CN109175306A - A kind of casting mould and casting technique of gear box - Google Patents

A kind of casting mould and casting technique of gear box Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109175306A
CN109175306A CN201811217857.3A CN201811217857A CN109175306A CN 109175306 A CN109175306 A CN 109175306A CN 201811217857 A CN201811217857 A CN 201811217857A CN 109175306 A CN109175306 A CN 109175306A
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CN
China
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casting
die
mold
gear box
plate
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CN201811217857.3A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN109175306B (en
Inventor
唐顺清
黄志伟
宋权
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四川省犍为恒益铝业有限公司
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D18/00Pressure casting; Vacuum casting
    • B22D18/04Low pressure casting, i.e. making use of pressures up to a few bars to fill the mould
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C21/00Alloys based on aluminium
    • C22C21/02Alloys based on aluminium with silicon as the next major constituent

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of casting mould of gear box and casting techniques, are related to aluminium alloy casting technology field, to solve the problem of to cause transition position to be easy shrinkage porosite or even draw since wall thickness variation is big in existing gear box casting process.Casting mould includes upper die and lower die and the casting type chamber constituted with upper die and lower die, and the inside of upper mold is equipped with the quiet mold insert to match with gear box shape, and running channel water inlet is provided in lower die;Using low-pressure casting process, processing step includes: that ingredient-alloy melting-alloy solution is transferred to low pressure casting machine-preparation mold-die casting-die sinking pickup etc..By implementing the technical program, the mobility of the intracavitary aluminium alloy solution of casting type can sufficiently be improved, it avoids the problem that being easy shrinkage porosite and draw in transition position since gear box wall thickness variation is big, product qualification rate reaches 95.9% or more, and it is remarkably improved the machining accuracy of cast product, reduce the subsequent roughing cost of casting.

Description

A kind of casting mould and casting technique of gear box

Technical field

The present invention relates to gearbox casting technology fields, a kind of casting mould more particularly to gear box and Casting technique.

Background technique

Gear box is one of the fundamental parts of driving, it by gearbox axis and the parts connection such as gear be one It is whole, play support and connection in entire transmission assembly, these parts and mechanism is made to keep correct relative position, So as to the work that each mechanism and part energy thereon is correct, coordinates, should have enough strength and stiffness, gearbox body quality Superiority and inferiority will directly influence the accuracy of axis and gear equipotential part position, and then influence driving speed changer service performance and Service life.

The Chinese patent that notification number is CN204194723U discloses a kind of box mold of gear box casing, including dynamic half Dynamic formpiston is arranged in mould and quiet half module, the dynamic half module centre, and upper surface setting is used for the type core and tube bundle extracting machine of cabinet bearing chamber Structure, setting is used for the dynamic mold insert of cabinets cavity on the dynamic formpiston, and upper surface is arranged running channel import, top is arranged on the dynamic mold insert Bar, setting is used for the quiet mold insert of box shape, the running channel of upper surface setting face running channel import in position to the rear on the quiet half module. The technical solution is realized inner cavity and the shape one-pass molding casting of part, is reduced and added using dynamic mold insert and quiet mold insert and type core Ministry of worker position, reduces production cost.

The upper surface of mold is arranged in above-mentioned technical proposal, running channel import, and aluminium alloy solution enters type chamber by gravity, The founding method determined when existing driving gear box trial-production is also gravitational casting, in view of the studies above, those skilled in the art Member for LYP315.2 driving gear box trial-manufacturing process in find, LYP315.2 drive a vehicle gear box die shape ruler Modest ability wide high respectively 740mm, 560mm and 250mm, blank length, width and height are respectively 600mm, 326mm and 120mm, most thin place For 7.5mm, thickness reaches 57.5mm;Due to the device space, the height of cast gate is limited, in gravity casting process, even if adopting Take the system of risers sectional area by adjusting metal mold, blind riser is added at wall thickness and combine thermal insulation coatings subregion using etc. change Into method, the phenomenon that causing transition position to be easy shrinkage porosite or even draw because of the product wall thickness change dramatically not can solve still, in turn The problem of causing product leakage to be scrapped.

In view of the above technical problems, need a kind of gear box of those skilled in the art's Curve guide impeller casting mould and Casting technique, to solve the phenomenon that causing transition position to be easy shrinkage porosite or even draw because of the product wall thickness change dramatically, in turn Prevent the problem of product leakage is scrapped.

Summary of the invention

In order to solve to cause transition position to be easy shrinkage porosite since wall thickness variation is big in existing gear box casting process, very To the problem of draw, the purpose of the present invention is to provide a kind of casting moulds of gear box, can be effectively improved and pour open height Not enough, system of risers provides insufficient pressure and the problem that causes the intracavitary regional temperature drop of type big, it is molten sufficiently to improve aluminium alloy Liquid mobility prevents gear box wall thickness transition position jumpy to be easy shrinkage porosite and draw and product leakage is caused to be scrapped Problem.

The present invention specifically uses following technical scheme to achieve the goals above:

A kind of casting mould of gear box, the casting constituted including upper die and lower die and with upper die and lower die Type chamber, the upper mold upper end are equipped with upper mold connecting plate by cushion block, and ejecting mechanism is equipped between upper mold connecting plate and upper mold, and The inside of the upper mold is equipped with the quiet mold insert to match with gear box shape, and the lower die bottom is equipped with die bottom plate, The die bottom plate offers the running channel water inlet being connected to casting type chamber with lower die.

