CN108414419B - Triaxial permeability test and CO2Displacement simulation test device - Google Patents

Triaxial permeability test and CO2Displacement simulation test device Download PDF

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CN108414419B
CN108414419B CN201810097759.4A CN201810097759A CN108414419B CN 108414419 B CN108414419 B CN 108414419B CN 201810097759 A CN201810097759 A CN 201810097759A CN 108414419 B CN108414419 B CN 108414419B
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gas
pressure
cylinder
valve
core holder
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CN108414419A (en
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刘世奇
王冉
王恬
桑树勋
杜艺
黄华州
方辉煌
周效志
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China University of Mining and Technology CUMT
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China University of Mining and Technology CUMT
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N15/00Investigating characteristics of particles; Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface-area of porous materials
    • G01N15/08Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface area of porous materials
    • G01N15/082Investigating permeability by forcing a fluid through a sample
    • G01N15/0826Investigating permeability by forcing a fluid through a sample and measuring fluid flow rate, i.e. permeation rate or pressure change
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N30/00Investigating or analysing materials by separation into components using adsorption, absorption or similar phenomena or using ion-exchange, e.g. chromatography or field flow fractionation
    • G01N30/02Column chromatography

Abstract

The invention discloses a triaxial permeability test and CO2A displacement simulation test device belongs to the coal bed gas exploitation field, and comprises a model system (1) and a gas control systemThe system comprises a system (2), a temperature control system (3), a three-axis loading system (4), a vacuum pumping system (5), a gas sample collection system (6) and an electrical control and monitoring system; the gas control system (2) provides gas for testing, the temperature control system (3) controls the testing temperature, the triaxial loading system (4) applies confining pressure and axial pressure, the gas sample collection system (6) collects gas samples and analyzes gas components, and the electrical control and monitoring system monitors the testing. The device can realize CO in a laboratory2And (3) a simulation test process of displacement, and calculating the permeability of the rock sample by measuring attenuation data of pressure pulses applied to the inlet end of the rock sample in the rock sample. The device has the advantages of high temperature control precision, small temperature fluctuation, convenient control, easy installation, safety and reliability.

Description

Triaxial permeability test and CO2Displacement simulation test device
Technical Field
The invention relates to a permeability test and displacement simulation test device, in particular to a triaxial permeability test and CO simulation test device2A displacement simulation test device belongs to the field of coal bed gas exploitation.
Background
Coal bed gas (coal mine gas) and shale gas are novel efficient clean energy. The development of the coal bed gas and the shale gas has important significance for relieving the current situation of oil and gas resource shortage in China, lightening the disaster degree of a mine, reducing the emission of greenhouse gas and the like, and is an important way for enhancing the autonomous energy guarantee capability and adjusting and optimizing the energy structure in China. The resources of coal bed gas and shale gas in China are rich, and the reserve of coal bed gas in the shallow range of 2000m reaches 36.81 multiplied by 1012m3Shale gas storage capacity is up to 30 x 1012m3The above, huge development potentialIs large. However, the exploitation utilization rate of coal bed gas and shale gas in China is low, and an important factor restricting the exploitation is that coal bed and shale belong to compact rock strata, the permeability is low overall, and in addition, the geological structure conditions in China are complex, and the coal bed gas and the shale gas are difficult to be effectively output.
CO due to competitive adsorption advantages2The injected coal bed can effectively replace or displace CH in the coal bed4The method becomes a new coal bed gas strengthening development mode. Coal bed CO2Geological storage and CH4Enhanced mining (CO)2-ECBM, i.e. CO2GeologicalStorage-Enhanced CoolBedMethhaneRecovery) technology integrates greenhouse gas emission reduction and new energy development, and is highly concerned globally. CO22Geological storage is a complex scientific problem, CO2The research on the scientific problems of injection rate, sequestration mechanism, effective capacity, oil gas production potential and the like can be used for implementing CO next step in China2Scientific basis is provided for exploration of geological sequestration engineering, and China CO is promoted2And the formation and development of geological storage technology serve the national strategy of disaster reduction, emission reduction and new energy development. Thus, coal bed CO2The mechanism of effectiveness of geological storage is still CO at the current stage of China2ECBM is a pressing scientific problem to solve.
