CN109099416B - Biomass boiler device - Google Patents

Biomass boiler device Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109099416B
CN109099416B CN201810793594.4A CN201810793594A CN109099416B CN 109099416 B CN109099416 B CN 109099416B CN 201810793594 A CN201810793594 A CN 201810793594A CN 109099416 B CN109099416 B CN 109099416B
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
combustion
grate
combustion chamber
layer
flue gas
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Application number
CN201810793594.4A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN109099416A (en
Inventor
王华山
房瑀人
吴士宾
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燕山大学
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Priority to CN201810793594.4A priority Critical patent/CN109099416B/en
Publication of CN109099416A publication Critical patent/CN109099416A/en
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Publication of CN109099416B publication Critical patent/CN109099416B/en

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23BMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING ONLY SOLID FUEL
    • F23B40/00Combustion apparatus with driven means for feeding fuel into the combustion chamber
    • F23B40/02Combustion apparatus with driven means for feeding fuel into the combustion chamber the fuel being fed by scattering over the fuel-supporting surface
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23JREMOVAL OR TREATMENT OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OR COMBUSTION RESIDUES; FLUES 
    • F23J15/00Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes
    • F23J15/02Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes of purifiers, e.g. for removing noxious material
    • F23J15/022Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes of purifiers, e.g. for removing noxious material for removing solid particulate material from the gasflow
    • F23J15/025Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes of purifiers, e.g. for removing noxious material for removing solid particulate material from the gasflow using filters
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23JREMOVAL OR TREATMENT OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OR COMBUSTION RESIDUES; FLUES 
    • F23J15/00Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes
    • F23J15/06Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes of coolers

Abstract

A biomass boiler device comprises an internal system, a water system, an air system and a flue gas utilization and purification system; the internal system comprises an outer shell, a combustion chamber, a hemispherical deflection cover, an upper-layer combustion mesh grate, a stepped middle-layer combustion mesh grate, a lower-layer combustion mesh grate, a temperature sensor and an ash chamber; an upper layer combustion net fire grate, a step type middle layer combustion net fire grate and a lower layer combustion net fire grate are sequentially embedded in the combustion chamber from top to bottom; the water system comprises a spiral water pipe, a first heat meter and a second heat meter, wherein the spiral water pipe is coiled outside the combustion chamber; the air system comprises an air preheater, a porous air spray pipe, a vertical air pipeline, a first induced draft fan and a flow velocity meter; the flue gas utilization and purification system comprises a cyclone separator, a gas return pipe, a flue gas analyzer, a superheater, a reheater, an economizer, a dust remover, a second induced draft fan and a chimney. The invention has the characteristics of high environmental protection index, reasonable grate structure, high combustion efficiency, high efficiency, energy conservation, high flue gas utilization rate and the like.

Description

Biomass boiler device

Technical Field

The invention relates to the field of heat exchange devices, in particular to a novel biomass boiler device.

Background

With the increasing exhaustion of petrochemical energy and the increasing severity of environmental problems, the development of renewable and environment-friendly biomass energy has great strategic significance. China is rich in biomass energy, biomass energy has the characteristics of high content of oxygen and hydrogen elements, high volatility, high carbon activity, low content of N and S, low ash content, good ignition performance and the like, and efficient conversion and clean utilization of biomass energy are increasingly paid attention to the world.

The biomass can be converted and utilized through various modes such as direct combustion, pyrolysis, gasification and liquefaction, wherein the direct combustion technology is one of the most mature, simple and feasible modes suitable for large-scale efficient clean utilization of the biomass in China at present, namely, the energy generated by combustion is used for power generation or central heating. The key problem of popularization and application of biomass fuels in China is that no combustion equipment suitable for the biomass fuels exists, research, design and manufacture of the biomass combustion equipment are far from the requirement of industrial development, and research and development of biomass boilers are urgent.

Disclosure of Invention

The invention aims to provide a biomass boiler device which has the characteristics of high environmental protection index, high combustion efficiency, high flue gas utilization rate and the like.

