CN109442226A - Simulate the device of liquid hydrocarbon pipe leakage and the method using device measuring and calculating leakage rate - Google Patents

Simulate the device of liquid hydrocarbon pipe leakage and the method using device measuring and calculating leakage rate Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109442226A
CN109442226A CN201811249595.9A CN201811249595A CN109442226A CN 109442226 A CN109442226 A CN 109442226A CN 201811249595 A CN201811249595 A CN 201811249595A CN 109442226 A CN109442226 A CN 109442226A
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China
Prior art keywords
leakage
experiment
oil
pipe
pressure
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Inventor
何国玺
李岩松
汤东东
孙丽颖
梁永图
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China University of Petroleum Beijing CUPB
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China University of Petroleum Beijing CUPB
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OR DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17DPIPE-LINE SYSTEMS; PIPE-LINES
    • F17D5/00Protection or supervision of installations
    • F17D5/02Preventing, monitoring, or locating loss
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OR DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17DPIPE-LINE SYSTEMS; PIPE-LINES
    • F17D1/00Pipe-line systems
    • F17D1/08Pipe-line systems for liquids or viscous products
    • F17D1/14Conveying liquids or viscous products by pumping
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OR DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17DPIPE-LINE SYSTEMS; PIPE-LINES
    • F17D3/00Arrangements for supervising or controlling working operations
    • F17D3/01Arrangements for supervising or controlling working operations for controlling, signalling, or supervising the conveyance of a product
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01DMEASURING NOT SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR A SPECIFIC VARIABLE; ARRANGEMENTS FOR MEASURING TWO OR MORE VARIABLES NOT COVERED IN A SINGLE OTHER SUBCLASS; TARIFF METERING APPARATUS; MEASURING OR TESTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01D21/00Measuring or testing not otherwise provided for
    • G01D21/02Measuring two or more variables by means not covered by a single other subclass

Abstract

The present invention relates to a kind of device for simulating liquid hydrocarbon pipe leakage and utilize the method for device measuring and calculating leakage rate, the device includes oil product tank, centrifugal pump, leakage unit and the surge tank for being sequentially connected with and being formed experiment circuit by oil pipe, is sequentially equipped with flowmeter, pressure gauge and thermometer in outlet of centrifugal pump and on the oil pipe of leakage unit inlet and outlet;Leakage unit includes the main pipeline for collecting the leakage case of leakage oil product with being arranged in inside leakage case, and the outlet at bottom for leaking case is connect by oil pipe with Weighing mechanism;Main pipeline both ends pass through flange respectively and are removably connected with oil pipe, and the first subtube and the second subtube are parallel on main pipeline, and leakage experiment pipe is removably provided on the second subtube, and geometric shape leak to be probed into is provided on leakage experiment pipe;The needle-valve for adjusting main pipeline pressure is provided on main pipeline.The present invention, which compares existing experimental provision and not only more meets practical leakage operating condition also, can simulate the variation of leakage rate under the operating conditions such as termination of pumping process.

Description

Simulate the device of liquid hydrocarbon pipe leakage and the method using device measuring and calculating leakage rate
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of device for simulating liquid hydrocarbon pipe leakage and using the method for device measuring and calculating leakage rate, belong to Petroleum, chemical industry safety engineering field.
Background technique
For leakage of finished oil pipeline accident, leakage rate and being effectively predicted for Release and dispersion region are to formulate emergency processing side The theoretical basis of case, and realize its safe and environment-friendly, economical operation reliable guarantee.Existing document proposition can be realized at present Leakage accident calculates leakage of finished oil pipeline amount method after occurring.But this class model is usually by the leakage aperture of irregular shape It is reduced to small sircle hole processing, and it is mostly rectangle gap leakage or irregular shape that hole shape is leaked in practical leakage process.Through Field experiment discovery is crossed, the scrambling for leaking hole shape, which can measure to calculate to leakage of finished oil pipeline, brings certain error, Studying buried liquid hydrocarbon conduit aperture leakage characteristics can be prediction pipe leakage amount, study liquid hydrocarbon Diffusion Law in soil, is subsequent The reliable foundations of offers such as accident is assessed, Polluted area divides and formulates reasonable rescue measure.In view of oil product is largely let out Leakage meeting contaminated soil, will bring long-term adverse effect to public health and ecological environment, therefore study leaking medium in soil In migration diffusion characteristic, for divide danger zone and Evaluation Environment influence will have highly important practical meaning in engineering.
Correlation theory that pore morphology and external environment influence leakage process and experimental study are leaked also for leakage pipe Incomplete, research relevant to pipe leakage both at home and abroad is concentrated mainly on leak detection, positioning and leakage rate measuring and calculating field, needle Less to the correlative study of conduit aperture leakage characteristics, current only work relevant to liquid hydrocarbon pipe leakage focuses primarily upon Liquid hydrocarbon leaks the research of phase-state change and stability in seepage flow diffusion process, and research mainly passes through experiment and software analog simulation Mode carry out.
