CN101279362B - Method for manufacturing low-segregation large-sized steel ingot by quickening cooling of bottom and lateral wall - Google Patents

Method for manufacturing low-segregation large-sized steel ingot by quickening cooling of bottom and lateral wall Download PDF

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CN101279362B
CN101279362B CN2008100114083A CN200810011408A CN101279362B CN 101279362 B CN101279362 B CN 101279362B CN 2008100114083 A CN2008100114083 A CN 2008100114083A CN 200810011408 A CN200810011408 A CN 200810011408A CN 101279362 B CN101279362 B CN 101279362B
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steel ingot
ingot
steel
segregation
sidewall
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CN101279362A (en
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桑宝光
李殿中
夏立军
康秀红
陈露贵
傅排先
李依依
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Institute of Metal Research of CAS
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Abstract

The invention discloses a manufacturing method of low-segregation large-scale steel ingots obtained by accelerating the cooling of the bottom part and the side wall and relates to the manufacturing process of various levels of large-scale steel ingots, which is applicable to the control of the segregation of various components of carbon steel and alloy steel ingots and can be used for the casting process of vacuum pouring and non-vacuum pouring steel ingots, the control of the macro-segregation and the alleviation of the micro-segregation. The specific steps of the invention are that: 1) steel ingot mold material is a gray cast iron; 2) a riser adopts an insulated riser, the taper thereof is 8 to 16 percent; 3) the height-to-diameter ratio of the steel ingot is 1: 1 to 3: 1; 4) the steel ingot material is the carbon steel or the alloy steel; 5) an aeration conduit is pre-casted in the middle and lower part of the steel ingot mold and a chassis of the steel ingot mold; 6) the chassis starts the aeration of compressed air after the steel ingot pouring is finished, and the aeration of the compressed air on the side wall of the steel ingot mold can be carried out after 1 to 6 hours. A cooling system with the aeration of the compressed air at the chassis of the large-scale steel ingot and the side wall of the ingot mold designed by the invention can greatly improve the cooling speed of the large-scale steel ingot and effectively inhibit various segregations of the large-scale steel ingot.

Description

By accelerating the manufacture method of bottom, sidewall cooling acquisition low-segregation large-sized steel ingot
Technical field
The present invention is a kind of by accelerating the manufacture method of bottom, sidewall cooling acquisition low-segregation large-sized steel ingot, the manufacture process that relates to various rank large-scale steel ingots, be applicable to the segregation control of carbon steel and the various compositions of alloy steel ingot, the casting process that can be used for vacuum pouring and antivacuum cast steel ingot is controlled gross segregation and is alleviated microsegregation.
Background technology
Along with industrial equipments such as electric power, metallurgy, petrochemical industry, space flight, shipbuilding continue to develop to integration and maximization direction, increasing, therefore also more and more higher in recent years to the class requirement of large-scale steel ingot to the demand of heavy forging.The process of setting of large-scale steel ingot is very very long, does not wait from tens hours to up to a hundred hours, and the solute reallocation fully makes steel ingot zones of different uneven chemical components, forms gross segregation and microsegregation.Component segregation has a strong impact on ingot quality, even causes steel ingot to be scrapped.The ingotism problem has become the key that influences the large forgings quality.
The segregation problem of large-scale steel ingot is researcher and business circles concern extremely.Though obtaining certain progress aspect the segregation formation mechanism, making slow progress aspect the segregation control measure, almost do not having effective measures can suppress gross segregation.The method that heavy enterprise once adopted many inclusions to water suppresses segregation, but because molten steel mixes rapidly in ingot mould, the effect that suppresses segregation is very limited.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of manufacture method by quickening bottom, sidewall cooling acquisition low-segregation large-sized steel ingot, it is serious to solve present macrotype ingot aliquation, the problem that production efficiency is low; According to the large-scale steel ingot tonnage, determine the time and the flow of different large-scale steel ingot chassis, sidewall ventilation, when guaranteeing that macrotype ingot aliquation is inhibited, do not produce other defective.
