CN108759652B  A kind of curvature measurement method based on favour stone fullbridge principle  Google Patents
A kind of curvature measurement method based on favour stone fullbridge principle Download PDFInfo
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 CN108759652B CN108759652B CN201810497180.7A CN201810497180A CN108759652B CN 108759652 B CN108759652 B CN 108759652B CN 201810497180 A CN201810497180 A CN 201810497180A CN 108759652 B CN108759652 B CN 108759652B
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 G—PHYSICS
 G01—MEASURING; TESTING
 G01B—MEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
 G01B7/00—Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of electric or magnetic techniques
 G01B7/16—Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of electric or magnetic techniques for measuring the deformation in a solid, e.g. by resistance strain gauge
 G01B7/18—Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of electric or magnetic techniques for measuring the deformation in a solid, e.g. by resistance strain gauge using change in resistance

 G—PHYSICS
 G01—MEASURING; TESTING
 G01B—MEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
 G01B7/00—Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of electric or magnetic techniques
 G01B7/28—Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of electric or magnetic techniques for measuring contours or curvatures
 G01B7/293—Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of electric or magnetic techniques for measuring contours or curvatures for measuring radius of curvature
Abstract
The invention belongs to strain measurement technique fields, provide a kind of curvature measurement method based on favour stone fullbridge principle.In measurement process, four resistance strain sensors are uniformly put first, resistance strain sensor a, b (c) and the interval d same distance even level place, and resistance strain sensor b and c or more are placed in parallel；Four resistance strain sensors are connect using favour stone fullbridge mode with single strain bridge box again, it is strained using caused by favour stone fullbridge principle equilibrium temperature, tectonic erosion periods calculate corresponding proportionate relationship simultaneously, and single strain bridge box output voltage can be converted into measuring point curvature at this time；Finally strain bridge box is connect with dynamic signal acquisition instrument and computer, measurement and acquisition structural curvature.The present invention is used only single strain bridge box and can directly measure to obtain the exact curvature of structure any point, calculates without numerical value；Simplify experiment flow, convenience of calculation reduces experimental cost, simplifies experimental implementation.
Description
Technical field
The invention belongs to strain measurement technique fields, answer variable curvature based on favour stone fullbridge principle more particularly to a kind of
Measurement method.
Background technique
In engineering fields such as building, bridge, ship, aerospaces, the curvature of structural bending deformation is monitoring structural health conditions
A kind of very important parameter in the process, it is to measure a kind of more effective mode is damaged or failed to structure whether, because
Measurement structure curvature is inevitably needed in this engineering practice, however mostly uses numerical calculations structural curvature at present, still
Lack a kind of sensor of directly measurement curvature.It is a certain that multiple resistance strain sensor measurement structures are generallyd use in engineering test
The strain of point carries out Difference Calculation to the data after multimetering later and obtains the curvature.But this method is lacked there are following
Fall into: required strain transducer quantity is more, configures multiple strain bridge boxes, and occupancy acquisition channel is more, and acquisition cost is high；Resistancestrain passes
Sensor is easy to damage, and the service life is short, needs temperaturecompensating；Computational accuracy is not high, can not calculate the curvature of structure head and the tail point.
The curvature measurement precision prescribed of some structures is higher in Practical Project, while guaranteeing that low cost, equipment connection are easy.
Although existing higher based on fiber bragg grating sensor measurement structure curvature precision, it involves great expense, and higher cost is not suitable for
Carry out Basic Experiment Study.Resistance strain sensor is a kind of widely used highprecision mechanical quantity sensing element, with its price
Cheaply, production is simple, lays the advantages that facilitating, and is now widely used for experimental study and Practical Project field.Use multiple electricity
Though resistance strain transducer can calculate structural curvature, multiple strain bridge boxes and temperaturecompensating plate must be configured, experiment connection is complicated,
Acquisition channel is more, samples at high cost.
To solve the problems, such as traditional curvature estimation, while simplifying curvature measurement operation, reduce acquisition cost, the present invention proposes
A kind of curvature measurement method based on favour stone fullbridge principle, realize the accurate of structural curvature and directly measure.