(1) conduit aperture leakage characteristics are studied
It is calculated in research process in premature leak amount, pipe leakage process simplification is one-dimensional stable Guan Liu little by related scholar Hole goes out flow model.By choosing orifice outflow coefficient appropriate, using Bernoulli equation and energy conservation equation, establish simple Leakage calculation formula, to estimate that oil product is in the leak rate and leakage rate of leakage point in horizontal and tilted tube.This method It calculates relatively easy, the leakage rate stablized under leak condition can be predicted, but only considered hole in calculating process The influence of mouth outflow constant and hole inside and outside differential pressure to leakage rate, not by orifice shapes, size, the conduit running state in leakage aperture And the factors such as heat and mass phenomenon that may be present are taken into account in product oil leakage process, therefore, calculated result with The error of practical leakage rate is larger, it is difficult to be directly used in estimating for leakage rate in pipe leakage accident.
The theory that research at present in relation to pipe leakage feature and rule is mainly based upon hydrodynamics Basic equation group pushes away It leads, in terms of leak, often only takes into account regular leak (such as circular hole), do not account for anarchial cleavage mouth-shaped to letting out The influence for leaking rate, with live practical disconnection, predictablity rate is low.Chinese invention patent application number 201610374025.7 designs A kind of liquid pipe leaks the equivalent circular hole experiment with computing device in irregular hole and experimental method, research liquid pipe it is a variety of not With the feature and rule of regular hole and irregular hole stable state under leakage working condition and dynamic leakage, but its there are still many limitations Property.
The equipment of the patent experiment porch is equipped with certain deficiency: 1. it is located at the blind fragment position of pipeline at its leakage unit, Boundary condition difference compared with when leakage accident occurs for practical pipeline is larger, therefore its experimental result migrates the meeting into practical pipeline There is certain deviation.2. simultaneously because the setting of blind fragment position, the leakage aperture towards it is specific downwards, can not adjust.It cannot visit Leak is studied carefully towards the influence to leakage process.3. the variation leakage process influence of pressure value is very big, but the experiment porch lacks Pressure adjusting mechanism, pressure value variation are difficult to control.4. being difficult to keep experimental situation due to lacking recyclable device, it is also difficult to Verifying assessment pipe leakage amount.
(2) liquid hydrocarbon seepage flow diffusion experiment is studied
1. numerical experiment
In terms of numerical simulation, two-dimensional steady-state or unstable state leakage seepage flow, diffusion model are mainly established, fluid force is utilized Software analog spread process is learned, analysis pressure, speed, the distribution of density field and grease are mutually distributed, and research leakage hole aperture is let out The factors pair such as leak position, leakage hole quantity, soil porosity, soil saturation degree, the soil moisture, surface temperature, waters temperature The influence of Release and dispersion process.If high sherry simulates Buried Oil Pipelines leakage seepage flow, Ma Yue simulates processed oil pipeline and lets out Contaminated soil range is leaked, Li Chaoyang simulates river crossing pipe leakage, and Liu Ruikai simulates the leakage of seabed buried heated pipeline Diffusion, Fu Ze simulate buried diesel pipeline two dimension Release and dispersion process, and Xing Chang simulates the buried oil pipeline of severe cold area The multiphase flow leakage process in road etc..
Disadvantage: model built and correlated variables are limited to professional software, to leakage process do simplification it is more, can not be real-time Simulate actual leakage process, it is difficult to obtain the important parameters such as accumulative leakage rate, therefore numerical experiment is chiefly used in Release and dispersion process Qualitative research.
