CN109002673A - A kind of bridge foundation washout recognition methods based on vehicle braking percussion - Google Patents

A kind of bridge foundation washout recognition methods based on vehicle braking percussion Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109002673A
CN109002673A CN201811167932.XA CN201811167932A CN109002673A CN 109002673 A CN109002673 A CN 109002673A CN 201811167932 A CN201811167932 A CN 201811167932A CN 109002673 A CN109002673 A CN 109002673A
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bridge
pier
damage
signal
vehicle
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李岩
杨婷婷
孙航
高庆飞
林雪琦
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Harbin Institute of Technology
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Harbin Institute of Technology
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F30/00Computer-aided design [CAD]
    • G06F30/20Design optimisation, verification or simulation
    • G06F30/23Design optimisation, verification or simulation using finite element methods [FEM] or finite difference methods [FDM]
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F30/00Computer-aided design [CAD]
    • G06F30/10Geometric CAD
    • G06F30/13Architectural design, e.g. computer-aided architectural design [CAAD] related to design of buildings, bridges, landscapes, production plants or roads

Abstract

A kind of bridge foundation washout recognition methods based on vehicle braking percussion, belongs to bridge pile foundation and washes away damage identification technique field.The present invention when solving the problem of in existing pier subsidence monitoring method that sensor is placed in and causes larger measurement error vulnerable to the interference of hydrologic condition under water and install in order to limit vulnerable to actual environment and weather.The present invention is using vehicle braking force as driving source, evoke bridge pier along bridge to acceleration responsive, and acceleration transducer is arranged in each pier coping portion, using the acceleration signal of each bridge pier pier top acquisition as analysis signal, each band signal is obtained by WAVELET PACKET DECOMPOSITION and reconstruct, it obtains intact bridge structure and damages the wavelet-packet energy variance of each bridge pier of bridge structure, the wavelet-packet energy variance change rate of the two is compared, determines damage position and degree.Damage Assessment Method energisation mode of the invention increases excitation amplitude, improves processing accuracy, and have many advantages, such as strong real-time, simple and easy to operate.

Description

A kind of bridge foundation washout recognition methods based on vehicle braking percussion
Technical field
The present invention relates to the health status quantitative analyses and evaluation method of a kind of bridge pile foundation especially pile foundation buried depth, belong to Bridge pile foundation washes away damage identification technique field.
Background technique
Important component of the bridge foundation as support superstructure, working condition directly affect the safety fortune of entire bridge Battalion.Pile foundation is widely used in bridge construction, but since long-term current scour can take away bridge substructure (especially stake Basis) around bed material, cause Bored Pile of Bridge bearing capacity reduction, seriously affected the stability of bridge substructure, It is serious or even bridge disaster by flood accident can be caused, generate heavy losses and severe social influence.Therefore, to bridge foundation washout shape Condition carries out regularly health examination, and Accurate Diagnosis damage guarantees that the safe operation of bridge structure has a very important significance.
Since foundation scouring occurs have concealment in underwater, damage diagnosis acquires a certain degree of difficulty.For such damage, It is developed at present to have based on sonar technique, Radar Technology, fiber-optic grating sensor, domain reflectometer and organize diving regularly Member carries out a variety of pier subsidence monitoring methods of detection under water, but monitoring device (transmitting, reception device) and manpower is very Valuableness, sensor are easy the interference by hydrologic condition and cause larger measurement error, and by actual environment and gas when installation The limitation of time can not obtain overall application in bridge machinery.Therefore it provides a kind of diagnosing structural damage based on dynamic characteristics It is very necessary that method, which diagnoses bridge substructure foundation scouring state,.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is placed under water to solve the sensor that existing a variety of pier subsidence monitoring methods use vulnerable to water The interference of literary condition and cause larger measurement error, and the problem of being limited by actual environment and weather when installing, propose A kind of bridge foundation washout recognition methods based on vehicle braking percussion.
