CN109141225A  Shafting five, six degree of freedom error measurement method and measuring system based on Circular gratings  Google Patents
Shafting five, six degree of freedom error measurement method and measuring system based on Circular gratings Download PDFInfo
 Publication number
 CN109141225A CN109141225A CN201710464459.0A CN201710464459A CN109141225A CN 109141225 A CN109141225 A CN 109141225A CN 201710464459 A CN201710464459 A CN 201710464459A CN 109141225 A CN109141225 A CN 109141225A
 Authority
 CN
 China
 Prior art keywords
 measured axis
 plane
 displacement
 axis
 circular gratings
 Prior art date
 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
 Granted
Links
Classifications

 G—PHYSICS
 G01—MEASURING; TESTING
 G01B—MEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
 G01B11/00—Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical techniques

 G—PHYSICS
 G01—MEASURING; TESTING
 G01B—MEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
 G01B11/00—Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical techniques
 G01B11/02—Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical techniques for measuring length, width or thickness

 G—PHYSICS
 G01—MEASURING; TESTING
 G01B—MEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
 G01B11/00—Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical techniques
 G01B11/26—Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical techniques for measuring angles or tapers; for testing the alignment of axes
Abstract
The present invention relates to a kind of shafting five, six degree of freedom error measurement method and measuring system based on Circular gratings.More than two measurement planes are arranged in interval on the axial position of the measured axis of shafting, Circular gratings are set at the position that detection measured axis corresponds to each measurement plane, and reading head corresponding with Circular gratings is set in each measurement plane, if axis moves, measured axis tangential displacement when measuring Plane Rotation will change, to generate the inplane displancement in detection plane of measured axis, due to the opposite variable that the displacement is relative initial position, the influence of the circularity of measured axis itself not will receive.
Description
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of shafting five, six degree of freedom error measurement method and measuring system based on Circular gratings.
Background technique
Precise rotary shaft, which ties up in many precision machineries, application, and the cutter measured axis or workpiece such as precision machine tool are tested
Axis, the turntable measured axis of gear measuring center, gear integrated error tester worm screw measured axis and gear measured axis, roundness measuring equipment
Workpiece measured axis etc. belong to precision rotating shafting.
Ideal shafting does not have error, and measured axis is in addition to revolution without the movement of other freedom degrees at work.But it is practical
Shafting have error, in revolution, along each freedom degree error motion can all occur for measured axis.It is tested in precision rotating shafting
Axis is the rigid space motion of six degree of freedom relative to movement made by fixed reference in revolution, can behave as measured axis
Runout error, axial float error and the heeling error in two orthogonal shaft sections.The movement of rotary axis system
Error directly affects the detection accuracy of machine finish and instrument, therefore how accurately to measure axial system error, improves shafting
Rotating accuracy is always the research emphasis being machined with metrology and measurement field.
Existing axial system error measurement method is intended to be arranged in shafting highprecision standard ball as tested surface, using electricity
The radial linear movement pickup of sense formula, condenser type or optical reflection type carries out the measurement of axial system error.Therefore it is tested datum level
Form error can be mixed into the measurement result of axial system error, the separation of rotating error of axis and measured piece itself error with axis movement
Key difficulties as axial system error measurement.Axial system error measurement in main error separating method have multipoint method, reverse method and
Multistep processes.It is measured axis revolution that wherein reverse method and multistep processes, which can efficiently separate measured axis turn error and the premise of deviation from circular from,
Repeatability is good for error；For nonrepeatability axial system error, traditionally only can just be measured using multipoint method.In multiple spot
The lineofsight course being most widely used in method measures measured axis using three linear movement pickups, can be one to measured axis
The Radial mixing in section is separated with deviation from circular from.The turn error for measuring measured axis sixfreedom degree needs to arrange
More sensors are just able to achieve.The sensor that existing multipoint method measuring principle uses is mainly inductance type or condenser type principle
Linear movement pickup and gradient sensor based on reflective optic measuring principle.These sensors exist more serious
It is nonlinear, when drift, temperature drift the problems such as, need calibrate and demarcate after could use, progressive is needed when number of sensors is more
Can matching, the difficulty of system debug is larger, thus it is most be applied to researching and analysing under laboratory condition, seldom prolonged application in
Production scene.In addition, existing measured axis turn error test method, which usually will install standard ball in shaft end, is used as tested benchmark,
Arrange that multiple linear movement pickups constitute measuring system around it again, the levels of precision of linear movement pickup installation site is direct
The precision of measurement result is influenced, therefore structure is complicated for measuring system, test condition is required high, it is difficult to be integrated at low cost
The online measurement and compensation of rotating error of axis are realized in the instrument product of volume production, it most importantly can be straight by the deviation from circular from of side
Connect the measurement result for influencing product, low measurement accuracy.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of the present invention is to provide a kind of shafting measuring systems that measurement accuracy is high；The present invention also provides one kind simultaneously