2. Physical Experiment
In terms of Physical Experiment, Ning Li etc. has studied diesel oil in different types of soil respectively in a manner of continuous and intermittent The one dimensional fluid flow feature infiltrated.Poplar guest etc. has carried out the two-dimentional sandbox experiment that diesel oil infiltrates.Li Yongxia is tested by column simulation It has studied diesel oil and its saturated aqueous solution and infiltrates migration and persistence characteristic in the sand and loam of different water cut.Wang etc. Infiltration characteristics of the diesel oil in intact loess soil are had studied by soil column leaching.Abdul, Zheng Xilai have carried out diesel oil and have infiltrated Two-dimentional sandbox experiment.Zheng Defeng etc. is moistening the leakage in porous media, migration with two-dimentional sandbox modeling light non-aqueous phase liquids And the regularity of distribution.Wu Xiaofeng selects kerosene and industrial naptha to be tested in organic glass sand launder, is recorded with colour phhotograpy non- The migration of water phase fluid phase interface in underground water non-saturated region and saturation region.The two-dimentional organic glass sand launder of Li Yongtao, uses It is dissolved in water and so that oil is dyed red insoluble in oily sudan, observe the diffusion sharp side shape of oil stream.Li Shanshan etc. will Threedimensional model in Visual Modflow is applied to diesel oil in aqueous sand launder in the experimental study of migration feature.Fine P couple The relationship of the residual quantity and moisture content in porous media such as kerosene, gasoline has carried out qualitative and quantitative study.Schroth M etc. In two-dimentional sand launder carry out liquid hydrocarbon non-saturated region leakage experiment, observe liquid hydrocarbon plume and sharp side movement, measurement pressure and Saturation degree passes through to study influence of the heterogeneity to liquid motion of medium and spreads one layer of coarse sand between fine sand and constitute similar hollow billet The inclined-plane of obstacle grid has studied diffusion of the liquid hydrocarbon in heterogeneous non-saturated region environment.Wu Guozhong etc. has carried out oil gas water multiphase The experimental study of buried pipeline multipoint leakage infrared detection is flowed, can be situated between in more leakage points, different oil gas water saturations, different soils Infrared detection is carried out under the conditions of matter porosity and leak time, but is the failure to the diffusion image directly leaked, is not also considered The phase transformation of each component.
Disadvantage: above-mentioned scholar only has studied the seepage flow diffusion process of liquid hydrocarbon in the soil, and experimentation does not restore really " leakage+seepage flow diffusion " behavior of liquid hydrocarbon after buried pipeline leakage.The migration of buried liquid hydrocarbon in the soil is by liquid at piping failure Hydrocarbon flow regime influences, therefore, it is necessary to consider further that liquid hydrocarbon in soil after the leakage characteristics in the case of understanding different piping failures In seepage flow dispersal behavior.
(3) calculate the experiment of leakage rate
Scholars have also carried out experimental study to the changing rule of pipe leakage amount.Shao Hui etc. establishes pipeline in laboratory and lets out Experimental model is leaked, the mean flow rate of leakage rate with leak size, fluid density, viscosity, overpressure and fluid is established Etc. factors relationship, but mathematical model is that the aperture stable state based on Bernoulli equation goes out flow model, and measuring is stream system out Number.Jasper etc. is measured by experimental study influence of the upstream and downstream valve operation to leakage rate, leakage rate by gravimeter, but Do not provide theory analysis and computation model.Fu Jianmin etc. has built liquid pipe small hole leaking experimental system, studies pipeline stream The affecting laws that amount and pressure change liquid in pipe pressure and leak rate, propose small hole leaking steady pressure and calculate experience Formula, but leakage calculation formula is not provided, it can not be used to predict that leakage process transient pressure to change.
Summary of the invention
The problem of for background technique, it is an object of that present invention to provide a kind of devices for simulating liquid hydrocarbon pipe leakage And the method using device measuring and calculating leakage rate.
To achieve the above object, the invention adopts the following technical scheme: it is a kind of simulate liquid hydrocarbon pipe leakage device, including Oil product tank, centrifugal pump, leakage unit and the surge tank of experiment circuit are sequentially connected with and formed by oil pipe, are pumped out in the centrifugation First flowmeter, first pressure meter and the first thermometer are sequentially installed on the oil pipe of mouth, close to the leakage unit import Oil pipe on second temperature meter and second pressure meter are sequentially installed, close to the leakage unit outlet oil pipe on sequentially pacify Equipped with third thermometer, third pressure gauge and second flowmeter, the centrifugal pump, first flowmeter, first pressure meter and first Thermometer, second temperature meter, second pressure meter, third thermometer, third pressure gauge and second flowmeter are electric with PLC control cabinet Connection;
The leakage unit includes the supervisor for collecting the leakage case of leakage oil product with being arranged in inside the leakage case The outlet at bottom in road, the leakage case is connect by oil pipe with Weighing mechanism, and the Weighing mechanism is electrically connected with the PLC control cabinet It connects;The main pipeline both ends pass through flange respectively and are removably connected with oil pipe, and first is parallel on the main pipeline and is in charge of Road and the second subtube are removably provided with the leakage experiment pipe, the leakage experiment pipe on second subtube On be provided with geometric shape leak to be probed into;The needle for adjusting the main pipeline pressure is provided on the main pipeline Valve, the needle-valve are electrically connected with the PLC control cabinet.
The device, it is preferred that on the oil pipe close to oil product tank outlet and close to the surge tank import It is provided with the control valve for controlling experiment process, the control valve is also electrically connected with the PLC control cabinet.
The device, it is preferred that the both ends of first subtube and the second subtube pass through control pipeline on-off Pneumatic operated valve connect with the main pipeline.
The device, it is preferred that leakage experiment pipe both ends pass through flange and second subtube removably Connection.
The device, it is preferred that be provided in the oil product tank and surge tank for monitoring product oil liquid level Liquidometer.
