CN108759652B - A kind of curvature measurement method based on favour stone full-bridge principle - Google Patents

A kind of curvature measurement method based on favour stone full-bridge principle Download PDF

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CN108759652B
CN108759652B CN201810497180.7A CN201810497180A CN108759652B CN 108759652 B CN108759652 B CN 108759652B CN 201810497180 A CN201810497180 A CN 201810497180A CN 108759652 B CN108759652 B CN 108759652B
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strain
resistance
bridge
curvature
measurement
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CN108759652A (en
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彭伟强
胡大士
张迪
杜海越
崔洪宇
洪明
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Dalian University of Technology
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Dalian University of Technology
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B7/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of electric or magnetic means
    • G01B7/16Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of electric or magnetic means for measuring the deformation in a solid, e.g. by resistance strain gauge
    • G01B7/18Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of electric or magnetic means for measuring the deformation in a solid, e.g. by resistance strain gauge using change in resistance
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B7/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of electric or magnetic means
    • G01B7/28Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of electric or magnetic means for measuring contours or curvatures
    • G01B7/293Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of electric or magnetic means for measuring contours or curvatures for measuring radius of curvature

Abstract

The invention belongs to strain measurement technique fields, provide a kind of curvature measurement method based on favour stone full-bridge principle.In measurement process, four resistance strain sensors are uniformly put first, resistance strain sensor a, b (c) and the interval d same distance even level place, and resistance strain sensor b and c or more are placed in parallel;Four resistance strain sensors are connect using favour stone full-bridge mode with single strain bridge box again, it is strained using caused by favour stone full-bridge principle equilibrium temperature, tectonic erosion periods calculate corresponding proportionate relationship simultaneously, and single strain bridge box output voltage can be converted into measuring point curvature at this time;Finally strain bridge box is connect with dynamic signal acquisition instrument and computer, measurement and acquisition structural curvature.The present invention is used only single strain bridge box and can directly measure to obtain the exact curvature of structure any point, calculates without numerical value;Simplify experiment flow, convenience of calculation reduces experimental cost, simplifies experimental implementation.