The working principle of base case of the present invention are as follows: above-mentioned die casting gear box is applied, the driving gearbox Casting width reaches 326mm, and wall thickness variation is big, through analyzing: cast gate insufficient height, and the insufficient pressure that system of risers provides to fill Type speed is slow, causes the intracavitary regional temperature drop of casting type big, is easy to cause there are bleb, owes casting or profile is unintelligible etc. Defect;The technical program, which is used, is set to casting type chamber lower section middle part for running channel water inlet, and alloy solution is injected by running channel water inlet Casting type is intracavitary, can be effectively improved cast gate insufficient height by the way of low pressure casting, the insufficient pressure that system of risers provides and The problem for causing the intracavitary regional temperature drop of type big sufficiently improves aluminium alloy solution mobility, prevents gear box wall thickness anxious The problem of transition position of drastic change is easy shrinkage porosite and draw and product leakage is caused to be scrapped.

And the quiet mold insert to match in the setting of the inside of upper mold with gear box shape, it can effective one-pass molding gearbox Roughing is reduced at core cavity and contour structures position, reduces production cost, and the qualification rate of box casting is up to 95.9%;This Outer quiet insert structure is fabricated separately, then is set in mold, keeps gearbox body unitary mould structure machining accuracy high, can effectively improve The machining accuracy of cast product, and then improve the processing quality of gearbox product.

Preferred embodiment, the ejecting mechanism include thimble fixed plate and are uniformly mounted on the multiple of thimble fixed plate bottom Thimble is equipped with multiple thimble through-holes corresponding with multiple thimbles in the upper mold.And it is solid in upper mold connecting plate and upper mold Surely it is connected with set rod structure, thimble fixed plate is set on sleeve column and can slide up and down along sleeve column, and sleeve column cannot be only used for supporting The stability that upper mold connecting plate is connect with upper mold, and can play the guiding role to the movement of thimble fixed plate and multiple thimbles.

The diameter of preferred embodiment, multiple thimble through-holes is 11~13mm.

Preferred embodiment, a plurality of exhaust passage is uniformly provided in the upper mold, and the diameter of a plurality of exhaust passage is 5mm. Casting type bottom of chamber area is larger, and equally distributed a plurality of exhaust passage can uniformly arrange the intracavitary gas of casting type in upper mold Out, it so that the molding of mould casting different parts is full, avoids the occurrence of bleb, owe the defects of casting or profile are unintelligible.

A kind of casting technique of above-mentioned gear box, the gearbox body are composed of the following components by weight percentage Aluminium alloy is made: Si:6.5~7.5%, Mg:0.3~0.4%, Ti:0.1~0.2%, Cu:2.1~3.5%, and Mn:0.2~ 0.5%, Fe≤0.75%, Ni≤0.35%, Zn≤0.1%, Pb≤0.2%, Sn≤0.1%, Cr≤0.2%, surplus Al With inevitable impurity, the casting technique is comprised the following steps that:

Step (a): ingredient selects corresponding simple substance raw material and Al to carry out ingredient according to said components ingredient;

Step (b): alloy melting carries out baker to aluminium furnace is changed, and the metal alloy prepared in step (a) is put into change aluminium Melting in furnace, smelting temperature is 780~790 DEG C, and is refined, deoxidation, process of skimming, alloying solution;

Step (c): existing gravity casting die is transformed into low pressure casting die, comprising the following steps: step by transformation mold Suddenly (1): sprue cup, the sprue of mill off gravity metal pattern tool fill out cross gate, repair welding ingate casting system;Step (2): Fill out blind riser, fixed chill;Step (3): reinforcing rib increases venting plug, product surrounding centre hole is increased to 14mm;Step (4): lower die opens up the running channel water inlet being connected to casting type chamber;Step (5): mold is made according to the size for connection of low pressure casting machine Bottom plate, upper mold connecting plate;The low pressure casting die includes upper die and lower die and the casting type constituted with upper die and lower die Chamber, the upper mold upper end are equipped with upper mold connecting plate by cushion block, and ejecting mechanism, and institute are equipped between upper mold connecting plate and upper mold The inside for stating upper mold is equipped with the quiet mold insert to match with gear box shape, and the lower die bottom is equipped with die bottom plate, institute It states die bottom plate and offers the running channel water inlet being connected to casting type chamber with lower die;

Prepare mold, after low pressure casting die assembling and setting is good, mold is preheated to 250~270 DEG C, and in casting type chamber Interior even application release agent;

Step (e): the alloy solution refined in step (b) middleization aluminium furnace is transferred in the holding furnace of low pressure casting machine, then The high-purity nitrogen for being passed through 99.999% does purification alloy solution processing, and the purification alloy solution time is 15~20min;

Step (f): die casting, the die casting gear box by the way of low pressure casting, press casting procedure include rising liquid to fill type, protect The cooling process of piezocrystallization, pressure release;

Step (g): opening mold after cabinet casting solidification in step (f) is cooling, obtains vehicle tail gas processing cabinet casting Part.