A method of leakage rate is calculated using the device of above-mentioned simulation liquid hydrocarbon pipe leakage, which is characterized in that this method It is calculated by leakage rate of the following formula (1) to leakage experiment pipe with pressure:
Wherein, qPFor leakage flow;HLFor the head difference before and after leakage unit;zLTo leak point height;pLFor in leakage case Product vapour pressure;ρ is fluid density;C0For discharge coefficient;K is coefficient of partial resistance;β is column guest's genss number;LLFor leakage experiment Length of tube;dLFor leakage experiment pipe diameter.
Method using the device measuring and calculating leakage rate of simulation liquid hydrocarbon pipe leakage includes: step 1: carrying out circuit experiment;Step Rapid two: completing circuit and test and carry out leakage experiment after confirming experiment circuit operation conditions well.
The step 1 includes:
1) typical product oil oil sample, experiment oil sample, processed oil pipeline surrounding soil, water, atmospheric simulation object sample are acquired, The viscosity and oil temperature relationship of oil product oil sample are measured into, the physical parameter and state parameter of measurement experiment oil sample measure product oil Pipeline soil, water, hot coefficient, density, the coefficient of expansion and the specific heat capacity of atmosphere and the relationship of temperature;
2) simple horizontal equal diameter pipe leakage experiment is carried out using experiment circuit:
1. injection adjusts experiment circuit as working medium convenient for the coloring water of observation leakage rate in whole experiment circuit Examination and experiment;
2. starting centrifugal pump after opening control valve, oil product starts to convey;Experiment starts, and the first subtube is opened in leakage unit Road, main pipeline and the second subtube are closed circuit, and oil product flows through leakage unit through the first subtube;
3. flowing adjusts pneumatic operated valve after stablizing the first subtube is closed, main pipeline is opened, and oil product is flowed through through main pipeline Leakage unit;
4. opening needle-valve when pressure reaches the critical value of needle-valve, part oil product is flowed out through needle-valve, and main pipeline pressure is stablized In a certain value;
5. pneumatic operated valve is adjusted after closes main pipeline, and oil product flows into the second subtube;Due to main pipeline and second point Pipeline is in parallel, and the pressure of the second subtube is also stabilized in a certain value;Start to leak after switching, records the time started;Meanwhile The area for measuring leak on leakage experiment pipe, is denoted as A;
6. record second and third thermometer, second and third pressure gauge, first flowmeter data situation, and will The value of second pressure meter is denoted as P1, the value of third pressure gauge is denoted as P2, HL=(P1-P2)/ρg;
7. being recorded in the leakage process for colouring water under specific temperature and pressure using high-speed camera equipment, record coloring water exists Pressure and changes in flow rate at leakage hole;
8. being analyzed by data processing software video, provided for the analysis of experimental result and the foundation of mathematical model Foundation;
9. after leaking a period of time, termination of pumping closes valve and records the time, all experimental datas are persistently recorded, and increase record water Pressure of hammer wave situation of change;
10. Therapy lasted to Weighing mechanism reading no longer changes substantially, show that leakage process finishes substantially, Weighing mechanism is read Number scale is G;
According to the accumulative leakage volume and leak time of record, instantaneous leak rate and leakage flow are calculated.
The step 2 includes:
1) change overpressure and carry out the leakage experiment that the interior phase transformation of consideration pipe in simple horizontal equal diameter pipe influences, that is, adjust After saving centrifugal pump lift and pin valve opening change overpressure, the operation of step 2) in circuit experiment is repeated, data are recorded;
2) change the leakage experiment that temperature in managing carries out simple horizontal equal diameter pipe, i.e., oil sample is in heating oil product tank to change Sample oil temperature is conveyed in pipe, is repeated the operation of step 2) in circuit experiment, is recorded data;
3) change the leakage experiment that comfortable property carries out simple horizontal equal diameter pipe, i.e. simulated experiment sample oil is run in complexity The oil density at leakage under operating condition, Temperature and pressure distribution, design according to analog result different leakage units and by its Insert experiment circuit repeats the operation of step 2) in circuit experiment, records data;
4) there is the leakage experiment pipe of different leaks to carry out leakage experiment for replacement, repeat the behaviour of step 2) in circuit experiment Make, records data;
5) experimental data is handled.
The step 5) includes:
1. pipe leakage characterisitic parameter measurement method:
Wherein, Δ t is the leakage process time of record;G is the weighing result of leakage;Q is leakage volume;ρ is that fluid is close Degree.
The pressure value Δ H that pressure gauge measures is remained by the pressure of breakage 2. switching pneumatic operated valve, that is, manages interior flowing pressure PfluidWith atmospheric pressure PairDifference:
Δ H=P1-P2=Pfluid-Pair (3)
3. calculating leakage rate according to small hole stream characteristic:
Wherein, discharging characteristic parameter when α is leakage;
4. not changing A, different Δ H and Q are measured, different α are calculated;
5. changing A, while different Δ H and Q are measured, calculates different α;
6. the α measurement of pipeline in water:
Wherein, PwaterFor hydraulic pressure outside pipeline;
7. the α measurement of pipeline in soil:
Wherein, PoutIt (t) is the outer ground pressure of pipeline.