Shafting five degree of freedom error measurement method based on Circular gratings, the shafting six degree of freedom error measurement method based on Circular gratings.
To achieve the above object, the shafting five degree of freedom error measurement method of the invention based on Circular gratings uses following skill
Art scheme:
Technical solution 1: the shafting five degree of freedom error measurement method based on Circular gratings, on the axial position of measured axis between
Every more than two measurement planes are arranged, are corresponded in detection measured axis and Circular gratings are set at each position for measuring plane, and
Reading head corresponding with Circular gratings is set in each measurement plane and passes through reading head and corresponding Circular gratings when measured axis rotates
Cooperation detection measured axis tangential displacement to obtaining displacement and rotational angle of the measured axis at the measurement plane, according to
Measured axis calculates the beat amount of measured axis in the displacement of each measurement plane, in conjunction with the rotational angle and beat amount of measured axis
Be calculated measured axis rotation when except measured axis axial float displacement in addition to five freedom degrees kinematic parameter rule to
Obtain the kinematic error of measured axis.
Technical solution 2, on the basis of technical solution 1: there are two the measurement planes, on one of two measurement planes
The quantity of reading head be m, quantity of the reading head in another measurement plane is n, and m >=2, n >=2, m+n >=5.
Technical solution 3, on the basis of technical solution 2: setting two measurement planes is respectively plane P1 and plane P2, flat
Face P1 is with theoretical centre of gyration O_{1}Coordinate system X is established for origin_{1}O_{1}Y_{1}, with theoretical centre of gyration O on plane P2_{2}For origin foundation
Coordinate system X_{2}O_{2}Y_{2}, O_{1}O_{2}Wire definition be Z axis, if the initial reading of each reading head be 0, the side of rotating counterclockwise about the z axis
To for positive direction, H_{1i}(t) displacement of Circular gratings tangential direction is indicated, then measured axis is in X_{1}O_{1}Y_{1}The displacement of coordinate plane and by
Survey the rotation angle of axis are as follows:
In formula, R_{O}, Circular gratings exradius；The rotation angle of θ (t), Circular gratings；
When the reading head on plane P2 is evenly distributed in a circumferential direction, measured axis is around O_{2}The rotation angle θ of point_{2}(t) are as follows:
When the reading head on plane P2 is not in a circumferential direction uniformly distributed, then enable:
θ_{2}(t)=θ_{1}(t),
Then measured axis is in X_{2}O_{2}Y_{2}The displacement of coordinate plane are as follows:
Displacement coordinate Tx (t), Ty (t) in the six degree of freedom coordinate of measured axis spatial movement and around initial coordinate axis X,
Y, the rotational coordinates Rx (t) of Z, Ry (t), Rz (t) are as follows:
L is the distance between plane P1 and P2 in formula.
Technical solution 4, on the basis of technical solution 3: as the O found out_{1x}(t) and O_{1y}(t) absolute value is greater than the set value
When, the compensation of nonlinear effect is carried out to calculated result, that is,
Nlc in formula_{1x}And nlc_{1y}It is in advance in laboratory conditions by experiment by the nonof the higher instrument acquisition of precision
Linear compensation function.
Technical solution 5, on the basis of technical solution 4: the setting value is 100 microns.
Shafting six degree of freedom error measurement method based on Circular gratings of the invention adopts the following technical scheme that
Technical solution 1: the shafting six degree of freedom error measurement method based on Circular gratings, on the axial position of measured axis between
Every more than two measurement planes are arranged, are corresponded in detection measured axis and Circular gratings are set at each position for measuring plane, and
Reading head corresponding with Circular gratings is set in each measurement plane and passes through reading head and corresponding Circular gratings when measured axis rotates
Cooperation detection measured axis tangential displacement to obtaining displacement and rotational angle of the measured axis at the measurement plane, simultaneously
The displacement for detecting measured axis axial float calculates the beat amount of measured axis according to measured axis in the displacement of each measurement plane,
Rotational angle, axial float in conjunction with measured axis are displaced and axial direction when measured axis rotates except measured axis is calculated in beat amount
The kinematic parameter rule of sixfreedom degree other than play displacement is to obtain the kinematic error of measured axis.
Technical solution 2, on the basis of technical solution 1: there are two the measurement planes, on one of two measurement planes
The quantity of reading head be m, quantity of the reading head in another measurement plane is n, and m >=2, n >=2, m+n >=5.
Technical solution 3, on the basis of technical solution 2: setting two measurement planes is respectively plane P1 and plane P2, flat
Face P1 establishes coordinate system X1O1Y1 using theoretical centre of gyration O1 as origin, using theoretical centre of gyration O2 as origin on plane P2
Establish coordinate system X2O2Y2, the wire definition of O1O2 is Z axis, if the initial reading of each reading head is 0, about the z axis counterclockwise
Rotation direction is positive direction, and H1i (t) indicates the displacement of Circular gratings tangential direction, then measured axis is in X1O1Y1 coordinate plane
The rotation angle of displacement and measured axis are as follows:
In formula, R_{O}, Circular gratings exradius；The rotation angle of θ (t), Circular gratings；
When the reading head on plane P2 is evenly distributed in a circumferential direction, measured axis is around O_{2}The rotation angle θ of point_{2}(t) are as follows:
When the reading head on plane P2 is not in a circumferential direction uniformly distributed, then enable:
θ_{2}(t)=θ_{1}(t),
Then measured axis is in X_{2}O_{2}Y_{2}The displacement of coordinate plane are as follows:
The displacement of the play of measured axis axial direction is O_{z}(t)；
Displacement coordinate Tx (t), Ty (t), Tz (t) in the six degree of freedom coordinate of measured axis spatial movement and around initial coordinate
Rotational coordinates Rx (t), Ry (t), the Rz (t) of axis X, Y, Z are as follows:
L is the distance between plane P1 and P2 in formula.
Technical solution 4, on the basis of technical solution 3: as the O found out_{1x}(t) and O_{1y}(t) absolute value is greater than the set value
When, the compensation of nonlinear effect is carried out to calculated result, that is,
Nlc in formula_{1x}And nlc_{1y}It is in advance in laboratory conditions by experiment by the nonof the higher instrument acquisition of precision
Linear compensation function.
Technical solution 5, on the basis of technical solution 4: the setting value is 100 microns.
Shafting measuring system of the invention adopts the following technical scheme that
Technical solution 1: the shafting measurement error system based on Circular gratings, including multipoint displacement sensor subsystem, data
Acquisition subsystem and Data Analysis Services subsystem, the multipoint displacement sensor subsystem include at least two in measured axis
Axial direction on it is spaced for detecting measured axis in the radial displacement of corresponding position and the rotational angle of measured axis
Displacement sensor component, the displacement sensor component include the Circular gratings for being mounted on measured axis and rotating with measured axis
Disk and the reading head being correspondingly arranged with the periphery of Circular gratings disk, the data acquisition subsystem and the multipoint displacement sensor
Subsystem and Data Analysis Services subsystem are conductively connected that the data of multipoint displacement sensor subsystem are acquired and passed
Be defeated by the Data Analysis Services subsystem, thus make the Data Analysis Services subsystem according to measured axis at different locations
Radial displacement calculate the beat amount of measured axis, and combine the rotational angle of measured axis when measured axis rotation is calculated except axis
To play displacement other than other five freedom degrees kinematic parameter rule to obtain the kinematic error of measured axis.
Technical solution 2, on the basis of technical solution 1: the multipoint displacement sensor subsystem further includes for detecting
The shaft position sensor of the axis play displacement of measured axis.
Technical solution 4, on the basis of technical solution 1 or 2: there are two the displacement sensor components, and the displacement passes
The Circular gratings disk of sensor component is between the upper and lower m every the quantity of a corresponding reading head in setting, two Circular gratings, another is right
The reading head quantity answered is n, and m >=2, n >=2, m+n >=5.
The beneficial effects of the present invention are: the shafting six degree of freedom error measurement method of the invention based on Circular gratings is in axis
More than two measurement planes are arranged in interval on the axial position of the measured axis of system, correspond to each measurement plane in detection measured axis
Position at Circular gratings are set, and corresponding with Circular gratings reading head is set in each measurement plane, it is logical when measured axis rotation
Reading head is crossed with the tangential displacement of the cooperation detection measured axis of corresponding Circular gratings to obtain measured axis at the measurement plane
Displacement and rotational angle, while the displacement of measured axis axial float is detected, according to measured axis in the position of each measurement plane
Move the beat amount of measured axis of calculating, rotational angle, the axial float in conjunction with measured axis are displaced and beat amount be calculated by
The kinematic parameter rule of sixfreedom degree when surveying axis rotation in addition to the displacement of the axial float of measured axis is to obtain measured axis
Kinematic error, measured axis rotation when, if axis moves, tangential displacement will when measuring Plane Rotation for measured axis
It changes, so that the inplane displancement in detection plane of measured axis is generated, due to the phase that the displacement is relative initial position
To variable, the influence of the circularity of measured axis itself not will receive.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is the principle signal of the embodiment of the shafting six degree of freedom error measurement method of the invention based on Circular gratings
Figure；
Fig. 2 has schematic illustration when 9 sensors for the multipoint displacement sensor subsystem in Fig. 1；
Fig. 3 is the stereoscopic schematic diagram of Fig. 2；
Fig. 4 has stereoscopic schematic diagram when 6 sensors for the multipoint displacement sensor subsystem in Fig. 1；
Fig. 5 is the plane P1's in the embodiment of the shafting six degree of freedom error measurement method of the invention based on Circular gratings
Measurement of inplane motion schematic diagram；
Fig. 6 is the plane P2's in the embodiment of the shafting six degree of freedom error measurement method of the invention based on Circular gratings
Measurement of inplane motion schematic diagram；
Fig. 7 is the spatial movement measuring principle of the shafting six degree of freedom error measurement method of the invention based on Circular gratings
Figure；
In attached drawing: 1, reading head；2, shaft position sensor；3, the first grating disc；4, the second grating disc.
Specific embodiment
Embodiments of the present invention are described further with reference to the accompanying drawing.
The specific embodiment of shafting six degree of freedom error measurement method based on Circular gratings of the invention, such as Fig. 1 to Fig. 7
Shown, the measuring system is using the Circular gratings be used widely in industry spot as main sensors part, with Circular gratings
Reading head is as tangential displacement sensor, it is established that the strong axial system error of highprecision, high reliability, environmental suitability measures system
System realizes the measurement of shaft error.The measurement method is analyzed and is handled by the reading to each sensor, and axis is obtained
It is the coordinate of sixfreedom motion.
As shown in Figure 1, the measuring system consists of three parts: (1) multipoint displacement sensor subsystem, (2) data are adopted
Subsystem, (3) Data Analysis Services subsystem.
Wherein, multipoint displacement sensor subsystem consists of three parts: (1) in the position of the axially different position installation of measured axis
Displacement sensor component, the displacement sensor component include the two Circular gratings disks installed at the different location of measured axis；(2) exist