Existing laboratory for CO2Displacing or displacing coal seam CH4For compact rocks such as coal beds, shale and the like, the testing efficiency is low, the testing process is easily influenced by the environmental temperature, and the error of the testing result is relatively large. Therefore, the efficient and accurate permeability test and CO test method suitable for the dense rocks such as coal beds and shales is designed2The displacement simulation test device has important theoretical and practical production guiding significance.
Disclosure of Invention
To solve the above problems, the present invention provides a three-axis permeability test and CO test2The displacement simulation test device can simulate the high-temperature and high-pressure environment of a deep coal bed in a laboratory to realize CO2The simulation test process of displacement can be calculated by measuring the attenuation data of the pressure pulse applied at the inlet end of the rock sample in the rock sampleThe sample permeability and the test efficiency are high, and the error of the measurement result is small. The testing device has the advantages of high temperature control precision, strong corrosion resistance, small temperature fluctuation, good uniformity, accurate and visual data display, compact structure, convenient control, easy installation, simple operation, safety and reliability, and better practicability.
In order to achieve the above object, the triaxial permeability test and CO2 displacement simulation test device comprises: the system comprises a model system, a gas control system, a temperature control system, a three-axis loading system, a vacuum pumping system, a gas sample collection system and an electrical control and monitoring system;
the model system comprises a core holder, an upstream reference cylinder, a downstream reference cylinder, a strain tester and a plurality of valves for controlling gas circulation, wherein the inlet of a core holder sample chamber is communicated with the inlet of the upstream reference cylinder, and the outlet of the core holder sample chamber is communicated with the inlet of the downstream reference cylinder; the outlet of the upstream reference cylinder is communicated with the outlet of the downstream reference cylinder, and a differential pressure sensor is arranged between the upstream reference cylinder and the downstream reference cylinder; a plurality of strain gauges are arranged on the outer circular surface of the rock sample, and lead wires of the strain gauges extend out from the end part of the rock core holder and are in electrical signal connection with a strain tester; the upstream reference cylinder is connected with a first pressure sensor, the downstream reference cylinder is connected with a second pressure sensor, and a sample chamber of the rock core holder is connected with a third pressure sensor;
the gas control system comprises a high-pressure gas cylinder, a pressure reducing valve, a gas flowmeter II, a thermostatic water bath, an air compressor, a gas booster pump and a plurality of valves for controlling gas circulation, wherein the high-pressure gas cylinder comprises a helium high-pressure gas cylinder, a carbon dioxide high-pressure gas cylinder and a methane high-pressure gas cylinder, and the pressure reducing valve comprises a pressure reducing valve I, a pressure reducing valve II and a pressure reducing valve III; a helium high-pressure gas cylinder, a carbon dioxide high-pressure gas cylinder and a methane high-pressure gas cylinder are connected with a gas inlet of the gas booster pump, and a connecting pipeline penetrates through the constant-temperature water bath; the first pressure reducing valve, the second pressure reducing valve and the third pressure reducing valve are respectively arranged on pipelines at the outlets of a helium high-pressure gas cylinder, a carbon dioxide high-pressure gas cylinder and a methane high-pressure gas cylinder, and the second gas flow meter is arranged on a main pipeline between the three pressure reducing valves and the constant-temperature water bath; the air compressor is connected with the gas booster pump, and the gas outlet of the gas booster pump is connected with the inlet of the sample chamber of the rock core holder and the inlet of the upstream reference cylinder;
the temperature control system comprises an electric heating sleeve wrapping the rock core holder, the upstream reference cylinder and the downstream reference cylinder, and a temperature sensor is arranged in the electric heating sleeve;
the three-axis loading system comprises a hydraulic servo instrument and a ring pressure tracking pump, the hydraulic servo instrument is connected with a pressure head at the upper end of the core holder through a pipeline, and a pressure sensor V is arranged on the connecting pipeline; the annular pressure tracking pump is communicated with the annular space of the rock core holder through a pipeline, and a pressure sensor IV is arranged on the connecting pipeline;