Preferred embodiment, it is 680~700 DEG C of preparation die casting that purified alloy solution, which keeps temperature, in step (e).

Preferred embodiment, step (f) die-casting technological parameter are as follows: liter hydraulic coupling be 160~180Mpa, rise the liquid time be 15~ 17s, and enter pressurization stages after keeping 2~3s with this pressure;Pressurization stages pressure reaches 780~800Mpa, pressurization time 10 ~12s;Then 950~980Mpa is stamped into 2~3s, and with 1100~1120Mpa pressure maintaining, the dwell time is 300~320s, Then slowly discharge is cooling.

Preferred embodiment, the alloy solution weight being transferred in step (e) in low pressure casting machine holding furnace are 450Kg.

Preferred embodiment, in the mode of the intracavitary spraying release agent of casting type in step (c) are as follows: spray gun nozzle is apart from mould crust body surface Identity distance is sprayed from for 230~250mm.Coating spraying is too close to be easy accumulation, and the too far easy bonding of coating spraying is loosely, spray It applies distance coating quality is had an impact to influence the certified product rate of casting, through many experiments, using spray gun nozzle apart from mould crust Body sprayed surface distance is 230~250mm, and uniformly, mould housing coating surface is smooth for injection.

Preferred embodiment, release agent coating thickness is 26~32 μm in step (c).

As described above, the present invention having the beneficial effect that compared with the prior art:

Have 1. gearbox body casting mould of the present invention is changed to low pressure casting mold by gravity casting die, on the basis of original mold The casting system of upper repair welding gravity casting die opens up the running channel water inlet being connected to casting type chamber in lower die, improves casting Mold has the coupling part of air injection machine, and improved low pressure casting mode can effectively solve gearbox tank wall in casting process The problem of being easy to appear shrinkage porosite and draw due to thick transition position jumpy and product leakage caused to be scrapped, and this programme can be right Original gravity casting die is efficiently used, and the economic benefit of enterprise is remarkably improved.

2. the present invention is set to casting type chamber lower section middle part using by running channel water inlet, alloy solution is injected by running channel water inlet Casting type is intracavitary, and the mode of improved low pressure casting can be effectively improved cast gate insufficient height, the insufficient pressure that system of risers provides And the problem for causing the intracavitary regional temperature drop of type big sufficiently improves aluminium and closes for the big problem of gear box wall thickness variation Gold solution mobility, the problem of preventing wall thickness sharply transition position is easy shrinkage porosite and draw and product leakage is caused to be scrapped;And quiet edge The integrally-built machining accuracy height of mold can be improved in the setting of part, which makes The qualification rate of box casting is up to 95.9%, and is remarkably improved the machining accuracy of cast product, reduces the subsequent roughing of casting Cost.

3. the present invention is on the basis of existing technology, the component of aluminium alloy is adjusted, has adjusted remaining alloy member The content of element, the more existing die casting of tensile strength of gear box casting obtained improve 25% or more, refining aluminum alloy Crystalline structure has enough strength and stiffness, can meet the requirement of the higher bridge crane structure part of intensity requirement, improves row It the service performance of vehicle speed changer and improves service life.

4., in conjunction with the structure setting of the casting mould, can effectively ensure that a liter liquid rank present invention improves over die-casting technological parameter It is pressurized again after Duan Jinhang pressure maintaining, has not only been conducive to type intracavity gas and has sufficiently been discharged, but also be conducive to pressurization and be conducive to control pressurization stages Filling velocity improves the stationarity for filling type flow;Pressure maintaining is then carried out with 1100~1120Mpa after the completion of pressurization, casting exists It makes full use of crystallizer to will do it crystallization under the pressure, the intensity of aluminum alloy of design is enable to give full play to, stage adjustment is filled Shape parameter prevents the intracavitary regional temperature drop of casting type big so that box casting has preferable binding performance, and casting is thinned and produces Product hot junction;The parameter setting of the die-casting process can sufficiently adjust the aluminium alloy solution diffusivity intracavitary in casting type, and keep The aluminium alloy solution of different zones has good associativity, effectively solves the gear box casting section thickness change dramatically and leads The phenomenon that causing transition position to be easy shrinkage porosite or even draw;Cast product good airproof performance, so that cast product qualification rate is high.

Detailed description of the invention

Fig. 1 is a kind of perspective view of the casting mould of gear box of the present invention;

Fig. 2 is a kind of sectional front view of the casting mould of gear box of the present invention;

Fig. 3 is a kind of top cross-sectional view of the casting mould of gear box of the present invention.

Specific embodiment

It is further described below by specific embodiment:

Appended drawing reference in Figure of description includes: 1- upper mold, 2- lower die, 3- casting type chamber, 4- cushion block, the connection of 5- upper mold Plate, 6- sleeve column, the quiet mold insert of 7-, 8- thimble fixed plate, 9- thimble through-hole, 10- exhaust passage, 11- running channel water inlet, 12- mold Bottom plate, 13- centre hole.