The multiple reading heads arranged around Circular gratings disk；(3) linear movement pickup being arranged in the end of axis.First grating disc 1 and
The distance between two planes locating for two grating discs 2 should structure allow in the range of select as far as possible it is larger, with improve measurement essence
Degree.First grating disc, 1 surrounding arranges m reading head, and 2 surrounding of the second grating disc arranges n reading head, and the number of reading head meets
M >=2, n >=2, m+n >=5.Reading head around Circular gratings disk can be evenly distributed in the circumferential direction, can also uneven cloth
It sets.One or more can be set in the linear movement pickup of axis direction setting, can be set in one end of axis, can also divide
The both ends of axis are not set.The number for the grating reading head arranged in Fig. 3 is more, shares eight, can there is more redundant digit
According to for corroborating each other, examining and determine certainly for measuring system is realized；The grating reading head number arranged in Fig. 4 is less, and cost is relatively low.It is real
When the application present invention of border, the number and arrangement mode of reading head can be with the differences in Fig. 3, Fig. 4, but measuring principle used is
The same；Interval on the axial position of measured axis can also be set, multiple Circular gratings are set to form multiple measurement planes.
Data acquisition subsystem by each reading head, the interface circuit of sensor, Data acquisition and storage hardware circuit and
Relevant software composition, effect is the reading for synchronously recording each reading head, the Data Analysis Services subsystem after being
Data are provided.Data acquisition subsystem can be realized with motion control card, the counter card of finished product, can also develop dedicated be based on
The data acquisition device of MCU, DSP, FPGA.
The measurement of each reading head, sensor that Data Analysis Services subsystem obtains data acquisition subsystem and records
Data are analyzed and are calculated, and the sixfreedom motion coordinate data of tested measured axis is therefrom obtained.Data Analysis Services subsystem
System mainly completes its function by software, and related software may operate at embedding assembly machine platform, also may operate in and be based on
The industrial computer system of PC also may operate on cloud computing platform or other computer platforms.
The magnitude very little of measured axis error when rotated in precision bearing system, two of plane locating for two Circular gratings disks are mutually
The circular runout of vertical direction is usually no more than 100 microns, and the distance between two planes are far longer than 100 microns, therefore
The six degree of freedom rigid space motion of measured axis can be approximately decomposed into mutually independent Rigid Planar a little in two planes
Movement and along measured axis axis direction translation a little.Likewise, since error magnitude is very when rotated for precision bearing system measured axis
Small, the change in location between Circular gratings disk and reading head is seldom, therefore reading head can be counted normally in the measurements.
The measurement method, which refers to, analyzes and calculates measured axis from the measurement result that each reading head, sensor obtain
It is the method for the sixfreedom motion coordinate data of measured axis.Total process is first calculated separately in two Circular gratings disk planes
The coordinate of the rigid body three degree of freedom of plane motion a little, calculating rigid body then in conjunction with shaft position sensor, space is transported a little
The coordinate of dynamic sixfreedom degree.
Measurement method comprises the steps of:
(1) coordinate system is established.
As shown in Fig. 5, Fig. 6 and Fig. 7, the label of plane locating for the first grating disc 1 is plane locating for the second grating disc 2
Label be.Coordinate system X is established on plane P1_{1}O_{1}Y_{1}, point O_{1}For the theoretical centre of gyration.Coordinate is established on plane P2
It is X_{2}O_{2}Y_{2}, point O_{2}For the theoretical centre of gyration.Reference axis X_{1}With X_{2}In parallel, Y_{1}With Y_{2}In parallel. O_{1}O_{2}Line and reference axis X_{1},Y_{1},
X_{2},Y_{2}It is all vertical, it is defined as Z axis.The error of the measured axis centre of gyration line of this method measurement is relative value, therefore point O_{1}And point
O_{2}It does not need highly precisely to determine its position.It can be first considered that initial position locating for axis is exactly O when starting measurement_{1}、
O_{2}Point, then again O after being measured_{1}、O_{2}Point position correction to survey orbit of shaft center Least Square Circle the center point,
The purpose for the arrangement is that convenient show measurement result to graphically.
(2) coordinate of the three degree of freedom of plane motion a little of Circular gratings disk is calculated in plane P1.
As shown in figure 4, ith of reading head H in note plane P1_{1i}Locating azimuth is θ_{1i}, i=1,2 ..., m.Azimuth
With X_{1}Axis forward direction be 0 °, using around the direction that center O rotates counterclockwise as positive direction.If the initial reading of each reading head is 0,
It is H in the reading of ith of reading head of moment t_{1i}(t)。H_{1i}(t) displacement of Circular gratings tangential direction is indicated, with length evaluation.
Then in t moment, rigid body is with basic point coordinate O_{1}(O_{1x}(t),O_{1y}(t)) rotation angle θ of translation and rigid body around O point_{1}(t) it is represented by
In formula, R_{O}For the exradius of Circular gratings；θ (t) is the rotation angle of Circular gratings namely the rotation angle of measured axis
Degree.
As the O found out_{1x}(t) and O_{1y}(t) it when absolute value is greater than the set value, needs to carry out nonlinear effect to calculated result
The compensation answered, the setting value are 100 microns, certainly can also be other numerical value, i.e.,
Nonlinear compensation function nlc in formula_{1x}And nlc_{1y}It is higher by precision by testing in laboratory conditions in advance
Instrument obtain.For general precision bearing system, due to O_{1x}(t) and O_{1y}(t) absolute value very little (being no more than 100 microns),
Can without nonlinear compensation, even
(3) the three degree of freedom coordinate of the plane motion a little of Circular gratings disk is calculated in plane P2.