the gas sample collecting system comprises a gas chromatograph, a gas flow meter five, a gas-liquid separator, a back pressure valve, a pressure sensor six and a plurality of valves for controlling gas circulation, wherein an outlet of a sample chamber of the core holder is connected with the gas chromatograph through a pipeline, and the pressure sensor six, the back pressure valve, the gas-liquid separator and the gas flow meter five are sequentially arranged on the connecting pipeline from the core holder to the gas chromatograph;
the vacuum pumping system comprises a vacuum pump, and the vacuum pump is communicated with a pipeline between the gas flowmeter V and the gas chromatograph; the vacuum pump is also communicated with a pipeline between the upstream reference cylinder and the downstream reference cylinder;
the electrical control and monitoring system comprises an industrial personal computer, a display, a transmitting instrument, a high-speed camera, a relay protection and alarm circuit, an electrical control circuit, a power distribution circuit and control software.
Furthermore, the gas control system also comprises a one-way valve, the one-way valve is arranged on a pipeline between the gas flowmeter II and the constant-temperature water bath, and a gas outlet faces the constant-temperature water bath;
further, the gas control system also comprises a first gas flow meter and a third gas flow meter which are respectively connected with the second gas flow meter in parallel;
further, the gas sample collection system also comprises a fourth gas flowmeter and a sixth gas flowmeter which are respectively connected with the fifth gas flowmeter in parallel;
furthermore, the gas sample collection system also comprises a dryer arranged between the gas-liquid separator and the gas flowmeter V;
furthermore, four pressure sensors are arranged at equal intervals along the axial direction of the sample chamber in the core holder;
furthermore, the precision of all pressure sensors and differential pressure sensors in the device is 0.05%, and the sensitivity is +/-0.05 F.S; the temperature control precision of the constant-temperature water bath is +/-0.1 ℃, and the working temperature is 150 ℃; the flow precision of the ring pressure tracking pump is 0.001ml/min, and the axial load precision of the hydraulic servo instrument is +/-1%; the measurement precision of the strain tester is 0.2% +/-2 mu epsilon; the measurement precision of the temperature sensor is 0.1 ℃; the pressure ratio of the gas booster pump is 100: 1;
further, the pipeline in the whole device adopts a 316L pipeline.
The invention provides methane gas, helium gas and CO for testing to the model system through the gas control system2The gas is preheated by a thermostatic water bath before passing through a gas booster pump, especially CO2Heating and pressurizing to generate supercritical CO2The gas state condition of the displacement test is met, and the connection between the pipeline and the equipment is simplified; controlling the temperature of the core holder through a temperature control system and keeping a constant temperature state; applying axial pressure to the core holder through a hydraulic servo instrument in the triaxial loading system, and applying confining pressure to a core holder sample chamber through a ring pressure tracking pump; the gas control system, the temperature control system and the triaxial loading system ensure that the environment of the rock sample in the rock core holder is consistent with the geological environment of a deep coal bed as far as possible.
The device is vacuumized before the test is started through the vacuumizing system, so that the influence of air and other impurities on the accuracy of the test is avoided; the gas components after reaction are analyzed through the gas sample collecting system, the electrical control and monitoring system can enable testers to operate the testing device and control the testing process remotely, the external state of the pressure container is monitored in a video mode, the testing process can be shot and recorded, and system safety can be guaranteed.
The model system mainly comprises a rock core holder and two upstream and downstream reference cylinders, and realizes the multifunction of the test device: the conventional method for realizing CO by constant pressure difference or constant flow or measuring pressure drop can be realized by using one reference cylinder2Displacement simulation and permeability test; the CO can also be realized by measuring the attenuation data of the pressure pulse applied at the inlet end of the rock sample in the rock sample by using two reference cylinders2The displacement simulation and the permeability test can realize the same test or measurement by one set of test device and different methods, and the obtained data are mutually verified, so that the test is more accurate.