Technical scheme of the present invention is:
The present invention has developed a kind of by accelerating the manufacture method of bottom, sidewall cooling acquisition low-segregation large-sized steel ingot, comprises the steps:
1) the ingot mould material is a grey cast-iron;
2) rising head adopts insulated feeder, and the rising head tapering is 8~16%;
3) ratio of height to diameter of steel ingot (ratio of steel ingot height and average diameter) is 1: 1~3: 1;
4) the steel ingot material is carbon steel or steel alloy;
5) precasting breather line in ingot mould middle and lower part and ingot mould chassis;
6) ingot steel casting finishes rear chassis and can begin logical compressed air, and the ingot mould sidewall can lead to compressed air after 1~6 hour.
In the chemical composition of material therefor of the present invention, by weight percentage, C:0.01~0.75%, S, P :≤0.030%.
Rising head of the present invention adopts insulated feeder, the rising head tapering is 8~16%, insulated feeder is up-small and down-big, and material is a high-quality refractory material: high-alumina brick, corundum, mullite, magnesia brick, magnalium goods or aluminum silicate insulation material etc., there is one deck asbestos insulation board the refractory material outside.
The present invention is applicable to the steel ingot of all ratio of height to diameters, can obtain tangible benefit and use on large-scale steel ingot, and its ratio of height to diameter was generally 1: 1~3: 1.
The present invention adopts rising head to add exothermic mixture and thermal-insulating covering agent; The ingot mould preheat temperature is 50~200 ℃.
The present invention arranges pipeline in ingot mould sidewall middle and lower part and chassis, inside diameter ranges 30~200mm.
When the present invention reached the above thickness of 150mm at steel ingot bottom solidification thickness, sidewall began logical compressed air.
Among the present invention, throughput was little when compressed air began, enlargement discharge gradually then, and compressed-air actuated flow changes in 3~10kg/s scope, and compressed-air actuated pressure is 5~8 atmospheric pressure.
Among the present invention, large-scale steel ingot is meant 100~600 tons steel ingot.
Among the present invention, the software that computer simulation is used is ProCast.
The present invention has following beneficial effect:
1. technological design of the present invention is reasonable, by changing large-scale steel ingot external heat-exchanging condition, adopted in large-scale steel ingot chassis and the logical compressed-air actuated method of sidewall, improved the cooling velocity of large-scale steel ingot greatly, can significantly shorten the setting time of steel ingot, shorten demould time, improve the production efficiency of steel ingot, thereby improve the output of heavy casting and forging.
2. the present invention's aerating system reasonable in design, compressed air can pass through the steel ingot chassis, and the ingot mould sidewall cools off, and system is simple, and is safe, workable, and enterprise realizes easily.
3. employing the present invention, the setting time of steel ingot shortens dramatically, and to the various gross segregations of large-scale steel ingot, especially " A " type segregation that has a strong impact on ingot quality is had the obvious suppression effect.
4. the present invention is applicable to the manufacturing of the large-scale steel ingot of various materials.The large-scale steel ingot that utilizes the present invention to produce has that segregation is low, dense structure, cost is low, the cycle is short characteristics, be easy to obtain vast research institution and works approval, in case be widely adopted, can increase substantially large-scale steel ingot production efficiency, improve ingot quality, bring tens benefits to hundreds of individual hundred million.
5. the present invention has guaranteed improving large-scale steel ingot productivity ratio by the design to key process parameter, does not have other casting flaw to produce when suppressing ingotism.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 large ingot mould assembling schematic diagram; Among the figure:
1 ingot mould; 2 steel ingots; 3 insulated feeders; 4 insulation heat-insulating shields; 5 riser busses; 6 exothermic mixtures; 7 thermal-insulating covering agents; 8 chassis; 9 breather lines.
Temperature field when Fig. 2 steel ingot rising head solidifies fully;
Fraction solid analog result figure when Fig. 3 large-scale steel ingot pours rear chassis ventilation 1.5h;
Temperature field when 130t steel ingot rising head solidifies fully under Fig. 4 chassis, the sidewall aeration condition;
130t steel ingot " A " the segregation figure that predicts the outcome under Fig. 5 nature cooling condition;
130t steel ingot " A " the segregation figure that predicts the outcome under Fig. 6 chassis, the sidewall aeration condition;
The loose figure that predicts the outcome of 130t ingot axis under Fig. 7 nature cooling condition;
The loose figure that predicts the outcome of 130t ingot axis under Fig. 8 chassis, the sidewall aeration condition;
Solidify the fraction solid analog result figure after 5 hours under Fig. 9 nature cooling condition;
Temperature field when 380t steel ingot rising head solidifies fully under Figure 10 chassis, the sidewall aeration condition;
380t steel ingot " A " the segregation figure that predicts the outcome under Figure 11 nature cooling condition;
380t steel ingot " A " the segregation figure that predicts the outcome under Figure 12 chassis, the sidewall aeration condition.