Technical solution of the present invention:
A kind of bridge foundation washout recognition methods based on vehicle braking percussion, comprising the following steps:
Step 1, bridge power testing experiment scheme is formulated;According to Bridge Design information, bridge entirety reference finite is established Meta-model formulates the examination of bridge dynamic test using vehicle level braking power as the excitation types of bridge power testing experiment scheme Proved recipe case;
Step 2, intact bridge structure dynamic test test is carried out;Acceleration is arranged at each bridge pier pier top of newly building bridge Sensor is implemented to be based on vehicle braking as dynamic response measuring point, and according to the bridge power testing experiment scheme that step 1 is formulated The bridge impact vibration of power is tested, and is measured the dynamic response of each measuring point, and carry out Wavelet Denoising Method processing to it, is chosen each bridge pier pier The free damping section of the dynamic response acceleration signal of measuring point is pushed up as intact bridge signal to be analyzed;
Step 3, damage bridge structure dynamic test test is carried out;For a period of time after T, the T is bridge actual operation 0.5 year to 1 year, the bridge power testing experiment scheme formulated according to step 1 implemented the bridge based on vehicle braking force and impacts vibration Dynamic test measures the dynamic response of each measuring point, and carries out Wavelet Denoising Method processing to it, and the power for choosing each bridge pier pier top measuring point is rung Answer the free damping section of acceleration signal as damage bridge signal to be analyzed;
Step 4, bridge damnification position and degree are determined;The intact bridge letter to be analyzed that step 2 and step 3 are respectively obtained Number and damage bridge signal to be analyzed carry out WAVELET PACKET DECOMPOSITION processing after analyzed, finally by intact bridge structure and damage bridge The analysis result of each bridge pier of girder construction compares, and determines damage position and degree.
Preferred: dynamic response described in step 2 and step 3 is to respond along bridge to pier top horizontal acceleration.
Preferred: the particular content of the step 1 is as follows:
Firstly, establishing benchmark model;Bridge global finite element model is established according to the intrinsic parameter of bridge, by the finite element mould Type is as benchmark model;
Then, simulating vehicle trigger action;Vehicle level braking power is assumed to a trapezoidal load, is shown below:
Wherein,W is light weight,For vehicle attachment coefficient, in formula, tbFor the brake coordination of automobile Time, t are that driver's foot touches on the brake the time;
Using numerical method to different load car weights, speed, application position and load lane, the vehicle of generation is horizontal Brake force is simulated to obtain different vehicle braking effects;
Finally, determining bridge power testing experiment scheme;The different vehicle trigger action that simulation is obtained is as driving source It acts on deck system and excites the horizontal vibration of bridge structure, by the free damping acceleration of bridge pier pier top acceleration transducer Peak response amplitude determines bridge power testing experiment scheme, includes in bridge power testing experiment scheme as objective function It is as follows to load car weight, speed, application position and load lane, objective function:
Max_a=max (a (t)) (2)
In formula: a (t) is bridge pier pier top free damping acceleration responsive under different braking effect.
It is preferred: the particular content of the step 4 are as follows:
Firstly, each bridge pier pier top acceleration signal free damping section that step 2 and step 3 are surveyed is as signal to be analyzed WAVELET PACKET DECOMPOSITION is carried out, Wavelets are taken as db15, decomposition level 6;Assuming that carrying out the to structural dynamic response signal f I layers of WAVELET PACKET DECOMPOSITION obtain 2iA child node, j are the i-th node layer number, fijThe structure decomposed on node (i, j) for i-th layer is rung It answers, structural response f in each node frequency bandijENERGY EijAre as follows:
Ei,j=∑ | fi,j|2(j=0,1 ..., 2i-1) (3)
Then Wavelet Packet Energy Spectrum vector E of the structural dynamic response in the i-th sublevel layeriThe dynamic characteristics of structure can be characterized, It is shown below:
Ei={ Ei,j(j=0,1 ..., 2i-1) (4)
The then signal energy variances sigma of structural dynamic response2It is shown below:
In formula,For the average energy value of frequency band i;
Then, it defines wavelet-packet energy variance change rate to determine STRUCTURE DAMAGE LOCATION as damage criterion, i-th layer Lower response wavelet-packet energy variance change rate index WPEVVR are as follows:
In formula,For the signal energy variance of healthy structural response;For the signal energy variance comprising damage information;For the average energy value of frequency band i;
Finally, the analysis result of each bridge pier of intact bridge structure and damage bridge structure is compared, bridge is determined Foundation scouring damage position and degree.
