CN109520443B - Roll angle measuring method based on combined surface type reference part - Google Patents

Roll angle measuring method based on combined surface type reference part Download PDF

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CN109520443B
CN109520443B CN201811229750.0A CN201811229750A CN109520443B CN 109520443 B CN109520443 B CN 109520443B CN 201811229750 A CN201811229750 A CN 201811229750A CN 109520443 B CN109520443 B CN 109520443B
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axis
machine tool
optical
curved surface
point
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CN109520443A (en
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李杏华
吕泽奎
房丰洲
黄银国
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Tianjin University
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Tianjin University
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B11/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means
    • G01B11/26Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means for measuring angles or tapers; for testing the alignment of axes

Abstract

The invention relates to a roll angle measuring method based on a combined surface type reference part, wherein an adopted measuring device comprises an optical measuring head and the combined surface type reference part, a base of the combined surface type reference part is L-shaped, a plurality of reference parts are equidistantly arranged on two arms of the base, the surface of each reference part is a curved surface feature or a plane feature, and the curved surface feature comprises a paraboloid of revolution; the distance between the reference parts is d, the reference parts are in an array form on the base, the array form is in an L shape, and when the optical measuring head is matched with the curved surface characteristics on the combined surface type reference part, the straightness position error caused by the motion of the machine tool guide rail is detected, so that the rolling angle is obtained.

Description

Roll angle measuring method based on combined surface type reference part
Technical Field
The invention relates to a roll angle high-precision detection device, in particular to a roll angle measurement method based on a combined surface type reference part.
Background
The rectangular coordinate system-based machine tool or measuring machine has 21 structural errors, wherein 18 structural errors can be measured by an off-the-shelf interferometer, and the other 3 roll angle errors are the most difficult parameters to measure. At present, the detection of the rolling angle error of the mechanical guide rail kinematic pair at home and abroad is still in a research and exploration stage.
The simultaneous measurement of multiple degrees of freedom by laser is a common concern of numerous industries such as mechanical manufacturing, detection, instruments and meters, and is one of the measurement difficulties which cannot be solved well at present, and one of the main difficulties is the high-precision measurement of the roll angle. The traditional measuring method mainly adopts an electronic level gauge taking the gravity direction as the reference and a combined measuring method taking the position of a square iron as the reference, the electronic level gauge has the defects that the geometric error in the vertical axis direction cannot be measured, the electronic level gauge is inconvenient to integrate with other error measuring systems, the combined measuring method belongs to contact type measurement, the measuring process is complicated, the axial stroke of the measurement is limited, and the precision is not high. Optical measurement is one of the main means of modern high-precision measurement due to the characteristics of non-contact, flexible design and the like. Chinese patent CN107462210A discloses a roll angle measuring device for a linear guide rail, which uses an autocollimator, a pentaprism, a plane mirror, and other devices to measure the roll angle of the linear guide rail to be measured. However, for roll angle measurement, no high-precision optical measurement method which is simple to operate, convenient to integrate and applicable to practice exists at present. At present, a plurality of optical methods for measuring the roll angle are provided at home and abroad, and from the means of finally obtaining the roll angle information, the optical methods can be summarized into an interference method, a polarization method, a geometric optical method and the like.