Summary of the invention
In view of the problems of the existing technology, the present invention provides a kind of curvature measurement side based on favour stone fullbridge principle
Method simplifies curvature measurement experimental implementation, reduces acquisition cost.
The technical solution adopted by the present invention to solve the technical problems are as follows:
A kind of curvature measurement method based on favour stone fullbridge principle, this method are based on the identical resistance of four resistance values and answer
Become sensor a1, b2, c3, d4, a strain bridge box 5, a dynamic signal acquisition instrument 6 and a computer 7 are realized；By multiple electricity
Hinder strain transducer according to favour stone fullbridge principle connect, first realize strain quick and precisely measurement, then recycle favour this
Logical fullbridge principle equilibrium temperature influences, while structural texture curvature estimation form, realizes the precise measurement of curvature.
In measurement process, firstly, four resistance strain sensors a1, b2, c3, d4 are connected according to favour stone fullbridge circuit
It connects.Resistance strain sensor b2, c3 alignment are arranged close to, and the two center longitudinal axis is parallel, central, transverse axis is overlapped and relatively close apart, are protected
The tension and compression having the same of both cards or bending strain；Resistance strain sensor a1, d4 are arranged in the resistance being made of b2, c3
The two sides of strain transducer group, and the center longitudinal axis of a1, d4 are overlapped, central, transverse axis it is parallel；Finally require a1 and d4, b2
Central, transverse axis spacing between d4 is l.Resistance strain sensor a1, b2, c3, d4 are used fullbridge mode and individually answered again
Become bridge box 5 to connect, be strained using caused by favour stone fullbridge principle equilibrium temperature, while tectonic erosion periods calculate corresponding ratio and close
System, single 5 output voltage of strain bridge box can be converted into measuring point curvature at this time；Strain bridge box 5 is finally connected into dynamic
The corresponding acquisition channel of signal sampler 6 and computer 7 realize the curvature measurement and acquisition of structure.The measurement method is as follows:
It is affected by temperature, four resistance strain sensors generate identical temperature and cause strain stress_{T}, note resistancestrain sensing
Since the overall strain that malformation and temperature generate is respectively ε in device a1, b2, c3 and d4 measurement_{1}=ε_{a1}+ε_{T}、ε_{2}=ε_{b2}+ε_{T},ε_{3}
=ε_{c3}+ε_{T},ε_{4}=ε_{d4}+ε_{T}。
If Wheatstone bridge arm resistance is respectively R_{1}、R_{2}、R_{3}And R_{4}, resistance strain sensor a1 and d4 are connected respectively to
R_{1}、R_{4}Corresponding bridge arm, resistance strain sensor b2 and c3 are connected respectively to R_{2}、R_{3}Corresponding bridge arm, four resistancestrain sensings
Device resistance value is that each bridge arm corresponds to resistance.
According to resistance bridge principle, bridge output voltage is obtained are as follows:
Wherein, U is the input voltage of the corresponding DC power supply of strain bridge box 5；U_{0}For the corresponding output end voltage of strain bridge box 5.
Since four resistance strain sensor resistance values are identical, therefore four arm resistance values are identical, meet R_{1}R_{4}=R_{2}R_{3},
Bridge output voltage U_{0}It is zero, meets bridge balance, electric bridge original state is in equilibrium state.
When structure deforms, causes each bridge arm to correspond to resistance strain sensor resistance and change, electric bridge just generates defeated
Voltage out, if Δ R accordingly has occurred in each arm resistance_{1}, Δ R_{2}, Δ R_{3}, Δ R_{4}Variation, output voltage at this time are as follows:
By R_{1}R_{4}=R_{2}R_{3}Above formula is substituted into, and due to Δ R_{i}< < R_{i}, it is micro that highorder can be omitted, therefore obtained:
Since four arm resistance values are equal, i.e. R_{1}=R_{2}=R_{3}=R_{4}, formula is writeable at this time are as follows:
Since four arm resistances are foil gauge, their sensitivity coefficient K is all the same, then by relational expression Δ R/R=K
ε substitutes into above formula and obtains output voltage are as follows:
Wherein, ε_{D}=ε_{1}ε_{2}ε_{3}+ε_{4}, ε_{1}、ε_{2}、ε_{3}、ε_{4}Respectively resistance strain gage R_{1}、R_{2}、R_{3}、R_{4}The strain experienced.