The specific embodiment
A kind of manufacture method by quickening bottom, sidewall cooling acquisition low-segregation large-sized steel ingot of the present invention is as follows:
1, the present invention adopts high-quality insulated feeder to make steel ingot top molten steel keep high temperature, help keeping the steel ingot head temperature, make riser metal liquid carry out feeding to the steel ingot body, avoid the loose generation of shrinkage cavity, the insulated feeder height obtains after being calculated by computer simulation software.
Fig. 1 is large ingot mould assembling schematic diagram, assembly comprises ingot mould 1, steel ingot 2, insulated feeder 3, insulation heat-insulating shield 4, riser buss 5, exothermic mixture 6, thermal-insulating covering agent 7, chassis 8, breather line 9 etc., ingot mould 1 is arranged on the chassis 8, ingot mould 1 top is provided with insulated feeder 3, insulated feeder 3 arranged outside insulation heat-insulating shield 4, insulation heat-insulating shield 4 arranged outside riser busses 5, cavity in the ingot mould 1 forms steel ingot 2, insulated feeder 3 tops are placed with exothermic mixture 6, thermal-insulating covering agent 7, in ingot mould 1 sidewall middle and lower part and chassis 8, arrange breather line 9, the inside diameter ranges 30~200mm of breather line 9.
Fig. 2 is large-scale steel ingot temperature field simulation figure as a result, and as we can see from the figure, thermoisopleth becomes U-shaped, can form the consecutive solidification from the steel ingot bottom to rising head, helps loose the alleviating of shrinkage cavity.
3, large-scale steel ingot is because setting time is long, the steel ingot bottom is after solidified layer thickness reaches certain thickness, and thermal resistance is at the position that steel ingot has solidified, and is too early if cool time is strengthened in the sidewall ventilation, may cause the steel ingot side wall cooling too fast, increase the trend that steel ingot center porosity produces.Fraction solid analog result figure when pouring rear chassis ventilation 1.5h as Fig. 3 large-scale steel ingot, as can be seen, this moment, ingot butt solidified fully, and bottom solidification thickness has reached more than the 150mm, and this moment, the ingot mould sidewall began logical compressed air.
4, the present invention is the mechanism that produces from gross segregation in large-sized steel ingot, based on the setting time of steel ingot with solidify the generation important influence of order to gross segregation, by strengthening the heat transfer boundary condition of large-scale steel ingot and external environment condition, shorten the setting time of large-scale steel ingot, strengthen and solidify order, thereby reach the purpose that suppresses macrotype ingot aliquation.
Below in conjunction with drawings and Examples in detail the present invention is described in detail.
Embodiment 1
As shown in Figure 1, the ingot mould material is grey cast-iron HT150, and the ingot mould preheat temperature is 100 ℃, and rising head adopts insulated feeder, and the rising head tapering is 15.6%, and the steel ingot ratio of height to diameter is 1: 1; 130 tons of casting of molten metal weight, the duration of pouring 25min, vacuum pouring, pouring temperature is 1580 ℃, and steel grade of the present invention is H13, by weight percentage, its chemical composition C:0.32~0.45%, Si:0.80~1.20%, Mn:0.20~0.50%, Cr:4.75~5.50%, Mo:1.10~1.75%, V:0.80~1.20%, S, P:<0.030%, the Fe surplus.After cast finishes, fill exothermic mixture and thermal-insulating covering agent in the rising head top; Ingot steel casting finishes rear chassis can begin logical compressed air, and after 2~3 hours, the ingot mould sidewall can begin logical compressed air.
In the present embodiment, throughput was little when compressed air began, enlargement discharge gradually then, and compressed-air actuated flow changes in 3~8kg/s scope, and compressed-air actuated pressure is 6 atmospheric pressure.