In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the following technical scheme:

a biomass boiler device comprises an internal system, a water system, an air system and a flue gas utilization and purification system;

the internal system comprises an outer shell, a combustion chamber, a hemispherical deflection cover, an upper-layer combustion mesh grate, a stepped middle-layer combustion mesh grate, a lower-layer combustion mesh grate, a temperature sensor and an ash chamber; the outer shell is of a cylindrical structure, and a heat-insulating layer is embedded in the outer shell; the combustion chamber is of a cylindrical structure and is positioned in the center of the outer shell, and a feed inlet is formed in the upper part of the combustion chamber; the hemispherical deflection hood is arranged at the top of the combustion chamber, an upper-layer combustion mesh grate, a stepped middle-layer combustion mesh grate and a lower-layer combustion mesh grate are sequentially embedded in the combustion chamber at the lower part of the feed port from top to bottom, the upper-layer combustion mesh grate is of a circular structure, an opening is formed in the central part of the upper-layer combustion mesh grate, fuel can fall onto the middle-layer stepped combustion mesh grate through the opening, and the opening is also beneficial to the generation of a combustion center; the middle-layer stepped combustion mesh grate is a main combustion area, and the grate with the stepped structure improves the utilization rate of horizontal wind and ensures that fuel is fully combusted; a plurality of through holes for ventilation are arranged on the circumferential side wall of the combustion chamber between the upper-layer combustion mesh grate and the stepped middle-layer combustion mesh grate; a push plate is arranged on the lower combustion mesh grate and used for removing fuel close to the lower combustion mesh grate; the temperature sensor is arranged below the lower combustion mesh grate and used for detecting the temperature in the combustion chamber; an ash chamber is arranged below the lower combustion mesh grate; the lower combustion net grate is of an elliptic cylinder structure, is embedded with the wall surface of the combustion chamber in the x direction, has a certain gap with the wall surface of the combustion chamber in the y direction, and the gap plays a role in ventilation on one hand and is used as a channel for pushing fuel to the ash chamber by a push plate on the other hand;

the water system comprises a spiral water pipe, a first heat meter and a second heat meter, wherein the spiral water pipe is spirally wound on the outer cylindrical wall of the combustion chamber from top to bottom outside the combustion chamber, and water is heated by utilizing the temperature of the outer cylindrical wall of the combustion chamber and the waste heat of high-temperature flue gas; the water inlet is arranged at the upper part and is communicated with the outside of the shell, and the water outlet is arranged at the lower part and is communicated with the outside of the shell; a first heat meter is arranged at the water inlet and used for detecting the water inlet temperature; a second heat meter is arranged at the water outlet and used for detecting the temperature of water;

the air system comprises an air preheater, a porous air spray pipe, a vertical air pipeline, a first induced draft fan and a flow velocity meter; the vertical air pipeline is arranged on the opposite side of the water inlet outside the combustion chamber and is respectively communicated with the upper-layer combustion mesh grate, the stepped middle-layer combustion mesh grate and the lower-layer combustion mesh grate; the porous air spray pipe is transversely arranged in a combustion chamber between the stepped middle-layer combustion mesh grate and the lower-layer combustion mesh grate and is communicated with the vertical air pipeline; the first induced draft fan is connected with an air inlet of the vertical air pipeline through an air preheater, and air in the vertical air pipeline can be preheated by using waste heat of high-temperature flue gas; the flow meter is arranged at an outlet of the first induced draft fan and used for measuring the inlet air flow rate, so that the fuel can be fully and efficiently combusted in the combustion chamber;

the flue gas utilization and purification system comprises a cyclone separator, a gas return pipe, a flue gas analyzer, a superheater, a reheater, an economizer, a dust remover, a second induced draft fan and a chimney; the mixture of the flue gas and the solid is discharged from the combustion chamber from the lower part of the combustion chamber through a pipeline and enters a cyclone separator, the cyclone separator separates tar and dust impurities in the flue gas and sends the tar and the dust impurities back to the combustion chamber for reuse, and the flue gas is sent to a chimney through a second induced draft fan after passing through a superheater, a reheater, an economizer and a dust remover respectively; the upper part of the chimney is provided with a baffle for controlling the cross-sectional area of the flow passage in the chimney, and a flue gas analyzer for detecting CO in the flue gas is arranged below the baffle2Concentration; the middle part of the chimney is connected with the combustion chamber through a return air pipe in the shape of a corrugated pipe.