In measurement process, generation will be strained caused by strain and temperature caused by structure that each resistance strain gage is subject to respectively
Enter ε_{D}=ε_{1}ε_{2}ε_{3}+ε_{4}It can further obtain:
ε_{D}=ε_{1}ε_{2}ε_{3}+ε_{4}
=(ε_{a1}+ε_{T})(ε_{b2}+ε_{T})(ε_{c3}+ε_{T})+(ε_{d4}+ε_{T})(6)
=ε_{a1}ε_{b2}ε_{c3}+ε_{d4}
Because of laid parallel above and below two strain transducers of b and c, horizontal direction is equal by structural strain, so there is ε_{c3}
=ε_{b2}, due to tri strain transducer spacing very littles of a, b and d, according to central difference method curvature estimation formula, available b point
Or c point curvature:
In formula: ρ_{b}For curvature at b point or c point；L is resistance strain sensor horizontal direction spacing.
The ε that will be obtained_{D}And ρ_{b}It substitutes into formula (5) and obtains measurement voltageObtain resistance strain sensor
Output voltage and curvature linear relationship, realize the direct measurement of curvature.
The beneficial effects of the present invention are: (1) uses the curvature measurement method of favour stone fullbridge principle, directly measurement obtains essence
True curvature is calculated without numerical value, reduces error in numerical calculation, can measure structure any point curvature；(2) former using favour stone fullbridge
Reason, can influence of the equilibrium temperature to strain, while the accurate calculation structural curvature at the beginning of measurement simplifies experiment flow, calculates
It is convenient；(3) be used only single strain bridge box can measurement structure curvature, significantly reduce experimental cost, simplify experimental implementation；(4)
Individually acquisition channel can measure curvature, and measurement is simply and the acquisition channel of occupancy is few, greatly reduction acquisition cost.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is curvature measurement methods experiment device composition schematic diagram.
Fig. 2 is the distribution of curvature measurement method strain transducer and connection schematic diagram.
Fig. 3 is favour stone fullbridge basic circuit diagram.
Fig. 4 is strain transducer schematic diagram
In figure: 1 resistance strain sensor a, 2 resistance strain sensor b, 3 resistance strain sensor c, 4 resistancestrains sensing
Device d, 5 strain bridge boxes, 6 dynamic signal acquisition instrument, 7 computers.
Specific embodiment
The present invention will be further explained below with reference to the attached drawings:
The present invention provides a kind of curvature measurement method based on favour stone fullbridge principle, specific structure such as Fig. 1 curvature is surveyed
It measures shown in methods experiment device composition schematic diagram, comprising: four resistance values identical resistance strain sensor a1, b2, c3 and d4,
Strain bridge box 5, dynamic signal acquisition instrument 6, computer 7.It is in measurement process, four resistance strain sensors a1, b2, c3 and d4 are equal
Even to put, wherein resistance strain sensor b2 and c3 or more are placed in parallel, resistance strain sensor a1, b2 with the interval d4 it is identical away from
It is placed from l even level, four resistance strain sensors is utilized into favour stone fullbridge principle later, using fullbridge mode and strain
Bridge box 5 connects, and specific connection type is as shown in the distribution of Fig. 2 curvature measurement method strain transducer and connection schematic diagram, using complete
Strain caused by bridge connection type equilibrium temperature, while structural texture curvature estimation corresponds to proportionate relationship, strain bridge box 5 is defeated at this time
Voltage is measuring point curvature out；Strain bridge box 5 is finally connected to the corresponding acquisition channel of dynamic signal acquisition instrument 6 and computer 7,
Realize the curvature measurement and acquisition of structure.