As shown in fig. 6, ith of reading head H in note plane P2_{2i}Locating azimuth is θ_{2i}, i=1,2 ..., n.Azimuth
With X_{2}Axis forward direction is 0 °, around center O_{2}The direction rotated counterclockwise is positive direction.
It is H in the reading of ith of reading head of moment t if the initial reading of each reading head is 0_{2i}(t)。H_{2i}(t) table
Show the displacement of Circular gratings tangential direction, with length evaluation.
Rigid body is calculated first around O_{2}The rotation angle θ of point_{2}(t).When n reading head in plane P2 around the second grating disc 2 exists
When circumferencial direction is uniformly distributed, have
In formula, R_{O}For the exradius of Circular gratings；θ_{2}It (t) is the rotation angle of Circular gratings 2.
When n reading head is not that circumferencial direction is uniformly distributed, then enable
θ_{2}(t)=θ_{1}(t)
Namely rotation angle is not calculated by plane P2, and directly adopt rotation of the rotation angle of plane P1 as plane P2
Gyration.The purpose for the arrangement is that in some cases, in order to save cost, only can arrange two in sensitive direction in plane P2
An a or even reading head.
Rigid body is with basic point coordinate O_{2}(O_{2x}(t),O_{2y}(t)) translation is represented by
As the O found out_{2x}(t) and O_{2y}(t) it when absolute value is greater than the set value, needs to carry out nonlinear effect to calculated result
Compensation, the setting value be 100 microns, certainly, setting value may be other numerical value, i.e.,
Nonlinear compensation function nlc in formula_{2x}And nlc_{2y}It is to be obtained in advance by experiment.For general accurate axis
System, due to O_{2x}(t) and O_{2y}(t) absolute value very little (be no more than 100 microns), can without nonlinear compensation, even
(4) measured axis axially translation coordinate is calculated.
As shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4, axially translation coordinate can be calculated measured axis by the reading of axial linear movement pickup,
Using the arithmetic mean of instantaneous value of each axial linear movement pickup as measured axis axial direction translation coordinate value, it is denoted as O_{z}(t)。
(5) the six degree of freedom coordinate of measured axis rigid space plane motion is calculated.
As shown in fig. 7, selected measured axis on plane P1 with O_{1}The point of coincidence is the basic point of rigid space motion.Work as rotation
When to moment t, due to the influence of axial system error, O_{1}Point moves to O_{1}' at.The six degree of freedom coordinate of rigid space motion is with base
Translation coordinate Tx (t), Ty (t), Tz (t) and the rotational coordinates Rx (t), Ry (t), Rz (t) around initial coordinate axis X, Y, Z put.
This six coordinates can be calculated by following formula:
In formula, L is the distance between plane P1 and P2.
According to the fortune of the parameter of abovementioned six coordinates you can get it compared with the theory movement parameter of standard axle measured axis
Dynamic error, in rotation, if axis moves, measured axis tangential displacement when measuring Plane Rotation will occur measured axis
Variation, so that the inplane displancement in detection plane of measured axis is generated, since the displacement is that the opposite of relative initial position becomes
Amount, not will receive the influence of the circularity of measured axis itself.
The embodiment of shafting five degree of freedom error measurement method based on Circular gratings of the invention, it is described based on Circular gratings
The embodiment of shafting five degree of freedom error measurement method and the abovementioned shafting six degree of freedom error measurement method based on Circular gratings
The difference is that being not provided with shaft position sensor, the survey of other five freedom degrees in addition to axial float is displaced only is carried out
Amount.
The embodiment of shafting measuring system of the invention, for example abovementioned axis based on Circular gratings of axial system error measuring system
It is the measuring system in the embodiment of six degree of freedom error measurement method, repeats no more.
Claims (10)
1. the shafting five degree of freedom error measurement method based on Circular gratings, it is characterised in that: between on the axial position of measured axis
Every more than two measurement planes are arranged, are corresponded in detection measured axis and Circular gratings are set at each position for measuring plane, and
Reading head corresponding with Circular gratings is set in each measurement plane and passes through reading head and corresponding Circular gratings when measured axis rotates
Cooperation detection measured axis tangential displacement to obtaining displacement and rotational angle of the measured axis at the measurement plane, according to
Measured axis calculates the beat amount of measured axis in the displacement of each measurement plane, in conjunction with the rotational angle and beat amount of measured axis
Be calculated measured axis rotation when except measured axis axial float displacement in addition to five freedom degrees kinematic parameter rule to
Obtain the kinematic error of measured axis.
2. the shafting five degree of freedom error measurement method according to claim 1 based on Circular gratings, it is characterised in that: described
It measures there are two planes, the quantity of the reading head on one of two measurement planes is m, the reading head in another measurement plane
Quantity be n, and m >=2, n >=2, m+n >=5.
3. the shafting five degree of freedom error measurement method according to claim 2 based on Circular gratings, it is characterised in that: set two
A measurement plane is respectively plane P1 and plane P2, in plane P1 with theoretical centre of gyration O_{1}Coordinate system X is established for origin_{1}O_{1}Y_{1},
With theoretical centre of gyration O on plane P2_{2}Coordinate system X is established for origin_{2}O_{2}Y_{2}, O_{1}O_{2}Wire definition be Z axis, if each reading
The initial reading of head is 0, and the direction that rotates counterclockwise about the z axis is positive direction, H_{1i}(t) displacement of Circular gratings tangential direction is indicated
Amount, then measured axis is in X_{1}O_{1}Y_{1}The displacement of coordinate plane and the rotation angle of measured axis are as follows:
In formula, R_{O}, Circular gratings exradius；The rotation angle of θ (t), Circular gratings；