The invention has the advantages of high temperature control precision, strong corrosion resistance, short thermal balance time, small temperature fluctuation, good uniformity, accurate and visual data display, compact structure, durability and the like. The invention has the characteristics of practicability, convenient control, easy installation, simple operation, safety, reliability and the like on the basis of stable performance in all aspects.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a schematic structural view of the present invention.
In the figure: 1. the model system comprises 1.1 parts of a model system, a core holder, 1.21 parts of an upstream reference cylinder, 1.22 parts of a downstream reference cylinder, 1.31 parts of a pressure sensor I, 1.32 parts of a pressure sensor II, 1.33 parts of a pressure sensor III, 1.4 parts of a pressure sensor, a differential pressure sensor, 1.5 parts of a strain tester, 1.61 parts of a valve I, 1.62 parts of a valve II, 1.63 parts of a valve III, 1.64 parts of a valve IV, 1.65 parts of a valve IV, 2 parts of a valve V, 2 parts of a gas control system, 2.11 parts of a helium gas high-pressure cylinder, 2.12 parts of a carbon dioxide gas high-pressure cylinder, 2.13 parts of a methane gas high-pressure cylinder, 2.21 parts of a pressure reducing valve I, 2.22 parts of a pressure reducing valve II, 2.23 parts of a pressure reducing valve III, 2.31 parts of a gas flow meter I, 2.32 parts of a gas flow meter II, 2.33 parts of a gas flow meter III, 2.4 parts of a one-way valve, 2.5 parts of a one-way valve, a thermostatic water bath, 2.6 parts of an air compressor, 2.7 parts of a gas, Twelve valves, 2.88, thirteen valves, 2.89, fourteen valves, 2.90, fifteen valves, 2.91, sixteen valves, 3, a temperature control system, 4, a three-axis loading system, 4.1, a hydraulic servo instrument, 4.2, a ring pressure tracking pump, 4.31, four pressure sensors, 4.32, five pressure sensors, 5, a vacuum pumping system, 5.1, a vacuum pump, 5.21, seventeen valves, 5.22, eighteen valves, 6, a gas sample collecting system, 6.1, a gas chromatograph, 6.21, four gas flow meters, 6.22, five gas flow meters, 6.23, six gas flow meters, 6.3, a dryer, 6.4, a gas-liquid separator, 6.5, a back pressure valve, 6.6, six pressure sensors, 6.71, nineteen valves, 6.72, twenty valves, 6.73, twenty-one valves, 6.74, twenty-two-three valves, 6.76, 6.77, five-two-four valves, 6.78 valves, and twenty-two-.
Detailed Description
The invention will be further explained with reference to the drawings.