Embodiment 1

It please refers to shown in Fig. 1, Fig. 2 and Fig. 3, the present embodiment provides a kind of casting moulds of gear box, including upper mold 1, lower die 2 and the casting type chamber 3 constituted with upper mold 1 and lower die 2,1 upper end of upper mold are equipped with upper mold connection by cushion block 4 Plate 5, is equipped with ejecting mechanism between upper mold connecting plate 5 and upper mold 1, ejecting mechanism includes thimble fixed plate 8 and is uniformly mounted on Multiple thimbles in thimble fixed plate 8, multiple thimbles are detachably connected with 8 screw thread of thimble fixed plate, and thimble fixed plate 8 is equipped with For the threaded hole of thimble installation;In upper mold 1 be equipped with thimble through-hole 9 corresponding with multiple thimbles, multiple thimble through-holes 9 it is straight Diameter is 11~13mm, and the diameter of the multiple thimble through-holes 9 of the present embodiment is preferably 12mm;And it is solid in upper mold connecting plate 5 and upper mold 1 Surely it is connected with 6 structure of sleeve column, thimble fixed plate 8 is set on sleeve column 6 and can slide up and down along sleeve column 6, and sleeve column 6 cannot be only used for The stability that support upper mold connecting plate 5 is connect with upper mold 1 can also play guiding to the movement of thimble fixed plate 8 and multiple thimbles Effect.

The inside of upper mold 1 is equipped with the quiet mold insert 7 to match with gear box shape, and quiet 7 structure of mold insert is fabricated separately, then It is set in mold, keeps gearbox body unitary mould structure machining accuracy high, the machining accuracy of cast product can be effectively improved, in turn Improve the processing quality of gearbox product;And the quiet mold insert 7 that the setting of quiet mold insert 7 and gear box shape match, can have One-pass molding gearbox core cavity and contour structures position are imitated, roughing is reduced, reduces production cost, the qualification of box casting Rate is up to 95.9%.

The a plurality of exhaust passage 10 being connected to casting type chamber 3 is uniformly provided in upper mold 1, a plurality of exhaust passage 10 Diameter is 5mm;Casting type 3 floor spaces of chamber are larger, and equally distributed a plurality of exhaust passage 10 can be by casting type chamber 3 in upper mold 1 Interior gas is uniformly discharged, so that the molding of mould casting different parts is full, it is unclear to avoid the occurrence of bleb, deficient casting or profile The defects of clear;And cast product molding surrounding centre hole 13 is 14mm.

2 bottom of lower die is equipped with die bottom plate 12, and lower die 2 is embedded in die bottom plate 12;It is opened up in die bottom plate 12 and lower die 2 There is the running channel water inlet 11 being connected to casting type chamber 3, running channel water inlet 11 is set to the center of 3 bottom of casting type chamber, alloy Solution is injected in casting type chamber 3 by running channel water inlet 11, and is spread around along 3 center of casting type chamber.

The casting width of the driving gearbox reaches 326mm, and the most thin place of wall thickness is 7.5mm, and thickness reaches 57.5mm, Wall thickness variation is big;Through analyzing: due to cast gate insufficient height, the insufficient pressure that system of risers provides makes filling velocity slow, causes 3 inner region temperature fall of casting type chamber is big, is easy to cause there are bleb, owes the defects of casting or profile are unintelligible;This implementation Example increases installation electronic heater structure, electronic heater knot on the mold shell of gearbox Filling Processes of Castings wall thickness thin location Structure and mounting means are the prior art, and therefore not to repeat here, can be relatively thin to gearbox Filling Processes of Castings wall thickness using the frame mode The mold shell at place is heated, and avoids 3 inner region temperature fall of casting type chamber big, so that aluminium alloy crystallizes stress stability, it is complete Kind casting molding effect.

The specific embodiment of the present embodiment are as follows: application above-mentioned die casting LYP315.2 driving gear box, this reality It applies example to use running channel water inlet 11 set on 3 lower section middle part of casting type chamber, alloy solution injects casting type by running channel water inlet 11 In chamber 3, and electronic heater is installed on the mold shell of gearbox Filling Processes of Castings wall thickness thin location, improves the region aluminium alloy The mobility of liquid, the problem for preventing the intracavitary regional temperature drop of casting type big, so that aluminium alloy crystallizes stress stability, use is low The mode that die casting is made can be effectively improved cast gate insufficient height, the insufficient pressure that system of risers provides and cause the intracavitary regional temperature of type The big problem of drop sufficiently improves aluminium alloy solution mobility, and gear box wall thickness transition position jumpy is prevented to be easy Shrinkage porosite and draw and the problem of cause product leakage to be scrapped, it is full to fill type casting molding quality.