Preferred: the bridge is medium and small span simply supported beam or Continuous Bridge.
The invention has the following advantages: the present invention relates to a kind of, the bridge foundation based on vehicle braking percussion is rushed Brush recognition methods, this method can directly using vehicle level braking power as driving source and its dynamic response of bridge pier horizontal direction, Using the bridge pile foundation characteristic more sensitive to horizontal mode, the accuracy of non-destructive tests is improved;And the present invention is a kind of bridge The detection method that girder construction is integrally damaged can reflect the dynamic characteristics of bridge structure comprehensively;And the present invention can also be to bridge Beam support is hollow, bridge pier or body of a bridge cracking equivalent damage form achieve the purpose that identification.In addition, the present invention has test job amount It is small, at low cost, simple and easy, and can realize that multiple spot detects, timely detailed bridge structure can be provided for bridge management department Health status information guarantees the safe operation of bridge structure.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is the flow chart of the bridge foundation washout recognition methods based on vehicle braking percussion;
Fig. 2 is the schematic diagram that vehicle braking force changes over time;
Fig. 3 is the schematic side view that bridge pier carries out impact vibration test;
Fig. 4 is the schematic rear view that bridge pier carries out impact vibration test;
Fig. 5 is free damping section acceleration responsive schematic diagram after intact bridge pier top acquisition denoising;
Fig. 6 is single injury wavelet-packet energy variance comparison diagram under each pier top difference operating condition of bridge;
Fig. 7 is poly-injury wavelet-packet energy variance comparison diagram under each pier top difference operating condition of bridge.
Specific embodiment
Following will be combined with the drawings in the embodiments of the present invention, and technical solution in the embodiment of the present invention carries out clear, complete Site preparation description, it is clear that described embodiment is only one embodiment of the present of invention, instead of all the embodiments.Based on this Embodiment in invention, it is obtained by those of ordinary skill in the art without making creative efforts every other Embodiment belongs to protection scope of the present invention.
Illustrate a specific embodiment of the invention in conjunction with Figure of description 1 to Fig. 7, be described as follows:
The flow chart of bridge foundation washout recognition methods based on vehicle braking percussion is as shown in Figure 1, detailed process It is as follows:
(1) bridge power testing experiment scheme is formulated;
Firstly, establishing benchmark model;Bridge global finite element model is established according to the intrinsic parameter of bridge, by the finite element mould Type is as benchmark model;
Then, simulating vehicle trigger action;Vehicle braking has apparent pulse characteristic, and complete procedure is divided into two ranks Section: the first stage occurs in braking regulating time, and brake force is gradually increased to maximum from zero;Second stage is that brake force is complete Performance stage, brake force are held essentially constant.Therefore vehicle level braking power can be assumed to a trapezoidal lotus as shown in Figure 2 It carries, formula is as follows:
Wherein,W is light weight,For vehicle attachment coefficient, tbFor the brake coordination time of automobile, T is that driver's foot touches on the brake the time;The brake coordination time of automobile namely since stepping on brake pedal timing to vehicle braking Power reaches required time when maximum, for the automobile t of hydraulic brakingb≤ 0.35s, for the automobile t of air-pressure brakeb≤ 0.60s。
Using numerical method to different load car weights, speed, application position and load lane, the vehicle of generation is horizontal Brake force is simulated to obtain different vehicle braking effects;
Finally, determining bridge power testing experiment scheme;The different vehicle trigger action that simulation is obtained is as driving source It acts on deck system and excites the horizontal vibration of bridge structure, by the free damping acceleration of bridge pier pier top acceleration transducer Peak response amplitude determines bridge power testing experiment scheme, includes in bridge power testing experiment scheme as objective function It is as follows to load car weight, speed, application position and load lane, objective function:
Max_a=max (a (t)) (2)
In formula: a (t) is bridge pier pier top free damping acceleration responsive under different braking effect.