Adopt following technology: (1) adopts the cast of teeming formula, vacuumizes before the cast, reduces secondary oxidation.(2) use insulated feeder and exothermic mixture and thermal-insulating covering agent simultaneously, reduce steel ingot shrinkage cavity, rarefaction defect as far as possible.(3) ingot steel casting finishes rear chassis and can begin logical compressed air, and after 2~3 hours, the ingot mould sidewall can begin logical compressed air.
The present invention adopts computer simulation software to carry out the simulation of temperature field and casting defect, temperature field when 130t steel ingot rising head solidifies fully under Fig. 4 chassis, the sidewall aeration condition, to compare as can be seen outside logical compressed air cooling effect remarkable with Fig. 2, the very fast reduction of steel ingot middle and lower part temperature.The criterion of employing large-scale steel ingot " A " type segregation is evaluated the trend size of ingotism, and criterion value is more little to be easy to generate the segregation of " A " type more.As the figure that predicts the outcome of 130t steel ingot " A " type segregation under Fig. 5 nature cooling condition, compare with the figure that predicts the outcome of 130t steel ingot " A " type segregation under Fig. 6 chassis, the sidewall aeration condition, identical criterion value condition low bottom-disc, sidewall cooling have obviously alleviated the trend that " A " type produces.As the loose figure that predicts the outcome of 130t ingot axis under Fig. 7 nature cooling condition; The loose figure that predicts the outcome of 130t ingot axis compares with Fig. 7 under Fig. 8 chassis, the sidewall aeration condition, as can be seen, axis loose be improved significantly, organize more fine and closely, segregation also has obvious effect to inhibition " V " type.
The ingot solidification time reduced to 30 hours by original 34 hours, and productivity ratio has improved 12%.But by simulation as can be seen, after chassis and the ventilation of ingot mould sidewall, significantly accelerated the setting rate of steel ingot incipient stage, made solidification front, alleviated the trend that the segregation of " A " type produces rapidly by being easy to generate the zone of " A " type segregation.As solidifying the fraction solid analog result figure after 5 hours under Fig. 9 nature cooling condition, steel ingot bottom solidification front is 920mm from distance from bottom, and ventilation after coagulation layer thickness reaches identical thickness and only needs 3 hours.So the effect of ventilation in fact is the ratio of height to diameter of steel ingot when having reduced to solidify, it only is 0.67 that the ratio of height to diameter that does not solidify part after 3 hours is solidified in the steel ingot ventilation, has obviously shortened the setting time of steel ingot simultaneously, has effectively suppressed the gross segregation of steel ingot.
Embodiment 2
Difference from Example 1 is:
The ingot mould material is grey cast-iron HT250, and the ingot mould preheat temperature is 150 ℃, and rising head adopts insulated feeder, and the rising head tapering is 13.2%, and the steel ingot ratio of height to diameter is 1.4: 1; 380 tons of casting of molten metal weight, the duration of pouring 60min; Ingot steel casting finishes rear chassis can begin logical compressed air, and after 4~5 hours, the ingot mould sidewall can begin logical compressed air.
In the present embodiment, throughput was little when compressed air began, enlargement discharge gradually then, and compressed-air actuated flow changes in 5~9kg/s scope, and compressed-air actuated pressure is 8 atmospheric pressure.
The present invention adopts computer simulation software to carry out the simulation of temperature field and casting defect, as shown in figure 10 temperature field simulation figure as a result in the process of setting.The steel ingot rising head solidifies fully by original cooling naturally and was reduced to present 50 hours in 58 hours, and productivity ratio improves 13.8%.Evaluate the trend size of ingotism with the criterion of large-scale steel ingot " A " type segregation, criterion value is more little to be easy to generate the segregation of " A " type more.As the figure that predicts the outcome of 380t steel ingot " A " type segregation under Figure 11 nature cooling condition, compare with the figure that predicts the outcome of 380t steel ingot " A " type segregation under Figure 12 sidewall aeration condition, identical criterion value condition low bottom-disc, sidewall cooling have obviously alleviated the trend that the segregation of " A " type produces.