Chinese patent CN2017103979239 discloses a design of an optical measuring head for small angle measurement, which can effectively measure the curvature of a plane or a curved surface, and can realize the measurement of the straightness deviation of a machine tool guide rail by matching with a combined surface type reference part mentioned in a moving part multi-parameter detection system based on the combined surface type reference part disclosed in chinese patent CN 201720618823X. Based on the combined surface type reference part and the existing tool, a novel method for measuring the guide rail rolling angle is designed to improve the detection efficiency of the rolling angle, is convenient to integrate with other measuring technologies, and promotes the development of the multi-degree-of-freedom measuring technology.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention provides a roll angle measuring device and method based on a combined surface type reference part for solving the technical problems in the prior art, the method can realize the optical non-contact detection of the roll angle, has high measuring efficiency and high measuring precision, can be conveniently integrated with other freedom degree measuring systems, and promotes the development of the multi-freedom degree measuring technology. The technical scheme adopted by the invention for solving the technical problems in the prior art is as follows:
a roll angle measuring method based on a combined surface type reference part adopts a measuring device which comprises an optical measuring head and the combined surface type reference part,
the optical measuring head comprises a laser, an aperture diaphragm, a reflecting mirror, a beam splitter prism, an imaging lens, a CCD camera and a data processing module, collimated light beams emitted by the laser are reduced into thin and straight light beams through the aperture diaphragm, the thin and straight light beams are incident into the beam splitter prism after passing through the reflecting mirror, reflected light beams with 1/2 energy are projected to any point on a curved surface array, the light beams reflected by the point are imaged on the CCD camera through the imaging lens after being transmitted through the beam splitter prism, and the data processing module calculates and obtains the straightness deviation of a motion axis according to the position of light spots in the CCD camera; the optical measuring head is arranged on a machine tool main shaft and does three-dimensional linear motion along with the machine tool main shaft;
the base of the combined surface type reference part is L-shaped, a plurality of reference parts are equidistantly arranged on two arms of the base, the surface of each reference part is a curved surface feature or a plane feature, and the curved surface feature comprises a paraboloid of revolution; the distance between the reference parts is d, the base is in an array form, the array form is in an L shape, and when the optical measuring head is matched with the curved surface characteristics on the combined surface type reference part, the straightness position error caused by the motion of the machine tool guide rail is detected; the roll angle measurement method comprises the following steps:
vertically placing the combined surface type reference part on a machine tool workbench, enabling one arm of a base to be parallel to a Z axis of the machine tool and the other arm to be parallel to a Y axis of the machine tool, and enabling an optical measuring head arranged on a main shaft of the machine tool to be opposite to the reference part on the base arm parallel to the Z axis;
the light beam of the optical measuring head is parallel to the X axis of the machine tool, and the optical measuring head is positioned at the position A3At this time, the position coordinate O (x) of the optical axis in the CCD camera is obtained3,y3);
The Z axis of the machine tool drives the optical measuring head to horizontally move to a first position A on the revolution paraboloid on the first reference memberIWhen the corresponding measurement point on the rotating parabolic array is A1(x1,y1,z1) And acquiring the position A of the imaging light spot in the CCD camera at the moment1′(x1′,y1') and converted into the distance S of the center of the light spot from the optical axis1x、S1yThen calculating the measuring point A1Angle corresponding to slope:
ξx=arctan(s1x/f)/2 (1)
ξy=arctan(s1y/f)/2 (2)
wherein ξxRepresents the measurement point A1The included angle between the tangent in the YOZ plane and the Z-axis direction;
ξyrepresents the measurement point A1The included angle between the tangent line in the YOZ plane and the Y-axis direction;
S1xthe distance from the center of the imaging light spot of the first measuring point to the optical axis of the system in the X-axis direction;
S1ythe distance from the center of the imaging light spot of the first measuring point to the optical axis of the system in the Y-axis direction;
f represents the focal length of the imaging lens,
finally, the measuring point A is calculated1The coordinates of (a):
the formula for the surface profile of a paraboloid of revolution is:
wherein: a is2Characteristic parameters of the paraboloid of revolution;
and (3) calculating the first derivative of the formula (13) to obtain the slope of any point on the curved surface as follows:
x1=a2tanξx(6)
y1=a2tanξy(7)
wherein: s1xRepresenting the imaging spot a1' distance of the center from the optical axis of the system in the X-axis direction;