Embodiment 2

Incorporated by reference to shown in Fig. 1, Fig. 2 and Fig. 3, the present embodiment provides a kind of casting technique of gear box, application is above-mentioned The casting mould casting LYP315.2 driving gear box of gear box, gearbox body percentage by weight in embodiment 1 Aluminium alloy than counting composed of the following components is made: Si:6.5%, Mg:0.3%, Ti:0.1%, Cu:2.1%, Mn:0.2%, Fe:0.65%, Ni:0.25%, Zn:0.08%, Pb:0.15%, Sn:0.05%, Cr:0.12%, surplus are Al and can not keep away The impurity exempted from, casting technique specifically include following processing step:

Step (a): ingredient selects corresponding simple substance raw material and Al to carry out ingredient according to said components ingredient;

Step (b): alloy melting carries out baker to aluminium furnace is changed, and the metal alloy prepared in step (a) is put into change aluminium Melting in furnace, smelting temperature is 780 DEG C, and is refined, deoxidation, process of skimming, alloying solution;

Step (c): existing gravity casting die is transformed into low pressure casting die, comprising the following steps: step by transformation mold Suddenly (1): sprue cup, the sprue of mill off gravity metal pattern tool fill out cross gate, repair welding ingate casting system;Step (2): Fill out blind riser, fixed chill;Step (3): reinforcing rib increases venting plug, product surrounding centre hole is increased to 14mm;Step (4): lower die opens up the running channel water inlet being connected to casting type chamber;Step (5): mold is made according to the size for connection of low pressure casting machine Bottom plate, upper mold connecting plate;The low pressure casting die includes upper mold 1, lower die 2 and the casting constituted with upper die and lower die Type chamber 3,1 upper end of upper mold are equipped with upper mold connecting plate 5 by cushion block, and ejector is equipped between upper mold connecting plate 5 and upper mold 1 Structure, and the inside of the upper mold 1 is equipped with the quiet mold insert 7 to match with gear box shape, the lower die bottom is equipped with mould Has bottom plate 12, the die bottom plate 12 offers the running channel water inlet 11 being connected to casting type chamber 3 with lower die 2;

Prepare mold, includes the following steps: 1.1 cleaning molds;1.2 installations and debugging mold;1.3 baking dies;1.4 with Coating spraying mold;Mold is preheated to 270 DEG C by 1.5 baking dies, and in casting type chamber 3 one layer of even application have every The release agent of heat, insulation effect, the spraying method of release agent are as follows: spray gun nozzle is 230mm progress apart from mould housing surface distance Spraying, and release agent coating thickness is 26 μm.Coating spraying is too close to be easy accumulation, and the too far easy bonding of coating spraying is loosely, Spray distance has an impact coating quality to influence the certified product rate of casting, through many experiments, using spray gun nozzle apart from mold Shell sprayed surface distance is 230mm, and uniformly, mould housing coating surface is smooth for injection;It is molded, when molding centainly accomplishes Gently, delay;It in clamping process, if there is exception, ascertains the reason, carries out again after eliminating the fault in next step;

Step (e): the alloy solution refined in step (b) middleization aluminium furnace is transferred in the holding furnace of low pressure casting machine, is turned Entering the alloy solution weight in low pressure casting machine holding furnace is 450Kg;The high-purity nitrogen for being passed through 99.999% again does purification alloy Solution processing, purification alloy solution time are 15min;It is 680 DEG C of preparation die casting that purified alloy solution, which keeps temperature,;

Step (f): whether in place die casting first confirm that molding;Molding carries out mold afterwards in place and fills type;Using low pressure casting Mode die casting gear box, press casting procedure includes that liter liquid fills the cooling process of type, pressure maintaining crystallization, pressure release;Die-casting process ginseng Number are as follows: liter hydraulic coupling is 160Mpa, and the liter liquid time is 15s, and enters pressurization stages after keeping 2s with this pressure;Pressurization stages pressure Power reaches 800Mpa, pressurization time 10s;Then 950Mpa is stamped into 2s, and with 1100Mpa pressure maintaining, dwell time 300s, Then slowly discharge is cooling;Operator examines whether mold leaks in press casting procedure, as leaked, that is, stops operation; It is operated again after eliminating the fault;After filling type, into casting type chamber 3 in aluminium alloy solution weight be 22Kg;

Step (g): opening mold after cabinet casting solidification in step (f) is cooling, obtains vehicle tail gas processing cabinet casting Part;Specifically, lift upper mold 1 first, box casting lifts with upper mold 1, is promoted when box casting to height is required, then is produced Receiver drives ejecting mechanism ejecting product by actuator, and the actuator of ejecting mechanism is the prior art, is not gone to live in the household of one's in-laws on getting married herein It states;Product is removed in receiver revolution;It detects whether with defect.

1 embodiment of table, 2 gear box casting air-leakage test tests table

Through detecting, as shown in table 1, the pressure maintaining 30s under 0.6~1.0Mpa pressure, gear box casting bubble-free is generated, Air-tightness is qualified;Casting molding is complete, and gear box wall thickness change dramatically transition position and other positions do not occur shrinkage porosite And the phenomenon that draw;Cast product is clear-cut and quality is full, and box casting tensile strength is improved compared with the prior art 31.5% or so, the mechanical property of casting can be effectively improved, the requirement of the higher bridge crane structure part of intensity requirement can be met, Improve the service performance of driving speed changer and improves service life.