Description

A kind of curvature measurement method based on favour stone full-bridge principle
Technical field
The invention belongs to strain measurement technique fields, answer variable curvature based on favour stone full-bridge principle more particularly to a kind of Measurement method.
Background technique
In engineering fields such as building, bridge, ship, aerospaces, the curvature of structural bending deformation is monitoring structural health conditions A kind of very important parameter in the process, it is to measure a kind of more effective mode is damaged or failed to structure whether, because Measurement structure curvature is inevitably needed in this engineering practice, however mostly uses numerical calculations structural curvature at present, still Lack a kind of sensor of directly measurement curvature.It is a certain that multiple resistance strain sensor measurement structures are generallyd use in engineering test The strain of point carries out Difference Calculation to the data after multimetering later and obtains the curvature.But this method is lacked there are following Fall into: required strain transducer quantity is more, configures multiple strain bridge boxes, and occupancy acquisition channel is more, and acquisition cost is high;Resistance-strain passes Sensor is easy to damage, and the service life is short, needs temperature-compensating;Computational accuracy is not high, can not calculate the curvature of structure head and the tail point.
The curvature measurement precision prescribed of some structures is higher in Practical Project, while guaranteeing that low cost, equipment connection are easy. Although existing higher based on fiber bragg grating sensor measurement structure curvature precision, it involves great expense, and higher cost is not suitable for Carry out Basic Experiment Study.Resistance strain sensor is a kind of widely used high-precision mechanical quantity sensing element, with its price Cheaply, production is simple, lays the advantages that facilitating, and is now widely used for experimental study and Practical Project field.Use multiple electricity Though resistance strain transducer can calculate structural curvature, multiple strain bridge boxes and temperature-compensating plate must be configured, experiment connection is complicated, Acquisition channel is more, samples at high cost.
To solve the problems, such as traditional curvature estimation, while simplifying curvature measurement operation, reduce acquisition cost, the present invention proposes A kind of curvature measurement method based on favour stone full-bridge principle, realize the accurate of structural curvature and directly measure.
Summary of the invention
In view of the problems of the existing technology, the present invention provides a kind of curvature measurement side based on favour stone full-bridge principle Method simplifies curvature measurement experimental implementation, reduces acquisition cost.
The technical solution adopted by the present invention to solve the technical problems are as follows:
A kind of curvature measurement method based on favour stone full-bridge principle, this method are based on the identical resistance of four resistance values and answer Become sensor a1, b2, c3, d4, a strain bridge box 5, a dynamic signal acquisition instrument 6 and a computer 7 are realized;By multiple electricity Hinder strain transducer according to favour stone full-bridge principle connect, first realize strain quick and precisely measurement, then recycle favour this Logical full-bridge principle equilibrium temperature influences, while structural texture curvature estimation form, realizes the precise measurement of curvature.
In measurement process, firstly, four resistance strain sensors a1, b2, c3, d4 are connected according to favour stone full-bridge circuit It connects.Resistance strain sensor b2, c3 alignment are arranged close to, and the two center longitudinal axis is parallel, central, transverse axis is overlapped and relatively close apart, are protected The tension and compression having the same of both cards or bending strain;Resistance strain sensor a1, d4 are arranged in the resistance being made of b2, c3 The two sides of strain transducer group, and the center longitudinal axis of a1, d4 are overlapped, central, transverse axis it is parallel;Finally require a1 and d4, b2 Central, transverse axis spacing between d4 is l.Resistance strain sensor a1, b2, c3, d4 are used full-bridge mode and individually answered again Become bridge box 5 to connect, be strained using caused by favour stone full-bridge principle equilibrium temperature, while tectonic erosion periods calculate corresponding ratio and close System, single 5 output voltage of strain bridge box can be converted into measuring point curvature at this time;Strain bridge box 5 is finally connected into dynamic The corresponding acquisition channel of signal sampler 6 and computer 7 realize the curvature measurement and acquisition of structure.The measurement method is as follows:
It is affected by temperature, four resistance strain sensors generate identical temperature and cause strain stressT, note resistance-strain sensing Since the overall strain that malformation and temperature generate is respectively ε in device a1, b2, c3 and d4 measurement1a1T、ε2b2T3c3T4d4T
If Wheatstone bridge arm resistance is respectively R1、R2、R3And R4, resistance strain sensor a1 and d4 are connected respectively to R1、R4Corresponding bridge arm, resistance strain sensor b2 and c3 are connected respectively to R2、R3Corresponding bridge arm, four resistance-strain sensings Device resistance value is that each bridge arm corresponds to resistance.
According to resistance bridge principle, bridge output voltage is obtained are as follows:
Wherein, U is the input voltage of the corresponding DC power supply of strain bridge box 5;U0For the corresponding output end voltage of strain bridge box 5.
Since four resistance strain sensor resistance values are identical, therefore four arm resistance values are identical, meet R1R4=R2R3, Bridge output voltage U0It is zero, meets bridge balance, electric bridge original state is in equilibrium state.
When structure deforms, causes each bridge arm to correspond to resistance strain sensor resistance and change, electric bridge just generates defeated Voltage out, if Δ R accordingly has occurred in each arm resistance1, Δ R2, Δ R3, Δ R4Variation, output voltage at this time are as follows:
By R1R4=R2R3Above formula is substituted into, and due to Δ Ri< < Ri, it is micro that high-order can be omitted, therefore obtained:
Since four arm resistance values are equal, i.e. R1=R2=R3=R4, formula is writeable at this time are as follows:
Since four arm resistances are foil gauge, their sensitivity coefficient K is all the same, then by relational expression Δ R/R=K ε substitutes into above formula and obtains output voltage are as follows:
Wherein, εD1234, ε1、ε2、ε3、ε4Respectively resistance strain gage R1、R2、R3、R4The strain experienced.
In measurement process, generation will be strained caused by strain and temperature caused by structure that each resistance strain gage is subject to respectively Enter εD1234It can further obtain:
εD1234
=(εa1T)-(εb2T)-(εc3T)+(εd4T)(6)
a1b2c3d4
Because of laid parallel above and below two strain transducers of b and c, horizontal direction is equal by structural strain, so there is εc3b2, due to tri- strain transducer spacing very littles of a, b and d, according to central difference method curvature estimation formula, available b point Or c point curvature:
In formula: ρbFor curvature at b point or c point;L is resistance strain sensor horizontal direction spacing.
The ε that will be obtainedDAnd ρbIt substitutes into formula (5) and obtains measurement voltageObtain resistance strain sensor Output voltage and curvature linear relationship, realize the direct measurement of curvature.
