CN109735777B - Anti-oxidation hot-work die steel and preparation method thereof - Google Patents

Anti-oxidation hot-work die steel and preparation method thereof Download PDF

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CN109735777B
CN109735777B CN201910170339.9A CN201910170339A CN109735777B CN 109735777 B CN109735777 B CN 109735777B CN 201910170339 A CN201910170339 A CN 201910170339A CN 109735777 B CN109735777 B CN 109735777B
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CN109735777A (en
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连勇
黄进峰
张津
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University of Science and Technology Beijing USTB
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Abstract

The invention provides an antioxidant hot-work die steel and a preparation method thereof, and the antioxidant hot-work die steel is characterized in that: the steel contains, by mass, 0.15 to 0.30% of C, 10 to 13% of Cr, 1.0 to 2.5% of Ni, 1.5 to 3.0% of Mo, 0.5 to 1.5% of Co, 0.8% or less of Si, and 0.8% or less of Mn, and further contains, as other elements, 1% or less of W, 0.9% or less of V, and 0.3% or less of Nb, with the balance being Fe, and trace impurities which are difficult to avoid in steel. The steel has the high temperature strength above 600 ℃ superior to H13 steel and 3Cr2W8V steel, has good thermal fatigue resistance, and has corrosion resistance and oxidation resistance superior to H13 and other existing hot work die steels.