Embodiment 3

Incorporated by reference to shown in Fig. 1, Fig. 2 and Fig. 3, the present embodiment provides a kind of casting technique of gear box, application is above-mentioned The casting mould casting LYP315.2 driving gear box of gear box, gearbox body percentage by weight in embodiment 1 Aluminium alloy than counting composed of the following components is made: Si:7.5%, Mg:0.4%, Ti:0.2%, Cu:3.5%, Mn:0.5%, Fe:0.55%, Ni:0.15%, Zn:0.06%, Pb:0.12%, Sn:0.08%, Cr:0.15%, surplus are Al and can not keep away The impurity exempted from, casting technique specifically include following processing step:

Step (a): ingredient selects corresponding simple substance raw material and Al to carry out ingredient according to said components ingredient;

Step (b): alloy melting carries out baker to aluminium furnace is changed, and the metal alloy prepared in step (a) is put into change aluminium Melting in furnace, smelting temperature is 790 DEG C, and is refined, deoxidation, process of skimming, alloying solution;

Step (c): existing gravity casting die is transformed into low pressure casting die, comprising the following steps: step by transformation mold Suddenly (1): sprue cup, the sprue of mill off gravity metal pattern tool fill out cross gate, repair welding ingate casting system;Step (2): Fill out blind riser, fixed chill;Step (3): reinforcing rib increases venting plug, product surrounding centre hole is increased to 14mm;Step (4): lower die opens up the running channel water inlet being connected to casting type chamber;Step (5): mold is made according to the size for connection of low pressure casting machine Bottom plate, upper mold connecting plate;The low pressure casting die includes upper mold 1, lower die 2 and the casting constituted with upper die and lower die Type chamber 3,1 upper end of upper mold are equipped with upper mold connecting plate 5 by cushion block, and ejector is equipped between upper mold connecting plate 5 and upper mold 1 Structure, and the inside of the upper mold 1 is equipped with the quiet mold insert 7 to match with gear box shape, the lower die bottom is equipped with mould Has bottom plate 12, the die bottom plate 12 offers the running channel water inlet 11 being connected to casting type chamber 3 with lower die 2;

Prepare mold, includes the following steps: 1.1 cleaning molds;1.2 installations and debugging mold;1.3 baking dies;1.4 with Coating spraying mold;Mold is preheated to 260 DEG C by 1.5 baking dies, and in casting type chamber 3 one layer of even application have every The release agent of heat, insulation effect, the spraying method of release agent are as follows: spray gun nozzle is 250mm progress apart from mould housing surface distance Spraying, and release agent coating thickness is 30 μm.Coating spraying is too close to be easy accumulation, and the too far easy bonding of coating spraying is loosely, Spray distance has an impact coating quality to influence the certified product rate of casting, through many experiments, using spray gun nozzle apart from mold Shell sprayed surface distance is 250mm, and uniformly, mould housing coating surface is smooth for injection;It is molded, when molding centainly accomplishes Gently, delay;It in clamping process, if there is exception, ascertains the reason, carries out again after eliminating the fault in next step;

Step (e): the alloy solution refined in step (b) middleization aluminium furnace is transferred in the holding furnace of low pressure casting machine, is turned Entering the alloy solution weight in low pressure casting machine holding furnace is 450Kg;The high-purity nitrogen for being passed through 99.999% again does purification alloy Solution processing, purification alloy solution time are 15min;It is 690 DEG C of preparation die casting that purified alloy solution, which keeps temperature,;

Step (f): whether in place die casting first confirm that molding;Molding carries out mold afterwards in place and fills type;Using low pressure casting Mode die casting gear box, press casting procedure includes that liter liquid fills the cooling process of type, pressure maintaining crystallization, pressure release;Die-casting process ginseng Number are as follows: liter hydraulic coupling is 165Mpa, and the liter liquid time is 16s, and enters pressurization stages after keeping 2s with this pressure;Pressurization stages pressure Power reaches 790Mpa, pressurization time 12s;Then 960Mpa is stamped into 3s, and with 1115Mpa pressure maintaining, dwell time 320s, Then slowly discharge is cooling;Operator examines whether mold leaks in press casting procedure, as leaked, that is, stops operation; It is operated again after eliminating the fault;After filling type, into casting type chamber 3 in aluminium alloy solution weight be 22Kg;

Step (g): opening mold after cabinet casting solidification in step (f) is cooling, obtains vehicle tail gas processing cabinet casting Part;Specifically, lift upper mold 1 first, box casting lifts with upper mold 1, is promoted when box casting to height is required, then is produced Receiver drives ejecting mechanism ejecting product by actuator, and the actuator of ejecting mechanism is the prior art, is not gone to live in the household of one's in-laws on getting married herein It states;Product is removed in receiver revolution;It detects whether with defect.

2 embodiment of table, 3 gear box casting air-leakage test tests table

Through detecting, as shown in table 2, the pressure maintaining 30s under 0.6~1.0Mpa pressure, gear box casting bubble-free is generated, Air-tightness is qualified;Casting molding is complete, and gear box wall thickness change dramatically transition position and other positions do not occur shrinkage porosite And the phenomenon that draw;Cast product is clear-cut and quality is full, and box casting tensile strength is improved compared with the prior art 28.6% or so, the mechanical property of casting can be effectively improved, the requirement of the higher bridge crane structure part of intensity requirement can be met, Improve the service performance of driving speed changer and improves service life.