The invention adopts the above technical scheme, which has the following advantages: 1, leak is located at leakage in fact in the present invention It tests in the middle part of pipe, and joined the equipment such as oil product tank, centrifugal pump in pipe-line system, compare existing experimental provision and not only more meet reality Border leakage operating condition can also simulate the variation of leakage rate under the operating conditions such as termination of pumping process.2, the leakage experiment pipe both ends in the present invention are adopted It with flanged joint, can be freely disassembled, therefore the leakage experiment Guan Yan of the leak of different geometries can be had by replacing Study carefully the leakage rate under different leaks.3, the present invention has comprehensively considered " leakage+seepage flow diffusion " two kinds of flow behaviors, utilizes leakage Case collects leakage sample oil and simulates the process of seepage flow diffusion, while calculating the diffusion coefficient of leakage rate and soil.4, originally Invention changes main pipeline pressure by PLC control cabinet metering pin valve aperture, while overpressure being kept to stablize, can be with Calculate the leakage rate variation of pipeline under the conditions of analyzing different pressures.5, the experiment sample oil in the present invention flows into leakage after leaking Case leaks sample oil in case and through pipeline flows into Weighing mechanism, and Weighing mechanism is connect with PLC control cabinet point, the change of Ji Luqi mass parameter Change and change the oil leak amount that calculates, it is more accurate for the measuring and calculating of leakage rate compared to other existing experimental provisions, simultaneously Recycling leakage oil product also more clean and environmental protection.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is the structural schematic diagram of apparatus of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the structural schematic diagram of leakage unit of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is the flow chart of circuit experiment of the present invention;
Fig. 4 is the flow chart of leakage experiment of the present invention.
Specific embodiment
The present invention is described in detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings and embodiments.
As shown in Figure 1, the invention proposes a kind of devices for simulating liquid hydrocarbon pipe leakage comprising sequentially connected by oil pipe Oil product tank 1, centrifugal pump 2, leakage unit 3 and the surge tank 4 for connecing and being formed experiment circuit, it is suitable on the oil pipe that centrifugal pump 2 exports It is secondary that flowmeter 5, pressure gauge 6 and thermometer 7 are installed, thermometer 8 is sequentially installed on the oil pipe close to 3 import of leakage unit With pressure gauge 9, thermometer 10, pressure gauge 11 and flowmeter 12 are sequentially being installed on the oil pipe that leakage unit 3 exports, from Heart pump 2, flowmeter 5, pressure gauge 6 and thermometer 7, thermometer 8, pressure gauge 9, thermometer 10, pressure gauge 11 and flowmeter 12 are equal It is electrically connected with PLC control cabinet 13.
In above-described embodiment, being provided on the oil pipe of the import of outlet and close surge tank 4 close to oil product tank 1 can The control valve 14 of experiment process is controlled, control valve 14 is also electrically connected with PLC control cabinet 13.
In above-described embodiment, as shown in Fig. 2, leakage unit 3 includes leakage case 31 and the setting for collecting leakage oil product The outlet at bottom of main pipeline 32 inside leakage case 31, leakage case 31 is connect by oil pipe with Weighing mechanism 15, Weighing mechanism 15 are electrically connected with PLC control cabinet 13.32 both ends of main pipeline pass through flange 16 respectively and are removably connected with oil pipe, in main pipeline 32 On be parallel with the first subtube 33 and the second subtube 34, be removably provided with leakage experiment pipe on the second subtube 34 35, geometric shape leak to be probed into is provided on leakage experiment pipe 35, replacement has the leakage of different geometric shape leaks Experiment tube 35 is to probe into influence of the different geometric shape leaks to leakage process;It is provided on main pipeline 32 for adjusting master The needle-valve 36 of 32 pressure of pipeline, needle-valve 36 are electrically connected with PLC control cabinet 13.Further, the first subtube 33 and second is in charge of The pneumatic operated valve 37 that the both ends in road 34 pass through control pipeline on-off is connect with main pipeline 32.
In above-described embodiment, 35 both ends of leakage experiment pipe are removably connected by flange 18 with the second subtube 34.