The working process of the invention is roughly as follows:

the fuel is fed into a combustion chamber of the biomass boiler from a feed inlet and is combusted on the grate of the upper combustion net, after a period of time, the particles of the fuel become small and fall into the stepped middle combustion net with smaller pore diameter for combustion, and finally fall into the grate of the lower combustion net for combustion. When positioned in the lower combustion netWhen the temperature sensor below the fire grate detects that the temperature in the combustion chamber is reduced to a set temperature, the push plate at the lower layer pushes a layer of material which is positioned at the layer and clings to the fire grate to the ash residue hole. The mixture of high-temperature flue gas and solid generated in the combustion process is baffled to the lower part by the hemispherical baffle cover arranged at the top of the combustion chamber, so that tar and the like generated by combustion are degraded to the maximum extent. When the smoke flows to the middle part of the chimney, the smoke can enter the combustion chamber through the return gas pipe in the shape of the corrugated pipe connected with the rear wall of the combustion chamber to recycle the waste heat. The waste heat of the high-temperature flue gas can be used for preheating air in the vertical air pipeline and heating water in the spiral water pipe; when a flue gas analyzer located in the chimney detects CO2When the concentration is too high, the opening degree of a chimney baffle is increased, and the flue gas is discharged into the vent gas after being cooled by a heater, a reheater and an economizer and dedusted by a deduster.

Compared with the prior art, the invention has the characteristics of high environmental protection index, reasonable grate structure, high combustion efficiency, high efficiency, energy conservation, high flue gas utilization rate and the like.

Drawings

FIG. 1 is a front view of a two-dimensional configuration of a biomass boiler arrangement of the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a rear view of a two-dimensional configuration of a biomass boiler arrangement of the present invention;

FIG. 3 is a schematic view of an upper combustion mesh grate arrangement;

FIG. 4 is a schematic view of a stepped middle layer combustion net structure;

FIG. 5 is a schematic view of the flue gas, air and water flow directions in the biomass boiler plant of the present invention.

Reference numbers in fig. 1: the device comprises a hemispherical deflection hood 1, a feed inlet 2, a first calorimeter 3, a water inlet 4, an upper combustion mesh grate 5, a cyclone separator 6, a superheater 7, a reheater 8, an economizer 9, a water outlet 10, a dust remover 11, a chimney 12, a baffle 13, a flue gas analyzer 14, a gas return pipe 15, a second induced draft fan 16, an ash chamber 17, an air preheater 18, a flow rate meter 19, a temperature sensor 20, a lower combustion mesh grate 21, a push plate 22, a porous air spray pipe 23, a stepped middle combustion mesh grate 24, a spiral water pipe 25, a vertical air pipeline 26, an air inlet 27, an outer shell 28, a combustion chamber 29, a second calorimeter 30 and a first induced draft fan 31.

Detailed Description

The invention is further described below with reference to the accompanying drawings:

the biomass boiler device disclosed by the invention comprises an internal system, a water system, a wind system and a flue gas utilization and purification system, as shown in figures 1 and 2; the internal system comprises an outer shell 28, a combustion chamber 29, a hemispherical deflection cover 1, an upper-layer combustion mesh grate 5, a stepped middle-layer combustion mesh grate 24, a lower-layer combustion mesh grate 21, a temperature sensor 20 and an ash chamber 17; the outer shell 28 is a cylindrical structure, and a heat insulation layer is embedded in the outer shell 28; the combustion chamber 29 is of a cylindrical structure and is positioned in the central position in the outer shell 28, and a feed inlet 2 is arranged at the upper part of the combustion chamber 29; the hemispherical baffle hood 1 adopts a hemispherical structure and is arranged at the top of the combustion chamber 29, an upper-layer combustion net grate 5, a stepped middle-layer combustion net grate 24 and a lower-layer combustion net grate 21 are sequentially embedded in the combustion chamber 29 at the lower part of the feed port 2 from top to bottom, and the arrangement of the three layers of combustion net grates in the internal system is one of the core parts of the invention; as shown in fig. 3, the upper combustion mesh grate 5 is a circular structure, and has an opening at the central part thereof, through which fuel can fall onto the stepped middle combustion mesh grate 24, the opening also contributing to the generation of the combustion center; the step-shaped middle-layer combustion mesh grate 24 is a main combustion area, as shown in fig. 4, the grate with the step structure improves the utilization rate of horizontal wind and ensures that fuel is fully combusted; a plurality of through holes are arranged on the circumferential side wall of the combustion chamber between the upper-layer combustion mesh grate 5 and the stepped middle-layer combustion mesh grate 24, namely, one through hole is arranged at intervals, so that the ventilation effect can be achieved; the temperature sensor 20 is arranged below the lower combustion net grate 21 and used for detecting the temperature in the combustion chamber 29 at the lower combustion net grate; a push plate 22 is arranged on the lower combustion mesh grate 21 and used for removing fuel close to the lower combustion mesh grate 21; the push plate 22 and the hemispherical baffle cover 1 are the second core part of the invention, when the temperature sensor 20 detects that the temperature under the lower layer combustion net grate 21 is reduced to the set temperature, the push plate 20 pushes a layer of material which is positioned on the layer and clings to the grate to the ash chamber 17; an ash chamber 17 is arranged below the lower combustion mesh grate 21; the lower combustion net grate 21 is of an elliptic cylinder structure, is embedded with the wall surface of the combustion chamber 29 in the x direction, and has a certain gap with the wall surface of the combustion chamber 29 in the y direction, and the gap can play a role in ventilation on one hand and can be used as a channel for pushing the fuel to the ash chamber 17 by the push plate 20 on the other hand;

the water system comprises a spiral water pipe 25, a first heat meter 3 and a second heat meter 30, wherein the spiral water pipe 25 is spirally coiled on the outer cylindrical wall of the combustion chamber 29 from top to bottom outside the combustion chamber 29, so that water can be heated by utilizing the temperature of the outer cylindrical wall of the combustion chamber 29 and the waste heat of high-temperature flue gas; the water inlet 4 is arranged at the upper part and is communicated with the outside of the outer shell 28, and the water outlet 10 is arranged at the lower part and is communicated with the outside of the outer shell 28; a first heat meter 3 is arranged at the water inlet 4 and used for detecting the temperature of inlet water; a second heat meter 30 is arranged at the water outlet 10 and used for detecting the temperature of water;

the air system comprises an air preheater 18, a multi-hole air spray pipe 23, a vertical air pipeline 26, a first induced draft fan 31 and a flow meter 19; the vertical air duct 26 is arranged at the opposite side of the water inlet 2 outside the combustion chamber 29 and is respectively communicated with the upper layer combustion net fire grate 5, the step-type middle layer combustion net fire grate 24 and the lower layer combustion net fire grate 21; the porous air jet pipe 23 is transversely arranged in a combustion chamber 29 between the stepped middle-layer combustion mesh grate 24 and the lower-layer combustion mesh grate 21 and is communicated with the vertical air pipeline 26; the first induced draft fan 31 is connected with the air inlet 27 of the vertical air pipeline 26 through the air preheater 18, and air in the vertical air pipeline 26 can be preheated by using waste heat of high-temperature flue gas; the flow meter 19 is arranged at an outlet of the first induced draft fan 31 and used for measuring the flow velocity of inlet air, so that the fuel can be fully and efficiently combusted in the combustion chamber 29;