Embodiment 4

Incorporated by reference to shown in Fig. 1, Fig. 2 and Fig. 3, the present embodiment provides a kind of casting technique of gear box, application is above-mentioned The casting mould casting LYP315.2 driving gear box of gear box, gearbox body percentage by weight in embodiment 1 Aluminium alloy than counting composed of the following components is made: Si:7.2%, Mg:0.35%, Ti:0.16%, Cu:2.8%, Mn: 0.35%, Fe:0.45%, Ni:0.21%, Zn:0.06%, Pb:0.11%, Sn:0.06%, Cr:0.02%, surplus be Al and Inevitable impurity, casting technique specifically include following processing step:

Step (a): ingredient selects corresponding simple substance raw material and Al to carry out ingredient according to said components ingredient;

Step (b): alloy melting carries out baker to aluminium furnace is changed, and the metal alloy prepared in step (a) is put into change aluminium Melting in furnace, smelting temperature is 790 DEG C, and is refined, deoxidation, process of skimming, alloying solution;

Step (c): existing gravity casting die is transformed into low pressure casting die, comprising the following steps: step by transformation mold Suddenly (1): sprue cup, the sprue of mill off gravity metal pattern tool fill out cross gate, repair welding ingate casting system;Step (2): Fill out blind riser, fixed chill;Step (3): reinforcing rib increases venting plug, product surrounding centre hole is increased to 14mm;Step (4): lower die opens up the running channel water inlet being connected to casting type chamber;Step (5): mold is made according to the size for connection of low pressure casting machine Bottom plate, upper mold connecting plate;The low pressure casting die includes upper mold 1, lower die 2 and the casting constituted with upper die and lower die Type chamber 3,1 upper end of upper mold are equipped with upper mold connecting plate 5 by cushion block, and ejector is equipped between upper mold connecting plate 5 and upper mold 1 Structure, and the inside of the upper mold 1 is equipped with the quiet mold insert 7 to match with gear box shape, the lower die bottom is equipped with mould Has bottom plate 12, the die bottom plate 12 offers the running channel water inlet 11 being connected to casting type chamber 3 with lower die 2;

Prepare mold, includes the following steps: 1.1 cleaning molds;1.2 installations and debugging mold;1.3 baking dies;1.4 with Coating spraying mold;Mold is preheated to 270 DEG C by 1.5 baking dies, and in casting type chamber 3 one layer of even application have every The release agent of heat, insulation effect, the spraying method of release agent are as follows: spray gun nozzle is 230mm progress apart from mould housing surface distance Spraying, and release agent coating thickness is 26 μm.Coating spraying is too close to be easy accumulation, and the too far easy bonding of coating spraying is loosely, Spray distance has an impact coating quality to influence the certified product rate of casting, through many experiments, using spray gun nozzle apart from mold Shell sprayed surface distance is 230mm, and uniformly, mould housing coating surface is smooth for injection;It is molded, when molding centainly accomplishes Gently, delay;It in clamping process, if there is exception, ascertains the reason, carries out again after eliminating the fault in next step;

Step (e): the alloy solution refined in step (b) middleization aluminium furnace is transferred in the holding furnace of low pressure casting machine, is turned Entering the alloy solution weight in low pressure casting machine holding furnace is 450Kg;The high-purity nitrogen for being passed through 99.999% again does purification alloy Solution processing, purification alloy solution time are 20min;It is 700 DEG C of preparation die casting that purified alloy solution, which keeps temperature,;

Step (f): whether in place die casting first confirm that molding;Molding carries out mold afterwards in place and fills type;Using low pressure casting Mode die casting gear box, press casting procedure includes that liter liquid fills the cooling process of type, pressure maintaining crystallization, pressure release;Die-casting process ginseng Number are as follows: liter hydraulic coupling is 170Mpa, and the liter liquid time is 16s, and enters pressurization stages after keeping 3s with this pressure;Pressurization stages pressure Power reaches 786Mpa, pressurization time 12s;Then 980Mpa is stamped into 3s, and with 1120Mpa pressure maintaining, dwell time 320s, Then slowly discharge is cooling;Operator examines whether mold leaks in press casting procedure, as leaked, that is, stops operation; It is operated again after eliminating the fault;After filling type, into casting type chamber 3 in aluminium alloy solution weight be 22Kg;

Step (g): opening mold after cabinet casting solidification in step (f) is cooling, obtains vehicle tail gas processing cabinet casting Part;Specifically, lift upper mold 1 first, box casting lifts with upper mold 1, is promoted when box casting to height is required, then is produced Receiver drives ejecting mechanism ejecting product by actuator, and the actuator of ejecting mechanism is the prior art, is not gone to live in the household of one's in-laws on getting married herein It states;Product is removed in receiver revolution;It detects whether with defect.

3 embodiment of table, 4 gear box casting air-leakage test tests table

Through detecting, as shown in table 3, the pressure maintaining 30s under 0.6~1.0Mpa pressure, gear box casting bubble-free is generated, Air-tightness is qualified;Casting molding is complete, and gear box wall thickness change dramatically transition position and other positions do not occur shrinkage porosite And the phenomenon that draw;Cast product is clear-cut and quality is full, and box casting tensile strength is improved compared with the prior art 30.7% or so, the mechanical property of casting can be effectively improved, the requirement of the higher bridge crane structure part of intensity requirement can be met, Improve the service performance of driving speed changer and improves service life.