In above-described embodiment, the liquidometer for monitoring product oil liquid level is provided in oil product tank 1 and surge tank 4 19。
The device of the invention when in use, its working principle is that: after oil product goes out oil product tank 1, through oil pipe, each instrument and meter and Leakage unit 3 finally enters surge tank 4, and the oil product leaked then flows into Weighing mechanism 15.Before experimental record is since leakage Afterwards, before and after 2 start and stop of centrifugal pump until leakage process terminates the temperature of whole process, the data situation of pressure and flow, remember The reading change procedure for recording Weighing mechanism 15 at leakage, recycles the Temperature and pressure distribution and leakage along the oil pipe measured The data on flows of point front and back obtains the flow total amount of entire leakage process, leakage volume and quality by data analysis and process Change procedure, the change procedure of pressure, flow, temperature in leakage process in pipe;And analyze termination of pumping opportunity, termination of pumping mode, The influence to leakage process such as termination of pumping process, it is excellent for termination of pumping scheme after leakage rate prediction, leak size or Shape Prediction, leakage Change etc. provides foundation.
The device of the simulation liquid hydrocarbon pipe leakage provided based on the above embodiment, the invention also provides surveyed using the device The method for calculating leakage rate, this method are calculated by leakage rate of the following formula (1) to leakage experiment pipe 35 with pressure:
Wherein, qPFor leakage flow;HLFor the head difference before and after leakage unit;zLTo leak point height;pLFor in leakage case Product vapour pressure;ρ is fluid density;C0For discharge coefficient;K is coefficient of partial resistance;β is column guest's genss number;LLFor leakage experiment Length of tube;dLFor leakage experiment pipe diameter.
In a preferred embodiment, using simulation liquid hydrocarbon pipe leakage device measuring and calculating leakage rate method include with Lower step:
Step 1: need before leakage experiment, and equipment of the circuit experiment between commissioning device, each equipment of inspection connects The Release and dispersion characteristic for connecing situation, the discharging characteristic for the leakage process for studying simple horizontal pipe and outside, as shown in figure 3, circuit Experiment the following steps are included:
1) typical product oil oil sample, experiment oil sample, processed oil pipeline surrounding soil, water, atmospheric simulation object sample are acquired, The viscosity and oil temperature relationship of oil product oil sample are measured into, the physical parameter and state parameter of measurement experiment oil sample measure product oil The relationship with temperature such as hot coefficient, density, the coefficient of expansion and specific heat capacity of pipeline soil, water, atmosphere;
2) simple horizontal equal diameter pipe leakage experiment is carried out using experiment circuit:
1. injection is convenient for the coloring water of observation leakage rate as work in whole experiment circuit (including leakage experiment pipe 35) Experiment circuit of verifying is debugged and is tested;
2. starting centrifugal pump 2 after opening control valve 14, oil product starts to convey;Experiment starts, and first is in charge of in leakage unit 3 Road 33 is opened a way, and main pipeline 32 and the second subtube 34 are closed circuit, and oil product flows through leakage unit 3 through the first subtube 33;
3. flowing adjusts pneumatic operated valve 37 after stablizing the first subtube 33 is closed, main pipeline 32 is opened, and oil product is through being responsible for Flow through leakage unit 3 in road 32;
4. opening needle-valve 36 when pressure reaches the critical value of needle-valve 36, part oil product is flowed out through needle-valve 36, main pipeline 32 Pressure is stable at a certain value;
5. pneumatic operated valve 37 is adjusted after closes main pipeline 32, and oil product flows into the second subtube 34;Due to main pipeline 32 In parallel with the second subtube 34, the pressure of the second subtube 34 is also stabilized in a certain value;Start to leak after switching, record is opened Begin the time;Meanwhile the area of leak on leakage experiment pipe 35 is measured, it is denoted as A;
6. the data situation of recording thermometer 8 and 10, pressure gauge 9 and 11, flowmeter 5, and the value of pressure gauge 9 is remembered For P1, the value of pressure gauge 11 is denoted as P2, HL=(P1-P2)/ρg;
7. being recorded in the leakage process for colouring water under specific temperature and pressure using high-speed camera equipment, record coloring water exists Pressure and changes in flow rate at leakage hole;
8. being analyzed by data processing software video, provided for the analysis of experimental result and the foundation of mathematical model Foundation;
9. after leaking a period of time, termination of pumping closes valve and records the time, all experimental datas are persistently recorded, and increase record water Pressure of hammer wave situation of change;
10. Therapy lasted to the reading of Weighing mechanism 15 no longer changes substantially, show that leakage process finishes substantially, Weighing mechanism 15 readings are denoted as G;
According to the accumulative leakage volume and leak time of record, instantaneous leak rate and leakage flow are calculated.