As shown in FIG. 1, a three-axis permeability test with CO2Displacement analogue test device includes: the system comprises a model system 1, a gas control system 2, a temperature control system 3, a three-axis loading system 4, a vacuum pumping system 5, a gas sample collection system 6 and an electrical control and monitoring system;
the model system 1 comprises a core holder 1.1, an upstream reference cylinder 1.21, a downstream reference cylinder 1.22, a strain tester 1.5 and a plurality of valves for controlling gas circulation, wherein an inlet (lower end) of a sample chamber of the core holder 1.1 is communicated with an inlet of the upstream reference cylinder 1.21, and an outlet of the sample chamber is communicated with an inlet of the downstream reference cylinder 1.22; the outlet of the upstream reference cylinder 1.21 is communicated with the outlet of the downstream reference cylinder 1.22, and a differential pressure sensor 1.4 is arranged between the upstream reference cylinder 1.21 and the downstream reference cylinder 1.22 and used for measuring the differential pressure between the two reference cylinders; a plurality of strain gauges (not shown in the figure) which are parallel to the axis of the rock sample and are surrounded and vertical to the axis of the rock sample are arranged on the outer circular surface of the rock sample and used for measuring the strain of the rock sample, and lead wires of the strain gauges extend out from the end part of the core holder 1.1 and are connected with a strain tester 1.5 through electric signals; the upstream reference cylinder 1.21 is connected with a first pressure sensor 1.31, the downstream reference cylinder 1.22 is connected with a second pressure sensor 1.32, a sample chamber of the core holder 1.1 is connected with a third pressure sensor 1.33, and the first pressure sensor 1.31, the second pressure sensor 1.32 and the third pressure sensor 1.33 are respectively used for measuring the pressure in the upstream reference cylinder 1.21, the downstream reference cylinder 1.22 and the sample chamber; the first valve 1.61 is arranged on a pipeline at an inlet of the upstream reference cylinder 1.21 and used for controlling gas injection into the upstream reference cylinder 1.21; the second valve 1.62 is arranged on a pipeline at an inlet of a sample chamber in the core holder 1.1 and is used for controlling gas to be injected into the sample chamber; the valve III 1.63 is arranged on a pipeline at the outlet of the sample chamber and is used for controlling whether the gas in the sample chamber flows out or not; the valve IV 1.64 is arranged on a pipeline at the inlet of the downstream reference cylinder 1.22 and is used for controlling whether gas circulates in the downstream reference cylinder 1.22 or not; a valve five 1.65 is provided in the conduit communicating between the upstream reference cylinder 1.21 and the downstream reference cylinder 1.22 for controlling the mutual communication of the gases between the two reference cylinders. The maximum working pressure in the sample chamber can reach 50MPa, and the requirement of simulating the pressure of a deep coal bed is met.
The gas control system 2 comprises a high-pressure gas cylinder, a pressure reducing valve, a gas flowmeter II 2.32, a thermostatic water bath 2.5, an air compressor 2.6, a gas booster pump 2.7 and a plurality of valves for controlling gas circulation, wherein the high-pressure gas cylinder comprises a helium high-pressure gas cylinder 2.11, a carbon dioxide high-pressure gas cylinder 2.12 and a methane high-pressure gas cylinder 2.13 and is used for providing helium, carbon dioxide and methane for test to the inside of the device, and the pressure reducing valve comprises a pressure reducing valve I2.21, a pressure reducing valve II 2.22 and a pressure reducing valve III 2.23; a helium high-pressure gas cylinder 2.11, a carbon dioxide high-pressure gas cylinder 2.12 and a methane high-pressure gas cylinder 2.13 are connected with a gas inlet of a gas booster pump 2.7, a connecting pipeline penetrates through a constant-temperature water bath 2.5, and the constant-temperature water bath 2.5 is used for preheating gas, particularly CO2Preheating to make it more susceptible to supercritical state, i.e. CO2Before the gas enters the gas booster pump 2.7 for pressurization, the temperature of the gas is firstly raised to be higher than the supercritical temperature, and after the gas is pressurized to be the supercritical pressure by the gas booster pump 2.7, the supercritical CO is formed2(ii) a The first pressure reducing valve 2.21, the second pressure reducing valve 2.22 and the third pressure reducing valve 2.23 are respectively arranged on pipelines at the outlets of the helium high-pressure gas cylinder 2.11, the carbon dioxide high-pressure gas cylinder 2.12 and the methane high-pressure gas cylinder 2.13 and used for adjusting the outlet of the high-pressure gas cylinderThe pressure of the gas in the pipeline is measured, and a second gas flowmeter 2.32 is arranged on a main pipeline between the three pressure reducing valves and the constant-temperature water bath 2.5; the air compressor 2.6 is connected with the gas booster pump 2.7, the air outlet of the gas booster pump 2.7 is connected with the inlet of the sample chamber of the core holder 1.1 and the inlet of the upstream reference cylinder 1.21, and the air compressor 2.6 provides power for the gas booster pump 2.7, is used for boosting gas and provides high-pressure test gas for the model system 1; a valve six 2.81, a valve seven 2.82 and a valve eight 2.83 are respectively arranged at the outlets of the helium high-pressure gas cylinder 2.11, the carbon dioxide high-pressure gas cylinder 2.12 and the methane high-pressure gas cylinder 2.13 and are used for controlling the supply of three high-pressure gases; the valve ten 2.85 and the valve thirteen 2.88 are respectively arranged on pipelines at an inlet and an outlet of the gas flowmeter II 2.32 and are used for accurately controlling the gas circulation; a valve sixteen 2.91 is arranged on a main pipeline connecting an air outlet of the gas booster pump 2.7 and the model system 1 and is used as a main valve for controlling gas circulation between the gas control system 2 and the model system 1; the valve fifteen 2.90 is arranged on a pipeline of the air outlet of the gas booster pump 2.7 communicated with the atmosphere and is used for quickly discharging gas in the whole test device when necessary so as to deal with possible danger.