As stated above, the present embodiment is as shown in Figures 3 and 4 by taking 2 × 30mT type three lanes continuous bridge as an example, takes tb =0.35s, t=2.39s, vehicle attachment coefficient are takenVehicle takes three axis vehicle car weight W=25t, speed 50km/ H starts brake in two bridge pier span centre positions as shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4 and carries out exciting, measures each bridge pier pier top in vehicle level braking Dynamic response under power effect.
(2) intact bridge structure dynamic test test is carried out;
Acceleration transducer is arranged at each bridge pier pier top of newly building bridge as dynamic response measuring point, and according to above-mentioned system Fixed bridge power testing experiment scheme implements the bridge impact vibration test based on vehicle braking force, measures the power of each measuring point Response, and Wavelet Denoising Method processing is carried out to it, as shown in Figure 5.
(3) damage bridge structure dynamic test test is carried out;
For bridge actual operation for a period of time after T, T is 1 year, repeats the beam dynamic test testing program that step 1 is formulated and implements Bridge impact vibration test based on vehicle braking force, measures the dynamic response of each measuring point, and carry out Wavelet Denoising Method processing to it.
(4) bridge damnification position and degree are determined;
Each bridge pier pier top acceleration signal free damping section that step (2) and step (3) are surveyed is as letter to be analyzed Number WAVELET PACKET DECOMPOSITION is carried out, Wavelets are taken as db15, decomposition level 6;Assuming that being carried out to structural dynamic response signal f I-th layer of WAVELET PACKET DECOMPOSITION obtains 2iA child node, j are the i-th node layer number, fijThe structure decomposed on node (i, j) for i-th layer It responds, structural response f in each node frequency bandijENERGY EijAre as follows:
Ei,j=∑ | fi,j|2(j=0,1 ..., 2i-1) (3)
Then Wavelet Packet Energy Spectrum vector E of the structural dynamic response in the i-th sublevel layeriThe dynamic characteristics of structure can be characterized, It is shown below:
Ei={ Ei,j(j=0,1 ..., 2i-1) (4)
The then signal energy variances sigma of structural dynamic response2It is shown below:
In formula,For the average energy value of frequency band i;
Then, it defines wavelet-packet energy variance change rate to determine STRUCTURE DAMAGE LOCATION as damage criterion, i-th layer Respond wavelet-packet energy variance change rate index WPEVVR are as follows:
In formula,For the signal energy variance of healthy structural response;For the signal energy variance comprising damage information;For the average energy value of frequency band i;
Finally, the analysis result of each bridge pier of intact bridge structure and damage bridge structure is compared, bridge is determined Foundation scouring damage position and degree, analytic process are as follows:
The interval division standard of WPEVVR are as follows:
Safety level: being safety level when WPEVVR < 3%, represents pile foundation under bridge pier herein and is not affected by substantially and washes away influence;
Regular grade: being regular grade when 3%≤WPEVVR < 7%, indicating bridge, oneself is washed away influence, but can in the short time To continue to use;
Hidden danger grade: being hidden danger grade when 7%≤WPEVVR < 14%, and the normal carrying for having affected bridge is washed away in expression, needs It is detected;
Hazard class: being hazard class when WPEVVR >=14%, and expression has washed away very seriously, needed as early as possible to add the bridge Gu;
Calculated WPEVVR value is compared with above-mentioned section standard, the section where WPEVVR value determines bridge The security level of beam, so that the safety to pile foundation is made an appraisal.