A kind of curvature measurement method based on favour stone fullbridge principle, measuring principle and experimental procedure are as follows:
Four resistance strain sensor resistance values are identical, small volume, uniformly place and spacing is smaller, wherein electricity
It hinders strain transducer a1, b2 and d4 even level to place, resistance strain sensor b2 and c3 or more are placed in parallel, and specific resistance is answered
Become sensor modes of emplacement as shown in Fig. 2, guaranteeing the two tension and compression having the same or bending strain；
Described four resistance strain sensors a1, b2, c3 and d4 are mostly installed at the structure for generating bending or tension and compression deformation,
It generates tension and compression or bending strain, specific resistance strain sensor form is as shown in Figure 4；Since temperature influences, four resistancestrains
Sensor generates identical temperature and causes strain stress_{T}；Remember in resistance strain sensor a1, b2, c3 and d4 measurement due to malformation
The strain generated with temperature is respectively ε_{1}=ε_{a1}+ε_{T}、ε_{2}=ε_{b2}+ε_{T},ε_{3}=ε_{c3}+ε_{T},ε_{4}=ε_{d4}+ε_{T}。
Described four resistance strain sensors a1, b2, c3, d4 use favour stone fullbridge mode and single strain bridge box 5, move
The connection of the single acquisition channel of state signal sampler 6, single strain bridge box output voltage is resistance strain sensor b2 or c3 pairs
Answer the curvature measurement of position；
Four resistance strain sensors utilize favour stone fullbridge principle, are connected to single strain bridge using fullbridge mode
On box, the connection type of resistance strain sensor and strain bridge box is as shown in Figure 2.Curvature measurement principle is as follows:
If electric bridge arm resistance is respectively R_{1}、R_{2}、R_{3}、R_{4}, resistance strain sensor a1 and d4 are connected respectively to R_{1}And R_{4}It is right
Bridge arm is answered, resistance strain sensor b2 and c3 are connected respectively to R_{2}And R_{3}Corresponding bridge arm, four resistance strain sensor resistance values are
Resistance is corresponded to for each bridge arm, specific favour stone fullbridge circuit is as shown in Figure 3.
According to Hui Sidun fullbridge principle, available bridge output voltage are as follows:
Wherein, U is the input voltage that four resistance strain sensors connect the corresponding DC power supply of strain bridge box 5；U_{0}For bridge
Box corresponds to output end voltage.
Since four resistance strain sensor resistance values are identical, therefore each arm resistance value is identical, meets R_{1}R_{4}=R_{2}R_{3}, electricity
Bridge output voltage U_{0}It is zero, meets bridge balance, electric bridge original state is in equilibrium state.
When structure deforms, causes each bridge arm to correspond to resistance strain sensor resistance and change, electric bridge just generates defeated
Voltage out, if Δ R accordingly has occurred in each arm resistance_{1}, Δ R_{2}, Δ R_{3}, Δ R_{4}Variation, output voltage at this time can be calculated:
By R_{1}R_{4}=R_{2}R_{3}Above formula is substituted into, and due to Δ R_{i}< < R_{i}, it is micro that highorder can be omitted, therefore obtained
Since four arm resistance values are equal, i.e. R_{1}=R_{2}=R_{3}=R_{4}, formula is writeable at this time are as follows:
Since four arm resistances are foil gauge, their sensitivity coefficient K is all the same, then by relational expression Δ R/R=K
ε substitutes into above formula and obtains output voltage are as follows:
ε in formula_{D}=ε_{1}ε_{2}ε_{3}+ε_{4}, ε_{1}、ε_{2}、ε_{3}、ε_{4}Respectively resistance strain gage R_{1}、R_{2}、R_{3}、R_{4}The strain experienced.
Because in measurement process, each resistance strain gage is strained by caused by strain and temperature caused by structure respectively,
Substituting into above formula can further obtain
ε_{D}=ε_{1}ε_{2}ε_{3}+ε_{4}
=(ε_{a1}+ε_{T})(ε_{b2}+ε_{T})(ε_{c3}+ε_{T})+(ε_{d4}+ε_{T})(6)
=ε_{a1}ε_{b2}ε_{c3}+ε_{d4}
Because of laid parallel above and below two strain transducers of b and c, horizontal direction is equal by structural strain, so there is ε_{c3}
=ε_{b2}, due to tri strain transducer spacing very littles of a, b and d, according to central difference method curvature estimation formula, available b point
Or c point curvature:
In formula: ρ_{b}For curvature at b point or c point；L is resistance strain sensor horizontal direction spacing.