The temperature control system 3 comprises an electric heating sleeve wrapping the core holder 1.1, the upstream reference cylinder 1.21 and the downstream reference cylinder 1.22, and a temperature sensor (not shown in the figure) is arranged in the electric heating sleeve; in the test process, the temperature of the device is controlled by the electric heating sleeve, the test temperature is monitored by the temperature sensor, and after the test is finished, cooling is realized by air convection. The highest temperature which can be reached by the temperature control system is 180 ℃, the working temperature is 150 ℃, and the temperature control precision is +/-0.1 ℃.
The triaxial loading system 4 comprises a hydraulic servo 4.1 and a ring pressure tracking pump 4.2, the hydraulic servo 4.1 is connected with a pressure head at the upper end of the core holder 1.1 through a pipeline, and a pressure sensor five 4.32 is arranged on the connecting pipeline; the ring pressure tracking pump 4.2 is communicated with the annular space of the rock core holder through a pipeline, and a pressure sensor IV 4.31 is arranged on the connecting pipeline; a hydraulic servo instrument 4.1 pressurizes a pressure head at the upper end of the core holder 1.1 to form axial pressure of the sample chamber; the ring pressure tracking pump 4.2 is used for controlling the pressure in the annular space of the core holder 1.1; pressure sensor four 4.31 and pressure sensor five 4.32 are used to measure the pressure in the respective lines.
The gas sample collecting system 6 comprises a gas chromatograph 6.1, a gas flowmeter five 6.22, a gas-liquid separator 6.4, a back pressure valve 6.5, a pressure sensor six 6.6 and a plurality of valves for controlling gas circulation, wherein an outlet of a sample chamber of the core holder 1.1 is connected with the gas chromatograph 6.1 through a pipeline, and the pressure sensor six 6.6, the back pressure valve 6.5, the gas-liquid separator 6.4 and the gas flowmeter five 6.22 are sequentially arranged on the connecting pipeline from the core holder 1.1 to the gas chromatograph 6.1; the valve nineteen 6.71 is arranged on a pipeline at an inlet of the gas chromatograph 6.1 and is used for controlling whether gas flows into the gas chromatograph 6.1 or not; the valve twenty-four 6.76 and the valve twenty-one 6.73 are respectively arranged on an inlet pipeline and an outlet pipeline of the gas flowmeter five 6.22 and are used for controlling the circulation of gas; a valve twenty-six 6.78 is provided at the bottom of the gas-liquid separator 6.4 for draining separated liquid and, if necessary, also for venting gas from the apparatus. After the pressure of the gas flowing out of the sample chamber is adjusted by the back pressure valve 6.5, gas-liquid separation is carried out by the gas-liquid separator, the separated gas enters the gas chromatograph 6.1 to be subjected to gas component detection, in the process, the pressure and the flow rate of the gas in the pipeline are respectively monitored by the pressure sensor six 6.6 and the gas flowmeter five 6.22, and the obtained data are used for later data processing to obtain a test result of a relevant test.