When the reading head on plane P2 is evenly distributed in a circumferential direction, measured axis is around O_{2}The rotation angle θ of point_{2}(t) are as follows:
When the reading head on plane P2 is not in a circumferential direction uniformly distributed, then enable:
θ_{2}(t)=θ_{1}(t),
Then measured axis is in X_{2}O_{2}Y_{2}The displacement of coordinate plane are as follows:
Displacement coordinate Tx (t), Ty (t), Tz (t) in the six degree of freedom coordinate of measured axis spatial movement and around initial coordinate axis X,
Y, the rotational coordinates Rx (t) of Z, Ry (t), Rz (t) are as follows:
L is the distance between plane P1 and P2 in formula.
4. the shafting five degree of freedom error measurement method according to claim 3 based on Circular gratings, it is characterised in that: when asking
O out_{1x}(t) and O_{1y}(t) when absolute value is greater than the set value, the compensation of nonlinear effect is carried out to calculated result, that is,
Nlc in formula_{1x}And nlc_{1y}It is in advance in laboratory conditions by experiment by the nonlinear of the higher instrument acquisition of precision
Penalty function.
5. the shafting six degree of freedom error measurement method based on Circular gratings, it is characterised in that: between on the axial position of measured axis
Every more than two measurement planes are arranged, are corresponded in detection measured axis and Circular gratings are set at each position for measuring plane, and
Reading head corresponding with Circular gratings is set in each measurement plane and passes through reading head and corresponding Circular gratings when measured axis rotates
Cooperation detection measured axis tangential displacement to obtaining displacement and rotational angle of the measured axis at the measurement plane, simultaneously
The displacement for detecting measured axis axial float calculates the beat amount of measured axis according to measured axis in the displacement of each measurement plane,
Rotational angle, axial float in conjunction with measured axis are displaced and axial direction when measured axis rotates except measured axis is calculated in beat amount
The kinematic parameter rule of sixfreedom degree other than play displacement is to obtain the kinematic error of measured axis.
6. the shafting six degree of freedom error measurement method according to claim 5 based on Circular gratings, it is characterised in that: described
It measures there are two planes, the quantity of the reading head on one of two measurement planes is m, the reading head in another measurement plane
Quantity be n, and m >=2, n >=2, m+n >=5.
7. the shafting six degree of freedom error measurement method according to claim 6 based on Circular gratings, it is characterised in that: set two
A measurement plane is respectively plane P1 and plane P2, in plane P1 with theoretical centre of gyration O_{1}Coordinate system X is established for origin_{1}O_{1}Y_{1},
With theoretical centre of gyration O on plane P2_{2}Coordinate system X is established for origin_{2}O_{2}Y_{2}, O_{1}O_{2}Wire definition be Z axis, if each reading
The initial reading of head is 0, and the direction that rotates counterclockwise about the z axis is positive direction, H_{1i}(t) displacement of Circular gratings tangential direction is indicated
Amount, then measured axis is in X_{1}O_{1}Y_{1}The displacement of coordinate plane and the rotation angle of measured axis are as follows:
In formula, R_{O}, Circular gratings exradius；The rotation angle of θ (t), Circular gratings；
When the reading head on plane P2 is evenly distributed in a circumferential direction, measured axis is around O_{2}The rotation angle θ of point_{2}(t) are as follows:
When the reading head on plane P2 is not in a circumferential direction uniformly distributed, then enable:
θ_{2}(t)=θ_{1}(t),
Then measured axis is in X_{2}O_{2}Y_{2}The displacement of coordinate plane are as follows:
The displacement of the play of measured axis axial direction is O_{z}(t)；
Displacement coordinate Tx (t), Ty (t), Tz (t) in the six degree of freedom coordinate of measured axis spatial movement and around initial coordinate axis X,
Y, the rotational coordinates Rx (t) of Z, Ry (t), Rz (t) are as follows:
L is the distance between plane P1 and P2 in formula.
8. the shafting six degree of freedom error measurement method according to claim 7 based on Circular gratings, it is characterised in that: when asking
O out_{1x}(t) and O_{1y}(t) when absolute value is greater than the set value, the compensation of nonlinear effect is carried out to calculated result, that is,
Nlc in formula_{1x}And nlc_{1y}It is in advance in laboratory conditions by experiment by the nonlinear of the higher instrument acquisition of precision
Penalty function.
9. the shafting measurement error system based on Circular gratings, it is characterised in that: adopted including multipoint displacement sensor subsystem, data
Subsystem and Data Analysis Services subsystem, the multipoint displacement sensor subsystem include at least two in measured axis
It is spaced for detecting measured axis in the radial displacement of corresponding position and the position of the rotational angle of measured axis in axial direction
Displacement sensor component, the displacement sensor component include the Circular gratings disk for being mounted on measured axis and rotating with measured axis
And the reading head being correspondingly arranged with the periphery of Circular gratings disk, the data acquisition subsystem and multipoint displacement sensor
System and Data Analysis Services subsystem are conductively connected that the data of multipoint displacement sensor subsystem are acquired and transmitted
To the Data Analysis Services subsystem, thus make the Data Analysis Services subsystem according to measured axis at different locations
Radial displacement calculates the beat amount of measured axis, and combines the rotational angle of measured axis when measured axis rotation is calculated except axial
Play displacement other than other five freedom degrees kinematic parameter rule to obtain the kinematic error of measured axis.
10. the shafting measurement error system according to claim 9 based on Circular gratings, it is characterised in that: the displacement passes
There are two sensor components, and the Circular gratings disk of the displacement sensor component is right every one in setting, two Circular gratings between the upper and lower
The quantity for answering reading head is m, another corresponding reading head quantity is n, and m >=2, n >=2, m+n >=5.
Priority Applications (1)
Application Number  Priority Date  Filing Date  Title 