The course of work of the present invention and result:
Because the present invention adopts the casting complete rear chassis promptly to begin logical compressed air, after 1~6 hour, the ingot mould sidewall begins logical compressed-air actuated method.Not only can in time the heat of ingot mould outer surface be taken away, reduce the temperature on ingot mould and chassis, shortened the setting time of steel ingot, significantly accelerated simultaneously the cooling velocity of steel ingot initial stage, make solidification front rapidly by being easy to generate the zone of segregation, significantly improve the gross segregation problem of large-scale steel ingot.
The result of embodiment shows, the present invention is a foundation with the large-scale steel ingot Computer simulation results, designed large-scale steel ingot chassis, sidewall ventilation cooling means can significantly improve the setting rate of large-scale steel ingot, shorten demould time, improve the curdled appearance of large-scale steel ingot, various segregations to large-scale steel ingot have good inhibitory effect, especially " A " type segregation that has a strong impact on ingot quality are had the obvious suppression effect, are applicable to the manufacturing of the large-scale steel ingot of various materials such as carbon steel or steel alloy.

Claims (6)

1. one kind by accelerating the manufacture method that bottom, sidewall cooling obtain low-segregation large-sized steel ingot, it is characterized in that:
1) the ingot mould material is a grey cast-iron;
2) rising head adopts insulated feeder, and the rising head tapering is 8~16%;
3) ratio of height to diameter of steel ingot is 1: 1~3: 1;
4) the steel ingot material is carbon steel or steel alloy;
5) precasting breather line in ingot mould middle and lower part and ingot mould chassis;
6) ingot steel casting finishes rear chassis and can begin logical compressed air, and the ingot mould sidewall begins logical compressed air after 1~6 hour, and the ingot body stops ventilation when solidifying fully.
2. described by accelerating the manufacture method of bottom, sidewall cooling acquisition low-segregation large-sized steel ingot according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the ingot mould material is a grey cast-iron: comprise HT150, HT200 or HT250.
3. described by accelerating the manufacture method of bottom, sidewall cooling acquisition low-segregation large-sized steel ingot according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: insulated feeder is up-small and down-big, material is a high-quality refractory material, can adopt high-alumina brick, corundum, mullite, magnesia brick, magnalium goods or aluminum silicate insulation material, there is one deck asbestos insulation board the outside.
4. described by accelerating the manufacture method of bottom, sidewall cooling acquisition low-segregation large-sized steel ingot according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: in the chemical composition of carbon steel or alloy steel ingot, by weight percentage, C 0.01~0.75%, S, P :≤0.030%.
5. described by accelerating the manufacture method of bottom, sidewall cooling acquisition low-segregation large-sized steel ingot according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: in ingot mould sidewall middle and lower part and chassis, arrange pipeline, inside diameter ranges 30~200mm.
6. described by accelerating the manufacture method of bottom, sidewall cooling acquisition low-segregation large-sized steel ingot according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: when steel ingot bottom solidification thickness reached the above thickness of 150mm, sidewall began logical compressed air.
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CN102166632B (en) * 2011-04-29 2012-12-05 中国第一重型机械股份公司 Casting method of large-scale steel ingot
CN102266916B (en) * 2011-07-18 2013-05-22 中国科学院金属研究所 High-quality high-yield steel ingot preparing method
CN103008577B (en) * 2012-12-07 2014-06-11 中国科学院金属研究所 Preparation method and mold for microdefect high-utilization rate high-quality static ingot
CN103878344A (en) * 2012-12-21 2014-06-25 陕西宏远航空锻造有限责任公司 Aluminum alloy casting preparing method
JP5442903B1 (en) * 2013-10-11 2014-03-19 東芝機械株式会社 Molding apparatus, semi-solid metal production apparatus, molding method, and semi-solid metal production method
CN103978168A (en) * 2014-05-19 2014-08-13 辽宁科技大学 Method of eliminating looseness and shrinkage in lower part of cast steel ingot
CN105312543A (en) * 2014-07-19 2016-02-10 长葛市吉庆机械厂 Casting mold with quenching cooling device
CN104889333A (en) * 2015-06-03 2015-09-09 天津市航宇金属加工有限公司 Mould with heatproof risers
CN110131563A (en) * 2018-02-08 2019-08-16 中国科学院金属研究所 One kind being suitable for the soft core forging of superhigh temperature and makes with Ingot Type design method
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CN114425614B (en) * 2022-04-02 2022-06-28 秦皇岛信能能源设备有限公司 Mold preheating system and preheating method

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