of the third wiring board (266);
a ventilation plate (28) is arranged on one side of the first heat conduction plate (24) facing away from the first wiring plate (22); a flow hole (281) is formed in the ventilation plate (28) along the length direction of the first heat conduction plate (24); an exhaust fan (282) is correspondingly arranged at one end of the circulation hole (281) close to the first panel (26); a first ventilation opening (261) is arranged on the first panel (26); the first ventilation opening (261) corresponds to the position of the exhaust fan (282); a second vent (271) is arranged on one side of the second panel (27) close to the second wiring board (23); a first protection plate (29) and a second protection plate (30) are connected and installed between the first heat-conducting plate (24) and the second heat-conducting plate (25); the first protection plate (29) is respectively connected with the first panel (26) and the second panel (27) along the two ends of the first heat conduction plate (24) in the length direction; the second protection plate (30) is respectively connected with the first panel (26) and the second panel (27) along the two ends of the first heat conduction plate (24) in the length direction;
a plurality of flow holes (281) in the ventilation plate (28) are arranged at intervals, and specifically comprise a first flow hole (288) and a second flow hole (283); the air inlet of the exhaust fan (282) is correspondingly matched with the first flow hole (288); a plurality of second flow holes (283) are distributed around the first flow holes (288); the second flow hole (283) is provided in communication with the first flow hole (288).
2. The electric vehicle power battery passive equalization experiment system according to claim 1, wherein: the battery module (20) comprises a first module (61), a second module (62) and a third module (63); the electronic controller (1) is electrically connected with a charging switch (4), a first module discharging switch (5), a second module discharging switch (6), a third module discharging switch (7) and an equalizing switch (8); a normally open relay (9) is also arranged on the series circuit of the plurality of battery modules (20); the first module (61) is provided with a first module electronic switch (11) and a first module discharging resistor (12) in parallel; the second module (62) is provided with a second module electronic switch (13) and a second module discharging resistor (14) in parallel; and a third module electronic switch (15) and a third module discharging resistor (16) are arranged on the third module (63) in parallel.
3. The electric vehicle power battery passive equalization experiment system according to claim 1, wherein: an air inlet device (31) is arranged at a second air vent (271) on the second panel (27); the bottom of the air inlet device (31) is provided with an air hole; a gas channel is arranged in the gas inlet device (31); the air hole is communicated with the second air vent (271) through an air channel; a filter plate (312) is embedded on the side surface of the air inlet device (31); the filter plates (312) are correspondingly arranged on the paths of the gas channels; a storage groove is formed in the top of the air inlet device (31); the top of the storage groove is hinged with a flip cover (314).
4. The electric vehicle power battery passive equalization experiment system according to claim 1, wherein: a first caulking groove (291) is formed in the inner side of one end, facing the first panel (26), of the first protection plate (29); a second caulking groove (301) is formed in the inner side of one end, facing the first panel (26), of the second protection plate (30); a first conductive sheet (262) and a second conductive sheet (263) are arranged on one side of the first panel (26) facing the second panel (27); the first conducting strip (262) is in nested fit with the first caulking groove (291), and a first temperature sensor is arranged on one side, facing away from the first caulking groove (291); the second conducting strip (263) is in nested fit with the second caulking groove (301), and a second temperature sensor is arranged on one side, facing away from the second caulking groove (301).
5. An experimental method of a passive equalization experimental system of an electric automobile power battery according to any one of claims 1-4: comprises the steps of,
step one, a charging stage of an experimental battery pack (10); the power switch (3) and the charging switch (4) are closed, the electronic controller (1) controls the contacts of the normally open relay (9) to be closed, the rechargeable battery (2) charges the 3 battery modules (20) by adopting a 12V storage battery, the voltage value of each battery module (20) is fed back to the electronic controller (1), and when the voltage value of one battery module (20) reaches the highest limit value, the electronic controller (1) is triggered to control the contacts of the normally open relay (9) to be opened; the voltage of each module is monitored by using a voltmeter, a charging switch (4) can be manually disconnected according to the requirement, and the charging working condition is exited;
step two, a discharging stage of the battery module (20); the power switch (3) is closed, and the first module discharging switch (5), the second module discharging switch (6) and the third module discharging switch (7) are partially or completely closed; the electronic controller (1) controls the electronic switch of the corresponding battery module (20) to be turned on, the corresponding module discharging resistor heats and consumes module electric energy, the voltage of each battery module (20) is monitored by using the voltmeter, the corresponding module discharging switch can be manually disconnected according to the requirement, and the module discharging working condition is exited; when the voltage value of a certain battery module (20) reaches the minimum value, the electronic controller (1) also automatically turns off the corresponding module electronic switch to enable the module to exit the discharging working condition;
step three, a battery module (20) balancing stage; the power switch (3) and the equalization switch (8) are closed, the electronic controller (1) determines whether equalization is needed according to the voltage value of each battery module (20), if equalization is needed, the electronic controller (1) can control the corresponding module electronic switch of the battery module (20) with high voltage to be conducted, and the corresponding module resistor discharges, heats and consumes module electric energy until reaching a target value; if no equalization is required, the battery module (20) can be discharged first and then an equalization experiment can be performed.
CN201910204183.1A 2019-03-18 2019-03-18 Passive equalization experiment system and method for power battery of electric automobile Active CN109814044B (en)

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