Step 2: it completes circuit and tests and carry out leakage experiment after confirming experiment circuit operation conditions well, such as Fig. 4 institute Show, its step are as follows:
1) change overpressure and carry out the leakage experiment that the interior phase transformation of consideration pipe in simple horizontal equal diameter pipe influences, that is, adjust After saving 2 lift of centrifugal pump and 36 aperture of needle-valve change overpressure, the operation of step 2) in circuit experiment is repeated, number is recorded According to;
2) change the leakage experiment that temperature in managing carries out simple horizontal equal diameter pipe, i.e., oil sample is in heating oil product tank 1 to change Become and convey sample oil temperature in pipe, repeats the operation of step 2) in circuit experiment, record data;
3) change the leakage experiment that comfortable property carries out simple horizontal equal diameter pipe, i.e. simulated experiment sample oil is run in complexity The oil density at leakage under operating condition, Temperature and pressure distribution, design according to analog result different leakage units 3 and by its Insert experiment circuit repeats the operation of step 2) in circuit experiment, records data;
4) there is the leakage experiment pipe 35 of different leaks to carry out leakage experiment for replacement, repeat step 2) in circuit experiment Operation records data.
5) experimental data is handled:
1. pipe leakage characterisitic parameter measurement method (for leaking pipe external environment in air):
Wherein, Δ t is the leakage process time of record;G is the weighing result of leakage;Q is leakage volume;ρ is that fluid is close Degree.
2. having pressure gauge on no broken pipe, there is corresponding position on broken pipe since experiment circuit pressure remains unchanged Leak, therefore switching four pneumatic operated valves 18 can allow the pressure of breakage to remain the pressure value Δ H that pressure gauge measures, that is, manage Interior flowing pressure PfluidWith atmospheric pressure PairDifference:
Δ H=P1-P2=Pfluid-Pair (3)
3. calculating leakage rate according to small hole stream characteristic:
Wherein, α be leakage when discharging characteristic parameter, according to above-mentioned formula can inverse obtain α;
4. not changing A, different Δ H and Q are measured, different α are calculated;
5. changing A, while different Δ H and Q are measured, calculates different α;
6. the α measurement of pipeline is similar with air in water, but:
Wherein, PwaterFor hydraulic pressure outside pipeline;
7. the α measurement of pipeline in soil: principle:
Wherein, PoutIt (t) is the outer ground pressure of pipeline.
The present invention is only illustrated with above-described embodiment, and structure, setting position and its connection of each component are all can have Changed, based on the technical solution of the present invention, improvement that all principles according to the present invention carry out individual part and equivalent Transformation, should not exclude except protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of device for simulating liquid hydrocarbon pipe leakage, which is characterized in that including being sequentially connected with by oil pipe and forming experimental ring Oil product tank, centrifugal pump, leakage unit and the surge tank in road, are sequentially equipped with first flow on the oil pipe of the outlet of centrifugal pump Meter, first pressure meter and the first thermometer are sequentially equipped with second temperature meter on the oil pipe close to the leakage unit import With second pressure meter, close to the leakage unit outlet oil pipe on be sequentially equipped with third thermometer, third pressure gauge and Second flowmeter, the centrifugal pump, first flowmeter, first pressure meter and the first thermometer, second temperature meter, second pressure Meter, third thermometer, third pressure gauge and second flowmeter are electrically connected with PLC control cabinet;
The leakage unit includes the main pipeline for collecting the leakage case of leakage oil product with being arranged in inside the leakage case, institute The outlet at bottom for stating leakage case is connect by oil pipe with Weighing mechanism, and the Weighing mechanism is electrically connected with the PLC control cabinet;Institute It states main pipeline both ends and passes through flange respectively and be removably connected with oil pipe, the first subtube and are parallel on the main pipeline Two subtubes are removably provided with the leakage experiment pipe on second subtube, are arranged on the leakage experiment pipe Need to be probed into geometric shape leak;The needle-valve for adjusting the main pipeline pressure is provided on the main pipeline, it is described Needle-valve is electrically connected with the PLC control cabinet.
2. device as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that close to the oil product tank outlet and close to the surge tank into The control valve for controlling experiment process is provided on the oil pipe of mouth, the control valve is also electrically connected with the PLC control cabinet.
3. device as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that the both ends of first subtube and the second subtube pass through The pneumatic operated valve of control pipeline on-off is connect with the main pipeline.
4. device as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that leakage experiment pipe both ends pass through flange and described second point Pipeline is removably connected.
5. device as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that be provided in the oil product tank and surge tank for monitoring The liquidometer of product oil liquid level.
6. a kind of method using such as any one of claims 1 to 5 described device measuring and calculating leakage rate, which is characterized in that this method It is calculated by leakage rate of the following formula (1) to leakage experiment pipe with pressure:
Wherein, qPFor leakage flow;HLFor the head difference before and after leakage unit;zLTo leak point height;pLFor oil product in leakage case Vapour pressure;ρ is fluid density;C0For discharge coefficient;K is coefficient of partial resistance;β is column guest's genss number;LLFor leakage experiment pipe range Degree;dLFor leakage experiment pipe diameter.
7. method as claimed in claim 6, which is characterized in that the device using simulation liquid hydrocarbon pipe leakage calculates leakage rate Method includes:
Step 1: circuit experiment is carried out;
Step 2: it completes circuit and tests and carry out leakage experiment after confirming experiment circuit operation conditions well.