Damage reason location and degree of injury analysis and assessment are carried out below with reference to actual conditions;
Due to most easily causing the losing issue of pile foundation surrounding soil under river water souring, scour hole is formed, and then make stake Base boundary condition changes.Based on typical scour hole form, for twin shaft pier Wash-off Model, rear campshed is by preceding campshed The influence of " occlusion effect ", can learning the scour depth of two pier of front and back, there are significant differences, before rear pier scour depth obviously compares Pier is much smaller.Below with the above method to a continuous bridge damaged whether there is or not judgement and damage reason location, altogether be arranged 7 kinds damage Hurt type, i.e. single injury type operating condition and poly-injury type operating condition:
One: 1-1 pier of operating condition washes away 1m, other piers, which are not affected by, to be washed away;
Two: 1-1 pier of operating condition washes away 2m, and 1-2 pier washes away 1m, other piers, which are not affected by, to be washed away;
Three: 1-1 pier of operating condition washes away 3m, and 1-2 pier washes away 2m, other piers, which are not affected by, to be washed away;
Four: 1-1 pier of operating condition washes away 4m, and 1-2 pier washes away 3m, other piers, which are not affected by, to be washed away;
Five: 1-1 pier of operating condition washes away 5m, and 1-2 pier washes away 4m, other piers, which are not affected by, to be washed away;
Six: 1-1 pier of operating condition washes away 6m, and 1-2 pier washes away 5m, other piers, which are not affected by, to be washed away;
Seven: 1-1 pier of operating condition washes away 3m, and 1-2 pier washes away 2m;2-1 pier washes away 5m, and 2-2 pier washes away 4m;No. 3-1 Pier washes away 4m, and 3-2 pier washes away 3m.
The wavelet-packet energy and intact bridge structural calculation Comparative result that processing signal calculates are responded according to actual measureed value of acceleration, And calculate wavelet-packet energy variance change rate.Fig. 6 and Fig. 7 difference single injury and poly-injury recognition result, from fig. 6, it can be seen that When structure is damaged, WPEVVR value is all larger than safety level threshold values, and damage reason location index size increase with degree of injury and Increase.Fig. 7 indicates that such method not only can be carried out single injury positioning, also can be carried out poly-injury and positions, the position that do not damage, Its damage reason location index is less than safety level threshold values.
This embodiment is just an exemplary description of this patent, does not limit its protection scope, those skilled in the art Member can also be changed its part, as long as it does not exceed the essence of this patent, within the protection scope of the present patent.

Claims (5)

1. a kind of bridge foundation washout recognition methods based on vehicle braking percussion, it is characterised in that the method includes Following steps:
Step 1, bridge power testing experiment scheme is formulated;
According to the intrinsic parameter of bridge, bridge entirety baseline finite element model is established, using vehicle level braking power as bridge power The excitation types of testing experiment scheme formulate bridge power testing experiment scheme;
Step 2, intact bridge structure dynamic test test is carried out;
Arrange that acceleration transducer is formulated as dynamic response measuring point, and according to step 1 at each bridge pier pier top of newly building bridge Bridge power testing experiment scheme implement based on vehicle braking force bridge impact vibration test, measure each measuring point power ring It answers, and Wavelet Denoising Method processing is carried out to it, choose the free damping section of the dynamic response acceleration signal of each bridge pier pier top measuring point As intact bridge signal to be analyzed;
Step 3, damage bridge structure dynamic test test is carried out;
For bridge actual operation for a period of time after T, the T is 0.5 year to 1 year, is tried according to the bridge dynamic test that step 1 is formulated Proved recipe case implements the bridge impact vibration test based on vehicle braking force, measures the dynamic response of each measuring point, and carry out to it small Wave denoising is chosen the free damping section of the dynamic response acceleration signal of each bridge pier pier top measuring point and is waited for point as damage bridge Analyse signal;
Step 4, bridge damnification position and degree are determined;
The intact bridge signal to be analyzed and damage bridge signal to be analyzed that step 2 and step 3 are respectively obtained carry out wavelet packet It is analyzed after resolution process, is finally carried out the analysis result of each bridge pier of intact bridge structure and damage bridge structure pair Than determining damage position and degree.
2. a kind of bridge foundation washout recognition methods based on vehicle braking percussion according to claim 1, special Sign is that dynamic response described in step 2 and step 3 is to respond along bridge to pier top horizontal acceleration.