Therefore, by ε_{D}And ρ_{b}Substitute into U_{0}Available measurement voltageObtain sensor output voltage and song
Rate linear relationship, by four resistance strain sensors according to shown in Fig. 1, respectively with single strain bridge box 5, dynamic signal acquisition instrument
After 6 single acquisition channel and computer 7 is connected, single acquisition channel acquisition data are at resistance strain sensor b2 or c3
Exact curvature value, can be used for structural analysis, realize the direct measurement of curvature.
Embodiment described above only expresses embodiments of the present invention, and but it cannot be understood as to the invention patent
Range limitation, it is noted that for those skilled in the art, without departing from the inventive concept of the premise, also
Several modifications and improvements can be made, these are all belonged to the scope of protection of the present invention.
Claims (1)
1. a kind of curvature measurement method based on favour stone fullbridge principle, which is characterized in that this method is based on four resistance value phases
With resistance strain sensor a (1), b (2), c (3), d (4), a strain bridge box (5), a dynamic signal acquisition instrument (6) and
One computer (7) realization, being capable of direct measurement structure any point curvature；In measurement process, four resistancestrains are sensed first
Device a (1), b (2), c (3), d (4) are connected according to favour stone fullbridge principle, then it are connect with single strain bridge box (5), individually
Strain bridge box (5) output voltage can be converted into measuring point curvature；The curvature measurement method is as follows:
If Wheatstone bridge arm resistance is respectively R_{1}、R_{2}、R_{3}And R_{4}, resistance strain sensor a (1) and d (4) respectively with R_{1}、R_{4}
The connection of corresponding bridge arm, resistance strain sensor b (2) and c (3) respectively with R_{2}、R_{3}Corresponding bridge arm connection, four resistancestrains
Sensor resistance is that each bridge arm corresponds to resistance；According to resistance bridge principle, bridge output voltage is obtained are as follows:
Wherein, U is the input voltage of strain bridge box (5) corresponding DC power supply；U_{0}For strain bridge box (5) corresponding output end voltage；Four
A arm resistance value is equal, i.e. R_{1}=R_{2}=R_{3}=R_{4}, and meet R_{1}R_{4}=R_{2}R_{3}, electric bridge original state is in equilibrium state；
When structure deforms, causing each bridge arm to correspond to resistance strain sensor resistance and change, electric bridge generates output voltage,
If Δ R accordingly occurs for each arm resistance_{1}, Δ R_{2}, Δ R_{3}, Δ R_{4}Variation, output voltage at this time are as follows:
Formula (2) conversion are as follows:
By Δ R/R=K ε, substitutes into above formula and obtains:
Wherein, ε_{D}=ε_{1}ε_{2}ε_{3}+ε_{4}, ε_{1}、ε_{2}、ε_{3}、ε_{4}Respectively resistance strain gage R_{1}、R_{2}、R_{3}、R_{4}The overall strain experienced, including
Strain caused by strain caused by structure and temperature；K is that sensitivity coefficient is all the same, Δ R/R=K ε；
It is affected by temperature, four resistance strain sensor a (1), b (2), c (3), d (4) generate identical temperature and cause strain stress_{T},
Since the overall strain that malformation and temperature generate is distinguished in note resistance strain sensor a (1), b (2), c (3) and d (4) measurement
For ε_{1}=ε_{a1}+ε_{T}、ε_{2}=ε_{b2}+ε_{T},ε_{3}=ε_{c3}+ε_{T},ε_{4}=ε_{d4}+ε_{T}, it substitutes into formula (5) and obtains:
ε_{D}=ε_{1}ε_{2}ε_{3}+ε_{4}=ε_{a1}ε_{b2}ε_{c3}+ε_{d4} (6)
Resistance strain sensor b (2), c (3) laid parallel up and down, horizontal direction is equal by structural strain, i.e. ε_{c3}=ε_{b2}, root
According to central difference method curvature estimation formula, b point or c point curvature are further obtained:
In formula: ρ_{b}For curvature at b point or c point；L is resistance strain sensor horizontal direction spacing；
The ε that will be obtained_{D}And ρ_{b}It substitutes into formula (5) and obtains measurement voltageObtain resistance strain sensor output
Voltage and curvature linear relationship, realize the direct measurement of curvature.
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