CN201710464459.0A CN109141225B (en)  20170619  20170619  Method and system for measuring five and sixdegreeoffreedom errors of shafting based on circular grating 
Applications Claiming Priority (1)
Application Number  Priority Date  Filing Date  Title 

CN201710464459.0A CN109141225B (en)  20170619  20170619  Method and system for measuring five and sixdegreeoffreedom errors of shafting based on circular grating 
Publications (2)
Publication Number  Publication Date 

CN109141225A true CN109141225A (en)  20190104 
CN109141225B CN109141225B (en)  20201113 
Family
ID=64804462
Family Applications (1)
Application Number  Title  Priority Date  Filing Date 

CN201710464459.0A Active CN109141225B (en)  20170619  20170619  Method and system for measuring five and sixdegreeoffreedom errors of shafting based on circular grating 
Country Status (1)
Country  Link 

CN (1)  CN109141225B (en) 
Cited By (9)
Publication number  Priority date  Publication date  Assignee  Title 

CN110006449A (en) *  20190415  20190712  吉林工程技术师范学院  A kind of axial system error measurement method and system 
CN110081837A (en) *  20190520  20190802  中国科学院光电技术研究所  A method of by detecting shafting shaking and eccentric error using angle measurement Circular gratings and reading head 
CN110186398A (en) *  20190515  20190830  大连理工大学  A kind of rotary table and measurement method with movement warp realtime measurement function 
CN110514119A (en) *  20190929  20191129  河南科技大学  A kind of gear global error measuring apparatus and method based on double Circular gratings 
CN111457837A (en) *  20200415  20200728  大连理工高邮研究院有限公司  Measuring device for measuring fivedegreeoffreedom motion error of rotary table in real time by using circular grating and eddy current sensor and using method 
CN112059726A (en) *  20200831  20201211  西安精雕精密机械工程有限公司  Onmachine measurement and compensation processing method of workpiece with multiple reference characteristics 
CN112762847A (en) *  20201223  20210507  河南科技大学  Bearing inner ring radial runout measuring device and method based on double circular gratings 
CN112902877A (en) *  20210115  20210604  河南科技大学  Nonradial installation doublereading head circular grating angle measurement error correction method 
CN113587855A (en) *  20210729  20211102  大连探索者科技有限公司  Noncontact type shafting rotation precision testing method based on opticalmechanical coupling 
Citations (9)
Publication number  Priority date  Publication date  Assignee  Title 

JP2010223887A (en) *  20090325  20101007  Masato Aketagawa  Device for measuring error in five degrees of freedom 
CN103162712A (en) *  20130321  20130619  中国人民解放军63908部队  Method for treating errors of angle measurement of circular grating and compensating skew of shafting 
CN103471545A (en) *  20130925  20131225  吉林大学  Measuring system and measuring method for pose with six degrees of freedom 
KR20140056341A (en) *  20110822  20140509  상하이 마이크로 일렉트로닉스 이큅먼트 컴퍼니 리미티드  An interference exposure apparatus 
CN105043317A (en) *  20150529  20151111  中国工程物理研究院总体工程研究所  Device and method for measuring dynamic revolution error of main shaft of set of revolution equipment 
CN205280004U (en) *  20151216  20160601  贵州航天计量测试技术研究所  Transmission shaft angle measurement device based on circle grating 
WO2016169362A1 (en) *  20150423  20161027  清华大学  Sixdegreeoffreedom displacement measurement method for exposure region on silicon wafer stage 
CN106225724A (en) *  20160729  20161214  厦门大学  A kind of circular linkage error measuring means of band angle of revolution feedback function 
CN206095174U (en) *  20160913  20170412  天津沃都电气设备有限公司  Accurate angular surveying appearance 

2017
 20170619 CN CN201710464459.0A patent/CN109141225B/en active Active
Patent Citations (9)
Publication number  Priority date  Publication date  Assignee  Title 

JP2010223887A (en) *  20090325  20101007  Masato Aketagawa  Device for measuring error in five degrees of freedom 
KR20140056341A (en) *  20110822  20140509  상하이 마이크로 일렉트로닉스 이큅먼트 컴퍼니 리미티드  An interference exposure apparatus 
CN103162712A (en) *  20130321  20130619  中国人民解放军63908部队  Method for treating errors of angle measurement of circular grating and compensating skew of shafting 
CN103471545A (en) *  20130925  20131225  吉林大学  Measuring system and measuring method for pose with six degrees of freedom 
WO2016169362A1 (en) *  20150423  20161027  清华大学  Sixdegreeoffreedom displacement measurement method for exposure region on silicon wafer stage 
CN105043317A (en) *  20150529  20151111  中国工程物理研究院总体工程研究所  Device and method for measuring dynamic revolution error of main shaft of set of revolution equipment 
CN205280004U (en) *  20151216  20160601  贵州航天计量测试技术研究所  Transmission shaft angle measurement device based on circle grating 
CN106225724A (en) *  20160729  20161214  厦门大学  A kind of circular linkage error measuring means of band angle of revolution feedback function 
CN206095174U (en) *  20160913  20170412  天津沃都电气设备有限公司  Accurate angular surveying appearance 
NonPatent Citations (2)
Title 