the flue gas utilization and purification system is the third core part of the invention, and the spiral water pipe 25 is coiled on the outer cylinder wall of the combustion chamber 29, so that the water is heated by utilizing the temperature of the outer cylinder wall of the combustion chamber 29 and the waste heat of high-temperature flue gas, and in addition, the waste heat of high-temperature flue gas can also preheat the air in the vertical air pipeline 26. The flue gas utilization and purification system comprises a cyclone separator 6, a gas return pipe 15 and a flue gas analyzer 14. The system comprises a superheater 7, a reheater 8, an economizer 9, a dust remover 11, a second induced draft fan 16 and a chimney 12; the mixture of the flue gas and the solid is discharged from the combustion chamber 29 from the lower part of the combustion chamber 29 through a pipeline and enters the cyclone separator 6, the tar and dust impurities in the flue gas are separated by the cyclone separator 6 and are sent back to the combustion chamber 29 for reuse, and the flue gas passes through the superheater 7, the reheater 8, the economizer 9 and the dust remover 11 respectively and then is sent to the chimney 12 through the second induced draft fan 16; a baffle 13 is arranged at the upper part of the chimney 12 for controlling the cross section area of the flow passage in the chimney 12, and a flue gas analyzer 14 is arranged below the baffle 13 for detecting CO in the flue gas2Concentration; the middle of the chimney 12 is connected to the combustion chamber 29 via a return air duct 15 in the shape of a bellows.

The above-mentioned embodiments are merely illustrative of the preferred embodiments of the present invention, and do not limit the scope of the present invention, and various modifications and improvements of the technical solution of the present invention by those skilled in the art should fall within the protection scope defined by the claims of the present invention without departing from the spirit of the present invention.

Claims (1)

1. A biomass boiler device comprises an internal system, a water system, an air system and a flue gas utilization and purification system; the water system comprises a spiral water pipe, a first heat meter and a second heat meter, wherein the spiral water pipe is spirally wound on the cylindrical wall outside the combustion chamber from top to bottom outside the combustion chamber, a water inlet is formed in the upper part and is introduced from the outside of the outer shell, and a water outlet is formed in the lower part and is introduced to the outside of the outer shell; a first heat meter is arranged at the water inlet and used for detecting the water inlet temperature; a second heat meter is arranged at the water outlet and used for detecting the temperature of water;
the method is characterized in that:
the internal system comprises an outer shell, a combustion chamber, a hemispherical deflection cover, an upper-layer combustion mesh grate, a stepped middle-layer combustion mesh grate, a lower-layer combustion mesh grate, a temperature sensor and an ash chamber; the outer shell is of a cylindrical structure, and a heat-insulating layer is embedded in the outer shell; the combustion chamber is of a cylindrical structure and is positioned in the center of the outer shell, and a feed inlet is formed in the upper part of the combustion chamber; the hemispherical deflection hood is arranged at the top of the combustion chamber, an upper-layer combustion mesh grate, a stepped middle-layer combustion mesh grate and a lower-layer combustion mesh grate are sequentially embedded in the combustion chamber at the lower part of the feed port from top to bottom, the upper-layer combustion mesh grate is of a circular structure, an opening is formed in the central part of the upper-layer combustion mesh grate, and fuel can fall onto the middle-layer stepped combustion mesh grate through the opening; a plurality of through holes for ventilation are arranged on the circumferential side wall of the combustion chamber between the upper-layer combustion mesh grate and the stepped middle-layer combustion mesh grate; a push plate is arranged on the lower combustion mesh grate and used for removing fuel close to the lower combustion mesh grate; the temperature sensor is arranged below the lower combustion mesh grate and used for detecting the temperature in the combustion chamber; an ash chamber is arranged below the lower combustion mesh grate; the lower combustion net grate is of an elliptic cylinder structure, is embedded with the wall surface of the combustion chamber in the x direction, has a certain gap with the wall surface of the combustion chamber in the y direction, and the gap plays a role in ventilation on one hand and is used as a channel for pushing fuel to the ash chamber by a push plate on the other hand;
the air system comprises an air preheater, a porous air spray pipe, a vertical air pipeline, a first induced draft fan and a flow velocity meter; the vertical air pipeline is arranged on the opposite side of the water inlet outside the combustion chamber and is respectively communicated with the upper-layer combustion mesh grate, the stepped middle-layer combustion mesh grate and the lower-layer combustion mesh grate; the porous air spray pipe is transversely arranged in a combustion chamber between the stepped middle-layer combustion mesh grate and the lower-layer combustion mesh grate and is communicated with the vertical air pipeline; the first induced draft fan is connected with an air inlet of the vertical air pipeline through an air preheater; the flow meter is arranged at an outlet of the first induced draft fan and used for measuring the inlet air flow rate, so that the fuel can be fully and efficiently combusted in the combustion chamber;
the flue gas utilization and purification system comprises a cyclone separator, a gas return pipe, a flue gas analyzer, a superheater, a reheater, an economizer, a dust remover, a second induced draft fan and a chimney; the flue gas is discharged from the combustion chamber from the lower part of the combustion chamber through a pipeline and enters a cyclone separator, the cyclone separator separates tar and dust impurities in the flue gas and sends the tar and the dust impurities back to the combustion chamber for reuse, and the residual flue gas is sent to a chimney through a second induced draft fan after passing through a superheater, a reheater, an economizer and a dust remover respectively; on the chimneyThe part is provided with a baffle plate for controlling the cross section area of a flow passage in the chimney, and a flue gas analyzer for detecting CO in flue gas is arranged below the baffle plate2Concentration; the middle part of the chimney is connected with the combustion chamber through a return air pipe in the shape of a corrugated pipe.
CN201810793594.4A 2018-07-19 2018-07-19 Biomass boiler device CN109099416B (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201810793594.4A CN109099416B (en) 2018-07-19 2018-07-19 Biomass boiler device