Description

Anti-oxidation hot-work die steel and preparation method thereof
Technical Field
The invention relates to alloy steel, in particular to antioxidant hot work die steel and a preparation method thereof, belonging to the field of metal materials.
Background
The mould is the basic process equipment of industrial production, and in industrial departments such as machinery, national defense, metallurgy, light industry, electronics and the like, a considerable part of parts are formed by the mould. The die ensures high-product and high-efficiency production and reduces production cost in the manufacturing industry. The mold industry plays an important role in national economy. Mold technology has become an important mark for measuring the manufacturing level of national products, and the continuous expansion of the application field of the mold puts more and higher requirements on the mold. According to the service conditions of the die, the die steel can be divided into four categories, including cold-work die steel, hot-work die steel, plastic die steel and plastic die steel. The hot working die is a tool for manufacturing a desired product from a heated metal or a liquid metal, such as a hot forging die, a hot heading die, a hot extrusion die, a die casting die, a high-speed forming die, and the like, and various die steels used are collectively called hot working die steels.
The hot die steel works in a high-temperature complex environment and bears a large impact force, after a die cavity is contacted with high-temperature metal, the local temperature reaches 500-. At present, 3Cr2W8V and 4Cr5MoSiV1(H13 steel) and the like are commonly used as hot work die steel materials. When the hot forging die, the die-casting die and the hot extrusion die are made of the die steel materials, because the high-temperature strength is low, the oxidation resistance and the thermal fatigue resistance are poor, oxidation and deformation are generated in the using process, thermal fatigue cracks (cracks) appear on the inner surface of a cavity, the service life of the die is shortened, and the surface quality of a formed part is also reduced.
The invention provides oxidation-resistant hot-work die steel which has high-temperature strength above 600 ℃ superior to H13 steel and 3Cr2W8V steel, has good thermal fatigue resistance, and has corrosion resistance and oxidation resistance superior to current hot-work die steel such as H13.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention provides oxidation-resistant hot-work die steel which has high-temperature strength above 600 ℃ superior to H13 steel and 3Cr2W8V steel, has good thermal fatigue resistance, and has corrosion resistance and oxidation resistance superior to current hot-work die steel such as H13.
The oxidation-resistant hot-work die steel is characterized in that:
0.15 to 0.30% of C, 10 to 13% of Cr, 1.0 to 2.5% of Ni, 1.5 to 3.0% of Mo, 0.5 to 1.5% of Co, 0.8% or less of Si, 0.8% or less of Mn, and the balance Fe and trace impurities which are difficult to avoid in steel.
Further, the composition further contains 1% or less of W by mass.
Further, it contains 0.9% or less of V in terms of mass ratio.
Further, 0.3% or less of Nb is contained in mass ratio.
The preparation method of the oxidation-resistant hot-work die steel is characterized by comprising the following steps: smelting by adopting vacuum induction smelting and electroslag, or adopting an electric furnace and AOD/VD and electroslag remelting method; homogenizing the smelting blank at 1150-1250 ℃, and then performing hot processing, wherein the initial forging/rolling temperature is 1050-1150 ℃, and the termination temperature is 800 ℃; and (3) carrying out annealing or normalizing and tempering on the blank obtained by hot working, and then carrying out quenching and tempering.
Further, the annealing temperature is 850-900 ℃.
Further, the normalizing and tempering temperatures are as follows: the normalizing temperature is 1050-1150 ℃, and the tempering temperature is 680-750 ℃.
Further, the quenching and tempering refers to a comprehensive heat treatment process of quenching and tempering heat treatment; the quenching heat treatment temperature is 1000-1150 ℃, and the quenching adopts an oil cooling or water cooling mode; and heating the blank to 580-640 ℃ after quenching, and carrying out tempering heat treatment.
The actions of the respective constituent elements of the steel of the present invention and the selection of the content ranges will be further described below, and in the following description, the addition amounts of the elements are expressed in mass ratio (%).
The carbon (C) can improve the quenching hardness and the tempered hardness of the steel, and the C content is higher than 0.15% in order to ensure that the material after quenching and tempering has higher strength. However, since too high a content of C is disadvantageous in impact toughness, the content of C needs to be controlled, and in the present invention, the content of C is controlled to 0.30% or less.
Chromium (Cr) is an essential element for obtaining good corrosion resistance and oxidation resistance, and Cr in steel can combine with oxygen to form a dense oxide film on the surface, thereby contributing to the improvement of oxidation resistance. In order to ensure the oxidation resistance of the steel, the Cr content is higher than 10.0 percent. However, when Cr is excessively added, high-temperature ferrite is likely to occur to deteriorate the mechanical properties, and therefore, Cr is limited to 13.0% or less. Therefore, the Cr content is controlled to be 10.0-13.0%.
Nickel (Ni) can enlarge the austenite phase region, inhibit the formation of ferrite and improve the plasticity and toughness of the material. In order to sufficiently obtain the above-mentioned effects, the lower limit of the amount of Ni to be added needs to be 1.0%. However, the addition of too much Ni not only increases the cost of the alloy but also is disadvantageous in terms of heat resistance. From the above points, the amount of Ni added in the steel of the present invention is controlled to be 1.0 to 2.5%.
Molybdenum (Mo) forms a fine stable M in steel2The C-type carbide stabilizes the tempered structure, improves the heat strength of the material, and simultaneously, the high-hardness dispersed carbide particles can have better wear resistance. However, the Mo content should not be too high, otherwise the impact toughness is unfavourable. From the above points, the amount of Mo to be added is required to be 1.5 to 3.0%.
Cobalt (Co) has oxidation resistance, Co being against M2The precipitation strengthening of the C-type carbide has a good promoting effect, the heat strength of the material can be improved, and the formation of ferrite can be inhibited without reducing the critical temperature of the steel. However, Co is expensive and should be used in an amount as small as possible. From the above points, the amount of Co added is required to be 0.5 to 1.5%.
Silicon (Si) is a deoxidizing material, and the addition of too high a content of Si will be detrimental to toughness, generally controlled below 0.8%, and within this range there is no significant impact on texture and mechanical properties. Therefore, the Si content in the steel of the present invention is controlled to be 0.8% or less.
Manganese (Mn) is added as a deoxidizer and a desulfurizer, and when it exceeds 0.8%, it will also adversely affect toughness. Therefore, the Mn content is controlled to 0.8% or less.
Tungsten (W) acts similarly to Mo as another element, and can increase the effect of secondary hardening to improve hardness after tempering, contributing to improvement of heat resistance of the material, and can further improve the effect by composite addition of W and Mo. However, in order to prevent the impact toughness from being lowered due to too large secondary hardening, the amount of W to be added is controlled, and the W content of the steel of the present invention is controlled to be 1.0% or less.
Vanadium (V) is similar to Mo, and VC carbide can be formed in the tempering process, which is beneficial to improving the heat resistance and wear resistance of the material. However, V is not preferred to be too large because it lowers the impact toughness of the material. From the above points, the amount of V added is controlled to 0.9% or less.
Niobium (Nb) is a strong carbide forming element, can be combined with carbon to form stable MC type carbide, and can play a role in controlling grain growth during high-temperature austenitization so as to achieve the effect of grain refinement. Too high Nb content results in formation of more primary carbides by liquation, which is detrimental to impact toughness. In order to sufficiently ensure the above effects, the content of Nb is controlled to 0.3 or less.
The inevitable impurities in the present invention are components originally contained in the raw materials or included in the present invention by mixing in during the smelting process, and are not intentionally added components.
The oxidation-resistant hot-work die steel adopts a preparation method similar to that in the prior art: vacuum induction melting and electroslag are recommended for smelting, and electric furnace, AOD/VD, electroslag remelting and other smelting methods which can ensure the requirements of the invention can also be adopted. Homogenizing the smelting blank at 1150-1250 ℃, and then performing hot working at 1050-1150 ℃ of the initial forging/rolling temperature and 800 ℃ of the final temperature. Completely annealing the blank obtained by hot processing at 850-900 ℃ or normalizing at 1050-1150 ℃ and tempering at 680-750 ℃; and then carrying out thermal refining. The thermal refining in the present invention refers to a comprehensive heat treatment process of quenching and tempering heat treatment. And (3) immediately carrying out tempering heat treatment on the blank after quenching heat treatment, wherein the temperature range is 580-640 ℃, and slowly cooling after heating and maintaining. The quenching treatment is heat treatment for heating the steel to an austenite phase region to dissolve alloy elements such as Cr, Ni, Mo, Co, W, V, Nb and the like into a structure, and then cooling to obtain a martensite structure, wherein the austenitizing temperature of the steel is 1000-1150 ℃, and the steel is quenched by oil cooling or water cooling after being heated and kept. The low-carbon high-density dislocation lath type martensite obtained by quenching and quenching has good plasticity and toughness, is a structure with excellent matching of strength and toughness, and can precipitate high-density, multi-type and multi-size carbide dispersoids (Cr) which are uniformly distributed on the lath type martensite matrix through tempering at 580-640 ℃ after quenching heat treatment7C3、(Mo,W)2C. VC, NbC) to achieve high temperature strength and thermal fatigue resistance.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a graph showing the high temperature strength comparison between the steel of the present invention and H13 and 3Cr2W8V steels.
Detailed Description
The technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the embodiments of the present invention, and it is obvious that the described embodiments are some, but not all, embodiments of the present invention. All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the embodiments given herein without making any creative effort, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
The martensitic stainless steel of the present invention was smelted by vacuum induction smelting and electroslag remelting, and the chemical compositions are shown in table 1. The smelting blank is homogenized at 1200 ℃, and then forged, wherein the initial forging temperature is 1150 ℃, and the termination temperature is 800 ℃. Finally obtaining the bar stock with the diameter of 50 mm. Quenching the bar stock at 1100 deg.c for 1 hr, and quenching in water. After quenching treatment, the steel is heated at 600 ℃ and is subjected to tempering treatment of slow cooling after heat preservation for 2 hours, typical mechanical properties of the invention steel are shown in Table 2, and the invention steel has good room-temperature mechanical properties.
TABLE 1
Figure BDA0001987439630000041
TABLE 2
Figure BDA0001987439630000042
Example 1 the steel of the present invention was quenched at 1100 c and tempered at 600 c, and the instantaneous high temperature tensile properties at room temperature to 700 c were measured as shown in fig. 1. The tensile properties at the temperatures of examples 2, 3 and 4 are similar and are not repeated. For comparison, the high temperature instantaneous tensile property data for H13 steel and 3Cr2W8V steel are added. Data of H13 steel were obtained from the literature [ Zhuzong, China Hot die Steel Performance data set (XI), mechanical engineering materials, 2001, Vol.25, No. 12, pages 36-40 ], and data of 3Cr2W8V steel were obtained from the literature [ Zhuzong, China Hot die Steel Performance data set (VII), mechanical engineering materials, 2001, Vol.25, No. 8, pages 38-42 ]. As can be seen from FIG. 1, the steel of the present invention has good heat resistance, and is not easy to degrade in structure and performance at high temperature, so the steel has high thermal fatigue resistance.
The above description is only for the specific embodiments of the present invention, but the scope of the present invention is not limited thereto, and any person skilled in the art can easily conceive of the changes or substitutions within the technical scope of the present invention, and all the changes or substitutions should be covered within the scope of the present invention. Therefore, the protection scope of the present invention shall be subject to the protection scope of the appended claims.