S1yrepresenting the imaging spot a1' distance of the center from the optical axis of the system in the Y-axis direction;
the Z axis of the machine tool drives the optical measuring head to vertically move to a second position A on a second paraboloid of revolutionIIWhen the corresponding measurement point on the rotating parabolic array is A2(x2,y2,z2) And acquiring the position A of the imaging light spot in the CCD camera at the moment2′(x2′,y2') to a host; calculating the measurement point A2The coordinates of (a):
x2=a2tanφx(8)
y2=a2tanφy(9)
calculating displacement M, N of the machine tool Z axis in two directions of X, Y:
M=a2tanφx-a2tanξx+P (10)
N=a2tanφy-a2tanξy+Q (11)
wherein: m represents the displacement of the Z axis in the X direction;
n represents the displacement of the Z axis in the Y direction;
p represents the distance between the central lines of the ith curved surface and the jth curved surface in the X direction;
q represents the distance between the central lines of the ith curved surface and the jth curved surface in the Y direction;
according to the method, the machine tool Z shaft drives the optical detector to vertically move to the paraboloid of revolution on each reference piece, the displacements in X, Y two directions existing when the optical detector moves to each reference piece are obtained through calculation, the displacements M, N of the machine tool Z shaft in X, Y two directions reflect the straightness deviations of X, Y two directions of the machine tool main shaft on different heights at a certain point, and the straightness deviations of the machine tool main shaft in the Y shaft direction on the heights corresponding to 8 reference pieces at the point are respectively set to be delta from the bottom end reference piece1、δ2、δ3、δ4、δ5、δ6、δ7And delta8
When the X axis of the guide rail rolls, a section of displacement can occur in a straight line section in a plane vertical to the rolling axis, and the displacement is specifically represented as the change of the deviation of two end points of the straight line to the Y axis; such changes may result in an increase or decrease in the Y-direction straightness deviation at that point, and the farther away from the roll axis the greater the change in straightness deviation, the more the roll angle is available from the definition of straightness deviation and roll angle error
Represents; in order to improve the measurement precision and effectively utilize the measurement data, the linearity deviation data obtained by multiple measurements is processed by a step-by-step method, and further, the X axis of the machine tool is positioned at the X positioniPass through of roll angle error
Calculating to obtain;
and rolling angle errors of other guide rails such as the Y axis and the Z axis can be obtained by solving in sequence.
The invention has the advantages and positive effects that: the invention analyzes the influence of the guide rail rolling angle error on the guide rail straightness deviation, reversely obtains the rolling angle error by measuring the straightness deviation, has simple and direct measuring process, is integrated with the straightness deviation, and can save the complicated process of independent measurement. The invention can realize the optical non-contact detection of the rolling angle error of the guide rail, has high measurement efficiency and high measurement precision, can be conveniently integrated with other freedom measurement systems, and promotes the development of the multi-freedom measurement technology.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of detecting a roll angle error of an X-axis guide rail according to the present invention; in the figure, 1-optical measuring head, 2-combined surface type reference part, 2-1-L type base, 2-2-plane characteristic and 2-3-curved surface characteristic
FIG. 2 is a schematic structural diagram of an optical measuring head according to the present invention; in the figure, 1-1-laser, 1-2-aperture diaphragm, 1-3-plane reflector, 1-4-beam splitter prism, 1-5-imaging objective lens and 1-6-CCD camera
FIG. 3 is a schematic view of a composite profile datum of the present invention; in the figure, 2-1-L type base, 2-2-plane characteristic and 2-3-curved surface characteristic
Fig. 4 is a schematic view of the measurement principle of the present invention. 2-3-1 st surface feature, 2-3-2-nth surface feature, 2-3-3-nth +1 th surface feature in the figure
FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram of error generation
Detailed Description
In order to further understand the contents, features and effects of the present invention, the following embodiments are illustrated and described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings:
the invention provides a roll angle measuring device and method based on a combined surface type reference part for solving the technical problems in the prior art, the method can realize the optical non-contact detection of the roll angle, has high measuring efficiency and high measuring precision, can be conveniently integrated with other freedom degree measuring systems, and promotes the development of the multi-freedom degree measuring technology.
The technical scheme adopted by the invention for solving the technical problems in the prior art is as follows: a roll angle measuring device and method based on a combined surface type reference part comprises an optical measuring head 1 and a combined surface type reference part 2.