The beneficial effects of the present invention are: (1) uses the curvature measurement method of favour stone full-bridge principle, directly measurement obtains essence True curvature is calculated without numerical value, reduces error in numerical calculation, can measure structure any point curvature;(2) former using favour stone full-bridge Reason, can influence of the equilibrium temperature to strain, while the accurate calculation structural curvature at the beginning of measurement simplifies experiment flow, calculates It is convenient;(3) be used only single strain bridge box can measurement structure curvature, significantly reduce experimental cost, simplify experimental implementation;(4) Individually acquisition channel can measure curvature, and measurement is simply and the acquisition channel of occupancy is few, greatly reduction acquisition cost.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is curvature measurement methods experiment device composition schematic diagram.
Fig. 2 is the distribution of curvature measurement method strain transducer and connection schematic diagram.
Fig. 3 is favour stone full-bridge basic circuit diagram.
Fig. 4 is strain transducer schematic diagram
In figure: 1 resistance strain sensor a, 2 resistance strain sensor b, 3 resistance strain sensor c, 4 resistance-strains sensing Device d, 5 strain bridge boxes, 6 dynamic signal acquisition instrument, 7 computers.
Specific embodiment
The present invention will be further explained below with reference to the attached drawings:
The present invention provides a kind of curvature measurement method based on favour stone full-bridge principle, specific structure such as Fig. 1 curvature is surveyed It measures shown in methods experiment device composition schematic diagram, comprising: four resistance values identical resistance strain sensor a1, b2, c3 and d4, Strain bridge box 5, dynamic signal acquisition instrument 6, computer 7.It is in measurement process, four resistance strain sensors a1, b2, c3 and d4 are equal Even to put, wherein resistance strain sensor b2 and c3 or more are placed in parallel, resistance strain sensor a1, b2 with the interval d4 it is identical away from It is placed from l even level, four resistance strain sensors is utilized into favour stone full-bridge principle later, using full-bridge mode and strain Bridge box 5 connects, and specific connection type is as shown in the distribution of Fig. 2 curvature measurement method strain transducer and connection schematic diagram, using complete Strain caused by bridge connection type equilibrium temperature, while structural texture curvature estimation corresponds to proportionate relationship, strain bridge box 5 is defeated at this time Voltage is measuring point curvature out;Strain bridge box 5 is finally connected to the corresponding acquisition channel of dynamic signal acquisition instrument 6 and computer 7, Realize the curvature measurement and acquisition of structure.
A kind of curvature measurement method based on favour stone full-bridge principle, measuring principle and experimental procedure are as follows:
Four resistance strain sensor resistance values are identical, small volume, uniformly place and spacing is smaller, wherein electricity It hinders strain transducer a1, b2 and d4 even level to place, resistance strain sensor b2 and c3 or more are placed in parallel, and specific resistance is answered Become sensor modes of emplacement as shown in Fig. 2, guaranteeing the two tension and compression having the same or bending strain;
Described four resistance strain sensors a1, b2, c3 and d4 are mostly installed at the structure for generating bending or tension and compression deformation, It generates tension and compression or bending strain, specific resistance strain sensor form is as shown in Figure 4;Since temperature influences, four resistance-strains Sensor generates identical temperature and causes strain stressT;Remember in resistance strain sensor a1, b2, c3 and d4 measurement due to malformation The strain generated with temperature is respectively ε1a1T、ε2b2T3c3T4d4T
Described four resistance strain sensors a1, b2, c3, d4 use favour stone full-bridge mode and single strain bridge box 5, move The connection of the single acquisition channel of state signal sampler 6, single strain bridge box output voltage is resistance strain sensor b2 or c3 pairs Answer the curvature measurement of position;
Four resistance strain sensors utilize favour stone full-bridge principle, are connected to single strain bridge using full-bridge mode On box, the connection type of resistance strain sensor and strain bridge box is as shown in Figure 2.Curvature measurement principle is as follows:
If electric bridge arm resistance is respectively R1、R2、R3、R4, resistance strain sensor a1 and d4 are connected respectively to R1And R4It is right Bridge arm is answered, resistance strain sensor b2 and c3 are connected respectively to R2And R3Corresponding bridge arm, four resistance strain sensor resistance values are Resistance is corresponded to for each bridge arm, specific favour stone full-bridge circuit is as shown in Figure 3.
According to Hui Sidun full-bridge principle, available bridge output voltage are as follows:
Wherein, U is the input voltage that four resistance strain sensors connect the corresponding DC power supply of strain bridge box 5;U0For bridge Box corresponds to output end voltage.
Since four resistance strain sensor resistance values are identical, therefore each arm resistance value is identical, meets R1R4=R2R3, electricity Bridge output voltage U0It is zero, meets bridge balance, electric bridge original state is in equilibrium state.
When structure deforms, causes each bridge arm to correspond to resistance strain sensor resistance and change, electric bridge just generates defeated Voltage out, if Δ R accordingly has occurred in each arm resistance1, Δ R2, Δ R3, Δ R4Variation, output voltage at this time can be calculated:
By R1R4=R2R3Above formula is substituted into, and due to Δ Ri< < Ri, it is micro that high-order can be omitted, therefore obtained
Since four arm resistance values are equal, i.e. R1=R2=R3=R4, formula is writeable at this time are as follows:
Since four arm resistances are foil gauge, their sensitivity coefficient K is all the same, then by relational expression Δ R/R=K ε substitutes into above formula and obtains output voltage are as follows:
ε in formulaD1234, ε1、ε2、ε3、ε4Respectively resistance strain gage R1、R2、R3、R4The strain experienced.
Because in measurement process, each resistance strain gage is strained by caused by strain and temperature caused by structure respectively, Substituting into above formula can further obtain
εD1234
=(εa1T)-(εb2T)-(εc3T)+(εd4T)(6)
a1b2c3d4
Because of laid parallel above and below two strain transducers of b and c, horizontal direction is equal by structural strain, so there is εc3b2, due to tri- strain transducer spacing very littles of a, b and d, according to central difference method curvature estimation formula, available b point Or c point curvature:
In formula: ρbFor curvature at b point or c point;L is resistance strain sensor horizontal direction spacing.
Therefore, by εDAnd ρbSubstitute into U0Available measurement voltageObtain sensor output voltage and song Rate linear relationship, by four resistance strain sensors according to shown in Fig. 1, respectively with single strain bridge box 5, dynamic signal acquisition instrument After 6 single acquisition channel and computer 7 is connected, single acquisition channel acquisition data are at resistance strain sensor b2 or c3 Exact curvature value, can be used for structural analysis, realize the direct measurement of curvature.
Embodiment described above only expresses embodiments of the present invention, and but it cannot be understood as to the invention patent Range limitation, it is noted that for those skilled in the art, without departing from the inventive concept of the premise, also Several modifications and improvements can be made, these are all belonged to the scope of protection of the present invention.