Claims (4)

1. The oxidation-resistant hot-work die steel is characterized in that:
0.15-0.30% of C, 10-13% of Cr, 1.0-2.5% of Ni, 1.5-3.0% of Mo, 0.5-1.5% of Co, less than 0.8% of Si, less than 0.8% of Mn, and the balance of Fe and trace impurities which are difficult to avoid in steel;
the preparation method of the oxidation-resistant hot-work die steel adopts vacuum induction melting and electroslag smelting, or adopts an electric furnace and AOD/VD and electroslag remelting method; homogenizing the smelting blank at 1150-1250 ℃, and then performing hot processing, wherein the initial forging/rolling temperature is 1050-1150 ℃, and the termination temperature is 800 ℃; carrying out annealing or normalizing and tempering treatment on the blank obtained by hot processing, and then carrying out quenching and tempering treatment;
the quenching and tempering treatment refers to a comprehensive heat treatment process of quenching and tempering heat treatment; the quenching heat treatment temperature is 1000-1150 ℃, and the quenching adopts an oil cooling or water cooling mode; and heating the blank to 580-640 ℃ after quenching, and carrying out tempering heat treatment.
2. The oxidation-resistant hot-work die steel as set forth in claim 1, wherein:
at least one of W of 1% or less, V of 0.9% or less, and Nb of 0.3% or less is contained in a mass ratio.
3. The oxidation-resistant hot-work die steel as set forth in claim 1, wherein: the annealing temperature is 850-900 ℃.
4. The oxidation-resistant hot-work die steel as set forth in claim 1, wherein: the normalizing and tempering treatment temperature is as follows: the normalizing temperature is 1050-1150 ℃, and the tempering temperature is 680-750 ℃.
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CN110438310B (en) * 2019-07-19 2020-08-14 北京科技大学 Hot work die steel and heat treatment method thereof
CN110551880A (en) * 2019-10-24 2019-12-10 成都先进金属材料产业技术研究院有限公司 softening heat treatment process for small-size 22Si2MnCrNi2MoA steel rolled material
WO2021208181A1 (en) * 2020-04-14 2021-10-21 北京科技大学 Low-temperature, high-toughness, high-temperature, high-intensity and high-hardenability hot mold steel and preparation method therefor
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