Referring to fig. 1 to 3, a roll angle measuring apparatus and method based on curved surface reference includes an optical measuring head and a combined surface type reference member. The optical measuring head comprises a laser 1-1, an aperture diaphragm 1-2, a reflector 1-3, a beam splitter prism 1-4, an imaging lens 1-5, a CCD camera 1-6 and a data processing module, collimated light beams emitted by the laser are reduced into thin and straight light beams through the aperture diaphragm 1-2, the thin and straight light beams are incident into the beam splitter prism after passing through the reflector, reflected light beams with 1/2 energy are projected to any point on a curved surface array, the light beams reflected by the point are imaged on the CCD camera through the imaging lens after being transmitted by the beam splitter prism, and the data processing module calculates and obtains straightness deviation of a movement axis according to the position of light spots in the CCD camera. The optical measuring head is arranged on a machine tool main shaft and does three-dimensional linear motion along with the machine tool main shaft.
The base of the combined surface type reference part is L-shaped 2-1, the two arms of the base are equidistantly provided with the reference part, the reference part is made of brass, and the surface of the reference part is provided with a plane feature 2-2 and a curved surface feature 2-3. The curved surface is characterized by a paraboloid of revolution or other conic surface of revolution. The bottom of the reference part is provided with a threaded hole and is connected and fixed with the L-shaped base through a bolt. The reference members are spaced apart by a distance d and are in the form of an array on the base, the array being L-shaped. When the optical measuring head is matched with the curved surface characteristics on the combined surface type reference part, the straightness deviation caused by the motion of the machine tool guide rail can be detected. The method comprises the following specific steps:
at the initial moment, the light beam of the optical measuring head is parallel to the X axis of the machine tool, and the optical measuring head is positioned at the position A3At this time, the position coordinate O (x) of the optical axis in the CCD camera is obtained3,y3);
The Z axis of the machine tool drives the optical measuring head to horizontally move to a first position A on the revolution paraboloid on the first reference memberIWhen the corresponding measurement point on the rotating parabolic array is A1(x1,y1,z1) And acquiring the position A of the imaging light spot in the CCD camera at the moment1′(x1′,y1') and converted into the distance S of the center of the light spot from the optical axis1x、S1yThen calculating the measuring point A1Angle corresponding to slope:
ξx=arctan(s1x/f)/2 (1)
ξy=arctan(s1y/f)/2 (2)
wherein ξxRepresents the measurement point A1The included angle between the tangent in the YOZ plane and the Z-axis direction;
ξyrepresents the measurement point A1The included angle between the tangent line in the YOZ plane and the Y-axis direction;
S1xthe distance from the center of the imaging light spot of the first measuring point to the optical axis of the system in the X-axis direction;
S1ythe distance from the center of the imaging light spot of the first measuring point to the optical axis of the system in the Y-axis direction;
f represents the focal length of the imaging lens,
finally, the measuring point A is calculated1The coordinates of (a):
the formula for the surface profile of a paraboloid of revolution is:
wherein: a is2Characteristic parameters of the paraboloid of revolution;
and (3) calculating the first derivative of the formula (13) to obtain the slope of any point on the curved surface as follows:
x1=a2tanξx(6)
y1=a2tanξy(7)
wherein: s1xRepresenting the imaging spot a1' distance of the center from the optical axis of the system in the X-axis direction;
S1yrepresenting the imaging spot a1' distance of the center from the optical axis of the system in the Y-axis direction;
the Z axis of the machine tool drives the optical measuring head to vertically move to a second position A on a second paraboloid of revolutionIIWhen the corresponding measurement point on the rotating parabolic array is A2(x2,y2,z2) And acquiring the position A of the imaging light spot in the CCD camera at the moment2′(x2′,y2') to a host; the measurement point A can be calculated2The coordinates of (a):
x2=a2tanφx(8)
y2=a2tanφy(9)
calculating displacement M, N of the machine tool Z axis in two directions of X, Y:
M=a2tanφx-a2tanξx+P (10)
N=a2tanφy-a2tanξy+Q (11)
wherein: m represents the displacement of the Z axis in the X direction;
n represents the displacement of the Z axis in the Y direction;
p represents the distance between the central lines of the ith curved surface and the jth curved surface in the X direction;
q represents the distance between the center lines of the ith curved surface and the jth curved surface in the Y direction.