Claims (1)

1. a kind of curvature measurement method based on favour stone full-bridge principle, which is characterized in that this method is based on four resistance value phases With resistance strain sensor a (1), b (2), c (3), d (4), a strain bridge box (5), a dynamic signal acquisition instrument (6) and One computer (7) realization, being capable of direct measurement structure any point curvature;In measurement process, four resistance-strains are sensed first Device a (1), b (2), c (3), d (4) are connected according to favour stone full-bridge principle, then it are connect with single strain bridge box (5), individually Strain bridge box (5) output voltage can be converted into measuring point curvature;The curvature measurement method is as follows:
If Wheatstone bridge arm resistance is respectively R1、R2、R3And R4, resistance strain sensor a (1) and d (4) respectively with R1、R4 The connection of corresponding bridge arm, resistance strain sensor b (2) and c (3) respectively with R2、R3Corresponding bridge arm connection, four resistance-strains Sensor resistance is that each bridge arm corresponds to resistance;According to resistance bridge principle, bridge output voltage is obtained are as follows:
Wherein, U is the input voltage of strain bridge box (5) corresponding DC power supply;U0For strain bridge box (5) corresponding output end voltage;Four A arm resistance value is equal, i.e. R1=R2=R3=R4, and meet R1R4=R2R3, electric bridge original state is in equilibrium state;
When structure deforms, causing each bridge arm to correspond to resistance strain sensor resistance and change, electric bridge generates output voltage, If Δ R accordingly occurs for each arm resistance1, Δ R2, Δ R3, Δ R4Variation, output voltage at this time are as follows:
Formula (2) conversion are as follows:
By Δ R/R=K ε, substitutes into above formula and obtains:
Wherein, εD1234, ε1、ε2、ε3、ε4Respectively resistance strain gage R1、R2、R3、R4The overall strain experienced, including Strain caused by strain caused by structure and temperature;K is that sensitivity coefficient is all the same, Δ R/R=K ε;
It is affected by temperature, four resistance strain sensor a (1), b (2), c (3), d (4) generate identical temperature and cause strain stressT, Since the overall strain that malformation and temperature generate is distinguished in note resistance strain sensor a (1), b (2), c (3) and d (4) measurement For ε1a1T、ε2b2T3c3T4d4T, it substitutes into formula (5) and obtains:
εD1234a1b2c3d4 (6)
Resistance strain sensor b (2), c (3) laid parallel up and down, horizontal direction is equal by structural strain, i.e. εc3b2, root According to central difference method curvature estimation formula, b point or c point curvature are further obtained:
In formula: ρbFor curvature at b point or c point;L is resistance strain sensor horizontal direction spacing;
The ε that will be obtainedDAnd ρbIt substitutes into formula (5) and obtains measurement voltageObtain resistance strain sensor output Voltage and curvature linear relationship, realize the direct measurement of curvature.
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CN112344844A (en) * 2020-11-06 2021-02-09 中铁隧道勘察设计研究院有限公司 Method for monitoring strain of anchor rod of primary support of tunnel
CN112747775A (en) * 2020-12-22 2021-05-04 浙江理工大学 Multi-strain-sensing strip-shaped resistance strain gauge component

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