3. a kind of bridge foundation washout recognition methods based on vehicle braking percussion according to claim 1, special Sign is that the particular content of the step 1 is as follows:
Firstly, establishing benchmark model;
Bridge global finite element model is established according to the intrinsic parameter of bridge, using the finite element model as benchmark model;
Then, using benchmark model simulating vehicle trigger action;
Vehicle level braking power is assumed to a trapezoidal load, is shown below:
Wherein,W is light weight,For vehicle attachment coefficient;tbFor the brake coordination time of automobile, t is to drive The person's of sailing foot touches on the brake the time;
Using numerical method to different load car weights, speed, application position and load lane, the vehicle level braking of generation Power is simulated to obtain different vehicle braking effects;
Finally, determining bridge power testing experiment scheme;
The different vehicle trigger action that simulation obtains is acted on deck system to the level for exciting bridge structure as driving source Vibration, using the free damping acceleration peak response amplitude of bridge pier pier top acceleration transducer as objective function, determines bridge Dynamic test testing program includes load car weight, speed, application position and load vehicle in bridge power testing experiment scheme Road, objective function are as follows:
Max_a=max (a (t)) (2)
A (t) is bridge pier pier top free damping acceleration responsive under different braking effect in formula.
4. a kind of bridge foundation washout recognition methods based on vehicle braking percussion according to claim 1, special Sign is the particular content of the step 4 are as follows:
Firstly, the intact bridge signal to be analyzed that step 2 and step 3 are respectively obtained and the signal progress to be analyzed of damage bridge are small Wave packet resolution process, Wavelets are taken as db15, decomposition level 6;Assuming that carrying out i-th to structural dynamic response signal f Layer WAVELET PACKET DECOMPOSITION obtains 2iA child node, j are the i-th node layer number, fijThe structure decomposed on node (i, j) for i-th layer is rung It answers, structural response f in each node frequency bandijENERGY EijAre as follows:
Ei,j=∑ | fi,j|2(j=0,1 ..., 2i-1) (3)
Then Wavelet Packet Energy Spectrum vector E of the structural dynamic response in the i-th sublevel layeriThe dynamic characteristics of structure, such as following formula can be characterized It is shown:
Ei={ Ei,j(j=0,1 ..., 2i-1) (4)
The then signal energy variances sigma of structural dynamic response2It is shown below:
In formula,For the average energy value of frequency band i;
Then, it defines wavelet-packet energy variance change rate to determine STRUCTURE DAMAGE LOCATION as damage criterion, be rung under i-th layer Answer wavelet-packet energy variance change rate index WPEVVR are as follows:
In formula,For the signal energy variance of healthy structural response;For the signal energy variance comprising damage information;For The average energy value of frequency band i;
Finally, the analysis result of each bridge pier of intact bridge structure and damage bridge structure is compared, bridge foundation is determined Wash away damage position and degree.
5. a kind of bridge foundation washout recognition methods based on vehicle braking percussion according to claim 1, special Sign is that the bridge is medium and small span simply supported beam or Continuous Bridge.
CN201811167932.XA 2018-10-08 2018-10-08 A kind of bridge foundation washout recognition methods based on vehicle braking percussion Pending CN109002673A (en)

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN109839440A (en) * 2019-03-20 2019-06-04 合肥工业大学 A kind of bridge damnification localization method based on standing vehicle testing
CN110399683A (en) * 2019-07-27 2019-11-01 哈尔滨工业大学 Bridge Impact Coefficient extracting method based on frequency domain amplitude spectrum similitude filtering technique
CN112085354A (en) * 2020-08-21 2020-12-15 哈尔滨工业大学 Bridge foundation scouring diagnosis method based on vehicle-induced power response cross-correlation index system

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN109839440A (en) * 2019-03-20 2019-06-04 合肥工业大学 A kind of bridge damnification localization method based on standing vehicle testing
CN109839440B (en) * 2019-03-20 2021-03-30 合肥工业大学 Bridge damage positioning method based on static vehicle test
CN110399683A (en) * 2019-07-27 2019-11-01 哈尔滨工业大学 Bridge Impact Coefficient extracting method based on frequency domain amplitude spectrum similitude filtering technique
CN112085354A (en) * 2020-08-21 2020-12-15 哈尔滨工业大学 Bridge foundation scouring diagnosis method based on vehicle-induced power response cross-correlation index system

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