朱建忠 等: "同心圆光栅二自由度误差测量系统", 《光学精密工程》 * 
邵忠喜 等: "高精度大口径光栅拼接装置的控制算法", 《光学精密工程》 * 
Cited By (13)
Publication number  Priority date  Publication date  Assignee  Title 

CN110006449B (en) *  20190415  20201110  吉林工程技术师范学院  Shafting error measuring method and system 
CN110006449A (en) *  20190415  20190712  吉林工程技术师范学院  A kind of axial system error measurement method and system 
CN110186398A (en) *  20190515  20190830  大连理工大学  A kind of rotary table and measurement method with movement warp realtime measurement function 
CN110186398B (en) *  20190515  20200428  大连理工大学  Rotary workbench with motion deviation realtime measurement function and measurement method 
CN110081837A (en) *  20190520  20190802  中国科学院光电技术研究所  A method of by detecting shafting shaking and eccentric error using angle measurement Circular gratings and reading head 
CN110514119A (en) *  20190929  20191129  河南科技大学  A kind of gear global error measuring apparatus and method based on double Circular gratings 
CN111457837A (en) *  20200415  20200728  大连理工高邮研究院有限公司  Measuring device for measuring fivedegreeoffreedom motion error of rotary table in real time by using circular grating and eddy current sensor and using method 
CN111457837B (en) *  20200415  20211116  大连理工高邮研究院有限公司  Measuring device for measuring fivedegreeoffreedom motion error of rotary table in real time by circular grating and eddy current sensor 
CN112059726A (en) *  20200831  20201211  西安精雕精密机械工程有限公司  Onmachine measurement and compensation processing method of workpiece with multiple reference characteristics 
CN112059726B (en) *  20200831  20220524  西安精雕精密机械工程有限公司  Onmachine measurement and compensation processing method of workpiece with multiple reference characteristics 
CN112762847A (en) *  20201223  20210507  河南科技大学  Bearing inner ring radial runout measuring device and method based on double circular gratings 
CN112902877A (en) *  20210115  20210604  河南科技大学  Nonradial installation doublereading head circular grating angle measurement error correction method 
CN113587855A (en) *  20210729  20211102  大连探索者科技有限公司  Noncontact type shafting rotation precision testing method based on opticalmechanical coupling 
Also Published As
Publication number  Publication date 

CN109141225B (en)  20201113 
Similar Documents
Publication  Publication Date  Title 

CN109141225A (en)  Shafting five, six degree of freedom error measurement method and measuring system based on Circular gratings  
CN102914260B (en)  Twoaxis photoelectric collimator based rotary table division error detection method  
CN100520288C (en)  Method for calibrating the geometry of a multiaxis metrology system  
CN2884141Y (en)  Laser, six freedom simultaneous measuring apparatus  
CN103063189B (en)  Goniometer verification method based on optical lever  
CN108020409B (en)  A kind of 4 points of dynamic measurements of spindle rotation error and separation method  
CN103175486B (en)  A kind of stitching interferometer measurement mechanism of deviation from cylindrical form and method  
CN101992407A (en)  Error identifying method and error identifying program of machine  
CN110470242B (en)  Device and method for measuring roundness of inner hole of large part in situ  
CN102985793A (en)  Selfcompensating angular encoder  
CN110470243B (en)  Noncontact sensorbased workpiecebiasable inner circle measurement method and device  
CN108007347A (en)  One kind is used for LaserTracer geometric error compensation methods  
CN104154881B (en)  Measuring method for parallelism error of shaft hole end face of telescope fourway  
CN103486998A (en)  Autocollimator indicating value error calibrating device and method  
CN108340210A (en)  A kind of gang tool geometric error discrimination method measured based on ball bar  
CN101975564A (en)  Temperature error compensation method based on threesection measurement  
CN110186398B (en)  Rotary workbench with motion deviation realtime measurement function and measurement method  
CN109163658A (en)  A kind of scaling method for the optical reference part can provide position and angle reference  
CN110345838B (en)  Method for measuring working radius of fouraxis centrifugal machine  
CN103591874A (en)  Method for achieving polar coordinate gear measuring center zero point calibration through standard block  
CN101825454A (en)  Method for compensating temperature errors based on bidirectional measurement  
CN108362493B (en)  A kind of numericallycontrolled machine tool linear axis angular errors rapid detection method  
CN2872297Y (en)  Noncontacting and largediameter measuring equipment based on image method  
CN107727023B (en)  Hybrid fourpoint method rotation error and roundness error calculation method based on threepoint method  
CN112798015B (en)  Dynamic angle calibration device 
Legal Events
Date  Code  Title  Description 

PB01  Publication  
PB01  Publication  
SE01  Entry into force of request for substantive examination  
SE01  Entry into force of request for substantive examination  
GR01  Patent grant  
GR01  Patent grant 