The above, only presently preferred embodiments of the present invention, are not intended to limit the invention, patent protection model of the invention It encloses and is subject to claims, it is all to change with equivalent structure made by specification and accompanying drawing content of the invention, similarly It should be included within the scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of casting mould of gear box, the casting type constituted including upper die and lower die and with upper die and lower die Chamber, it is characterised in that: the upper mold upper end is equipped with upper mold connecting plate by cushion block, and top is equipped between upper mold connecting plate and upper mold Mechanism out, and the inside of the upper mold is equipped with the quiet mold insert to match with gear box shape, the lower die bottom is equipped with Die bottom plate, the die bottom plate offer the running channel water inlet being connected to casting type chamber with lower die.
2. a kind of casting mould of gear box according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: the ejecting mechanism includes Thimble fixed plate and multiple thimbles of thimble fixed plate bottom are uniformly mounted on, are equipped in the upper mold and multiple thimbles Corresponding multiple thimble through-holes.
3. a kind of casting mould of gear box according to claim 2, it is characterised in that: multiple thimble through-holes Diameter be 11~13mm.
4. a kind of casting mould of gear box according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: uniformly set in the upper mold There is a plurality of exhaust passage, the diameter of a plurality of exhaust passage is 5mm.
5. a kind of casting technique of gear box, it is characterised in that: the gearbox body is by weight percentage by following components The aluminium alloy of composition is made: Si:6.5~7.5%, Mg:0.3~0.4%, Ti:0.1~0.2%, Cu:2.1~3.5%, Mn: 0.2~0.5%, Fe≤0.75%, Ni≤0.35%, Zn≤0.1%, Pb≤0.2%, Sn≤0.1%, Cr≤0.2%, surplus For Al and inevitable impurity, the casting technique is comprised the following steps that:
Step (a): ingredient selects corresponding simple substance raw material and Al to carry out ingredient according to said components ingredient;
Step (b): alloy melting carries out baker to aluminium furnace is changed, the metal alloy prepared in step (a) is put into change aluminium furnace Melting, smelting temperature is 780~790 DEG C, and is refined, deoxidation, process of skimming, alloying solution;
Step (c): existing gravity casting die is transformed into low pressure casting die, comprising the following steps: step by transformation mold (1): sprue cup, the sprue of mill off gravity metal pattern tool fill out cross gate, repair welding ingate casting system;Step (2): it fills out Blind riser, fixed chill;Step (3): reinforcing rib increases venting plug, product surrounding centre hole is increased to 14mm;Step (4): Lower die opens up the running channel water inlet being connected to casting type chamber;Step (5): mold bottom is made according to the size for connection of low pressure casting machine Plate, upper mold connecting plate;The low pressure casting die includes upper die and lower die and the casting type constituted with upper die and lower die Chamber, the upper mold upper end are equipped with upper mold connecting plate by cushion block, and ejecting mechanism, and institute are equipped between upper mold connecting plate and upper mold The inside for stating upper mold is equipped with the quiet mold insert to match with gear box shape, and the lower die bottom is equipped with die bottom plate, institute It states die bottom plate and offers the running channel water inlet being connected to casting type chamber with lower die;
Prepare mold, after low pressure casting die assembling and setting is good, mold is preheated to 250~270 DEG C, and intracavitary in casting type Even spraying release agent;
Step (e): the alloy solution refined in step (b) middleization aluminium furnace is transferred in the holding furnace of low pressure casting machine, then is passed through 99.999% high-purity nitrogen does purification alloy solution processing, and the purification alloy solution time is 15~20min;
Step (f): die casting, the die casting gear box by the way of low pressure casting, press casting procedure include rising liquid to fill type, pressure maintaining knot Process brilliant, pressure release is cooling;
Step (g): opening mold after cabinet casting solidification in step (f) is cooling, obtains vehicle tail gas and handles box casting.
6. a kind of casting technique of gear box according to claim 5, it is characterised in that: in step (e) after purification Alloy solution keep temperature be 680~700 DEG C of preparation die casting.
7. a kind of casting technique of gear box according to claim 5, it is characterised in that: step (f) die-casting process Parameter are as follows: liter hydraulic coupling is 160~180Mpa, and the liter liquid time is 15~17s, and enters pressurization after keeping 2~3s with this pressure Stage;Pressurization stages pressure reaches 780~800Mpa, 10~12s of pressurization time;Then 950 are stamped into 2~3s~ 980Mpa, and with 1100~1120Mpa pressure maintaining, the dwell time is 300~320s, and then slowly discharge is cooling.
8. a kind of casting technique of gear box according to claim 5, it is characterised in that: be transferred in step (e) low Alloy solution weight in die casting machine holding furnace is 450Kg.
9. a kind of casting technique of gear box according to claim 5, it is characterised in that: in casting in step (c) The mode of the intracavitary spraying release agent of type are as follows: spray gun nozzle is that 230~250mm is sprayed apart from mould housing surface distance.
10. a kind of casting technique of gear box according to claim 5, it is characterised in that: release agent in step (c) Coating thickness is 26~32 μm.
CN201811217857.3A 2018-10-18 2018-10-18 Casting mold and casting process of gearbox body CN109175306B (en)

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