8. the method for claim 7, which is characterized in that the step 1 includes:
1) typical product oil oil sample, experiment oil sample, processed oil pipeline surrounding soil, water, atmospheric simulation object sample, measurement are acquired At the viscosity and oil temperature relationship of oil product oil sample, the physical parameter and state parameter of measurement experiment oil sample measure processed oil pipeline Surrounding soil, water, hot coefficient, density, the coefficient of expansion and the specific heat capacity of atmosphere and the relationship of temperature;
2) simple horizontal equal diameter pipe leakage experiment is carried out using experiment circuit:
1. it is whole experiment circuit in injection convenient for observation leakage rate coloring water as working medium to experiment circuit carry out debugging with Experiment;
2. starting centrifugal pump after opening control valve, oil product starts to convey;Experiment starts, and the first subtube is opened a way in leakage unit, Main pipeline and the second subtube are closed circuit, and oil product flows through leakage unit through the first subtube;
3. flowing adjusts pneumatic operated valve after stablizing the first subtube is closed, main pipeline is opened, and oil product flows through leakage through main pipeline Unit;
4. opening needle-valve when pressure reaches the critical value of needle-valve, part oil product is flowed out through needle-valve, and main pipeline pressure stablizes Mr. Yu One value;
5. pneumatic operated valve is adjusted after closes main pipeline, and oil product flows into the second subtube;Due to main pipeline and the second subtube Parallel connection, the pressure of the second subtube are also stabilized in a certain value;Start to leak after switching, records the time started;Meanwhile it measuring The area of leak, is denoted as A on leakage experiment pipe;
6. record second and third thermometer, second and third pressure gauge, first flowmeter data situation, and by second The value of pressure gauge is denoted as P1, the value of third pressure gauge is denoted as P2, HL=(P1-P2)/ρg;
7. being recorded in the leakage process for colouring water under specific temperature and pressure using high-speed camera equipment, record coloring water is being leaked Pressure and changes in flow rate at mouthful;
8. video is analyzed by data processing software, for the analysis of experimental result and the foundation of mathematical model provide according to According to;
9. after leaking a period of time, termination of pumping closes valve and records the time, all experimental datas are persistently recorded, and increase record surge wave Pressure changing;
10. Therapy lasted to Weighing mechanism reading no longer changes substantially, show that leakage process finishes substantially, Weighing mechanism reading note For G;
According to the accumulative leakage volume and leak time of record, instantaneous leak rate and leakage flow are calculated.
9. method according to claim 8, which is characterized in that the step 2 includes:
1) change overpressure carry out simple horizontal equal diameter pipe in consideration manage in phase transformation influence leakage experiment, that is, adjust from After heart pump lift and pin valve opening change overpressure, the operation of step 2) in circuit experiment is repeated, data are recorded;
2) change the leakage experiment that temperature in managing carries out simple horizontal equal diameter pipe, i.e., oil sample is in heating oil product tank to change in pipe Sample oil temperature is conveyed, the operation of step 2) in circuit experiment is repeated, records data;
3) change the leakage experiment that comfortable property carries out simple horizontal equal diameter pipe, i.e., simulated experiment sample oil is in complicated operating condition Under leakage at oil density, Temperature and pressure distribution, design different leakage units according to analog result and accessed Circuit is tested, the operation of step 2) in circuit experiment is repeated, records data;
4) there is the leakage experiment pipe of different leaks to carry out leakage experiment for replacement, repeat the operation of step 2) in circuit experiment, Record data;
5) experimental data is handled.
10. method as claimed in claim 9, which is characterized in that the step 5) includes:
1. pipe leakage characterisitic parameter measurement method:
Wherein, Δ t is the leakage process time of record;G is the weighing result of leakage;Q is leakage volume;ρ is fluid density.
The pressure value Δ H that pressure gauge measures is remained by the pressure of breakage 2. switching pneumatic operated valve, that is, manages interior flowing pressure Pfluid With atmospheric pressure PairDifference:
Δ H=P1-P2=Pfluid-Pair (3)
3. calculating leakage rate according to small hole stream characteristic:
Wherein, discharging characteristic parameter when α is leakage;
4. not changing A, different Δ H and Q are measured, different α are calculated;
5. changing A, while different Δ H and Q are measured, calculates different α;
6. the α measurement of pipeline in water:
Wherein, PwaterFor hydraulic pressure outside pipeline;
7. the α measurement of pipeline in soil:
Wherein, PoutIt (t) is the outer ground pressure of pipeline.
CN201811249595.9A 2018-10-25 2018-10-25 Simulate the device of liquid hydrocarbon pipe leakage and the method using device measuring and calculating leakage rate Pending CN109442226A (en)

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Application publication date: 20190308