According to the method, the Z axis of the machine tool can drive the optical detector to vertically move to the paraboloid of revolution on each reference part, and X, Y directions existing when the optical detector moves to each reference part are obtained through formula calculationDisplacement of (2). In fact, displacement M, N of the machine Z axis in the two directions X, Y reflects the linearity deviation of the machine spindle in the two directions X, Y at different heights at a point where we are concerned only with the linearity deviation N of the machine spindle in the two directions Y that exists at that point. Setting the linearity deviation of the machine tool main shaft in the Y-axis direction at the height corresponding to the 8 reference parts at the point measured from the bottom end reference part as delta1、δ2、δ3、δ4、δ5、δ6、δ7And delta8
As shown in fig. 5, when the guide rail rolls along the X-axis, a straight line segment in the plane perpendicular to the roll axis will have a displacement, which is represented by a change in the offset of the two end points of the straight line to the Y-axis. Such changes may result in an increase or decrease in the Y-direction straightness deviation at that point, and the farther away from the roll axis the greater the change in straightness deviation, the more the roll angle is available from the definition of straightness deviation and roll angle error
And (4) showing. In order to improve the measurement precision and effectively utilize the measurement data, the linearity deviation data obtained by multiple measurements can be processed by adopting a step-by-step method. Further, the X axis of the machine tool can be obtained at XiMay pass through a roll angle error
And (4) calculating.
Taking the X axis of the machine tool guide rail as an example, the roll angle measurement and data processing method is concretely explained. The combined surface type reference part is vertically placed on a machine tool workbench, one arm of a base is parallel to a Z axis of the machine tool, the other arm of the base is parallel to a Y axis of the machine tool, and an optical measuring head arranged on a main shaft of the machine tool is opposite to the reference part on the base arm parallel to the Z axis. The straightness deviations in the Y-axis direction at the heights corresponding to the 8 reference members are respectively measured from the bottom reference member to be delta1、δ2、δ3、δ4、δ5、δ6、δ7And delta8Then, the X axis of the machine tool is obtained in X by the step-by-step methodiMay pass through a roll angle error
And (4) calculating. The roll angle errors of other guide rails such as the Y axis and the Z axis can be obtained by solving in sequence, and are not described one by one.
The principle of the invention is as follows:
the invention utilizes the influence on the straightness deviation of the guide rail when the guide rail rolls, reversely obtains the roll angle of the guide rail by measuring the straightness deviation of the guide rail, and uses a step-by-step method to improve the measurement precision when processing the measurement data. The invention can realize the optical non-contact detection of the roll angle, has high measurement efficiency and high measurement precision, can be conveniently integrated with other freedom measurement systems, and promotes the development of the multi-freedom measurement technology.

Claims (1)

1. A roll angle measuring method based on a combined surface type reference part adopts a measuring device which comprises an optical measuring head and the combined surface type reference part,
the optical measuring head comprises a laser, an aperture diaphragm, a reflecting mirror, a beam splitter prism, an imaging lens, a CCD camera and a data processing module, collimated light beams emitted by the laser are reduced into thin and straight light beams through the aperture diaphragm, the thin and straight light beams are incident into the beam splitter prism after passing through the reflecting mirror, reflected light beams with 1/2 energy are projected to any point on a curved surface array, the light beams reflected by the point are imaged on the CCD camera through the imaging lens after being transmitted through the beam splitter prism, and the data processing module calculates and obtains the straightness deviation of a motion axis according to the position of light spots in the CCD camera; the optical measuring head is arranged on a machine tool main shaft and does three-dimensional linear motion along with the machine tool main shaft;
the base of the combined surface type reference part is L-shaped, a plurality of reference parts are equidistantly arranged on two arms of the base, the surface of each reference part is a curved surface feature or a plane feature, and the curved surface feature comprises a paraboloid of revolution; the distance between the reference parts is d, the base is in an array form, the array form is in an L shape, and when the optical measuring head is matched with the curved surface characteristics on the combined surface type reference part, the straightness position error caused by the motion of the machine tool guide rail is detected; the roll angle measurement method comprises the following steps:
vertically placing the combined surface type reference part on a machine tool workbench, enabling one arm of a base to be parallel to a Z axis of the machine tool and the other arm to be parallel to a Y axis of the machine tool, and enabling an optical measuring head arranged on a main shaft of the machine tool to be opposite to the reference part on the base arm parallel to the Z axis;
the light beam of the optical measuring head is parallel to the X axis of the machine tool, and the optical measuring head is positioned at the position A3At this time, the position coordinate O (x) of the optical axis in the CCD camera is obtained3,y3);
The Z axis of the machine tool drives the optical measuring head to horizontally move to a first position A on the revolution paraboloid on the first reference member1When the corresponding measurement point on the rotating parabolic array is A1(x1,y1,z1) And acquiring the position A of the imaging light spot in the CCD camera at the moment1′(x1′,y1') and converted into the distance S of the center of the light spot from the optical axis1x、S1yThen calculating the measuring point A1Angle corresponding to slope:
ξx=arctan(S1x/f)/2 (1)
ξy=arctan(S1y/f)/2 (2)
wherein ξxRepresents the measurement point A1The included angle between the tangent in the YOZ plane and the Z-axis direction;
ξyrepresents the measurement point A1The included angle between the tangent line in the YOZ plane and the Y-axis direction;
S1xrepresenting the imaging spot a1' distance of the center from the optical axis of the system in the X-axis direction;
S1yrepresenting the imaging spot a1' distance of the center from the optical axis of the system in the Y-axis direction;
f represents the focal length of the imaging lens;
finally, the measuring point A is calculated1The coordinates of (a):
the formula of the surface type according to the paraboloid of revolution is as follows:
wherein: a is2Characteristic parameters of the paraboloid of revolution;
and (4) solving the first derivative of the formula (3) to obtain the slope of any point on the curved surface as follows:
so x1=a2tanξx(6)
y1=a2tanξy(7)
The Z axis of the machine tool drives the optical measuring head to vertically move to a second position A on a second paraboloid of revolutionIIWhen the corresponding measurement point on the rotating parabolic array is A2(x2,y2,z2) And acquiring the position A of the imaging light spot in the CCD camera at the moment2′(x2′,y2') to a host; calculating the measurement point A2The coordinates of (a):
x2=a2tanφx(8)
y2=a2tanφy(9)
calculating displacement M, N of the machine tool Z axis in two directions of X, Y:
M=a2tanφx-a2tanξx+P (10)
N=a2tanφy-a2tanξy+Q (11)
wherein: m represents the displacement of the Z axis in the X direction;
n represents the displacement of the Z axis in the Y direction;
p represents the distance between the central lines of the ith curved surface and the jth curved surface in the X direction;
q represents the distance between the central lines of the ith curved surface and the jth curved surface in the Y direction;
the machine tool Z axis drives the optical measurement device to vertically move to a paraboloid of revolution on each reference piece, the displacements in X, Y two directions existing when the optical measurement device moves to each reference piece are obtained through calculation, the displacements M, N of the machine tool Z axis in X, Y two directions reflect the straightness deviations of X, Y two directions of the machine tool main shaft on different heights of a certain point, and the straightness deviations of the machine tool main shaft in the Y axis direction on the heights corresponding to 8 reference pieces at the point are respectively set to be delta from the bottom reference piece1、δ2、δ3、δ4、δ5、δ6、δ7And delta8
When the X axis of the guide rail rolls, a section of displacement can occur in a straight line section in a plane vertical to the rolling axis, and the displacement is specifically represented as the change of the deviation of two end points of the straight line to the Y axis; this change results in an increase or decrease in the Y-direction straightness deviation at that point, and the farther away from the roll axis the greater the change in straightness deviation, the definition of straightness deviation and roll angle error for roll angle
Represents; in order to improve the measurement precision and effectively utilize the measurement data, the linearity deviation data obtained by multiple measurements is processed by a step-by-step method, and further, the X axis of the machine tool is positioned at the X positioniPass through of roll angle error
Calculating to obtain;
and solving the rolling angle errors of the Y-axis guide rail and the Z-axis guide rail in sequence to obtain the target.
CN201811229750.0A 2018-10-22 2018-10-22 Roll angle measuring method based on combined surface type reference part Expired - Fee Related CN109520443B (en)

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