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201810793594.4A CN109099416B (en) 2018-07-19 2018-07-19 Biomass boiler device

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CN109099416B true CN109099416B (en) 2020-02-04

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Families Citing this family (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN110186054A (en) * 2019-05-30 2019-08-30 王立臣 A kind of polyoxy three-stage waste incineration and smoke comprehensive utilize device and its application method

Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN2152143Y (en) * 1993-03-18 1994-01-05 潍坊市潍城翔天实业总公司 Steam boiler
CN2400704Y (en) * 1999-12-18 2000-10-11 熊俊銮 Multi-functional coal-fired stove
JP2005274015A (en) * 2004-03-24 2005-10-06 Mitsui Eng & Shipbuild Co Ltd Circulation fluidized bed boiler device and its operation control method
CN200975663Y (en) * 2006-09-05 2007-11-14 广州市优华能源技术有限公司 Circulating fluid bed boiler by burning biomass
CN104132329A (en) * 2013-05-04 2014-11-05 鹤岗市金盛粮油有限公司 Novel boiler smoke afterheat energy saver
CN205579531U (en) * 2016-04-28 2016-09-14 福建福锅节能科技有限公司 Environment -friendly boiler

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN2152143Y (en) * 1993-03-18 1994-01-05 潍坊市潍城翔天实业总公司 Steam boiler
CN2400704Y (en) * 1999-12-18 2000-10-11 熊俊銮 Multi-functional coal-fired stove
JP2005274015A (en) * 2004-03-24 2005-10-06 Mitsui Eng & Shipbuild Co Ltd Circulation fluidized bed boiler device and its operation control method
CN200975663Y (en) * 2006-09-05 2007-11-14 广州市优华能源技术有限公司 Circulating fluid bed boiler by burning biomass
CN104132329A (en) * 2013-05-04 2014-11-05 鹤岗市金盛粮油有限公司 Novel boiler smoke afterheat energy saver
CN205579531U (en) * 2016-04-28 2016-09-14 福建福锅节能科技有限公司 Environment -friendly boiler

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