The vacuum pumping system 5 comprises a vacuum pump 5.1, the vacuum pump 5.1 is communicated with a pipeline between a gas flowmeter five 6.22 and a gas chromatograph 6.1, and a valve seventeen 5.21 is arranged on the communicating pipeline; the vacuum pump 5.1 is also communicated with a pipeline between the upstream reference cylinder 1.21 and the downstream reference cylinder 1.22, and a valve eighteen 5.22 is arranged on the communicating pipeline. The vacuum pump 5.1 is used for evacuating air in the whole test device, so that the test device can reach a vacuum state as far as possible, and the accuracy and reliability of test data are ensured.
The electrical control and monitoring system comprises an industrial personal computer, a display, a transmitting instrument, a high-speed camera, a relay protection and alarm circuit, an electrical control circuit, a power distribution circuit and other electrical elements and control software, and has the main functions of: the functions of power distribution to electrical equipment, safety protection and alarm of a system and the like; collecting, processing and displaying the pressure, the temperature and the like of the whole test simulation device; and carrying out video monitoring on the external state of the test device to ensure the system safety.
The gas control system 2 further comprises a one-way valve 2.4, the one-way valve 2.4 is arranged on a pipeline between the gas flowmeter II 2.32 and the constant-temperature water bath 2.5, and a gas outlet faces the constant-temperature water bath 2.5; and the one-way valve 2.4 is added, so that the one-way flow of the gas can be more accurately controlled, and the influence of the reverse flow of the gas on the test precision is prevented.
The gas control system 2 further comprises a first gas flow meter 2.31 and a third gas flow meter 2.33 which are respectively connected with the second gas flow meter 2.32 in parallel, namely inlets of the first gas flow meter 2.31 and the third gas flow meter 2.33 are respectively communicated with an inlet of the second gas flow meter 2.32, and outlets of the first gas flow meter 2.31 and the third gas flow meter 2.33 are respectively communicated with an outlet of the second gas flow meter 2.32; the nine 2.84 and twelve 2.87 valves are respectively arranged on the inlet and outlet pipelines of the first 2.31 gas flow meter, and the eleven 2.86 valve and fourteen 2.89 valves are respectively arranged on the inlet and outlet pipelines of the third 2.33 gas flow meter. And three gas flowmeters are adopted, so that each gas sequentially flows through the corresponding flowmeters during the test, and the obtained test result is more accurate.
The gas sample collection system 6 further comprises a gas flow meter IV 6.21 and a gas flow meter VI 6.23 which are respectively connected with the gas flow meter V6.22 in parallel, namely inlets of the gas flow meter IV 6.21 and the gas flow meter VI 6.23 are respectively communicated with an inlet of the gas flow meter V6.22, and outlets of the gas flow meter IV 6.21 and the gas flow meter VI 6.23 are respectively communicated with an outlet of the gas flow meter V6.22; valves twenty-three 6.75 and twenty-6.72 are respectively arranged on the inlet and outlet pipelines of the gas flowmeter four 6.21, and valves twenty-five 6.77 and twenty-two 6.74 are respectively arranged on the inlet and outlet pipelines of the gas flowmeter six 6.23. The three gas flowmeters are adopted, when different tests are carried out, the corresponding flowmeters are respectively used for carrying out data acquisition, the obtained test result is more accurate, and when one of the gas flowmeters has a problem, the other flowmeter is used for standby.
The gas sample collection system 6 further comprises a dryer 6.3 arranged between the gas-liquid separator 6.4 and the gas flowmeter five 6.22 and used for further drying the separated gas, so that the test result is more accurate.
The number of the pressure sensors III 1.33 is four, and the pressure sensors III are arranged at equal intervals along the axial direction of the sample chamber in the core holder 1.1; the pressure of different positions in the sample chamber is directly measured, the actual pressure in the sample chamber is calculated, and compared with the arrangement that the pressure sensor is arranged on an inlet pipeline or an outlet pipeline of the sample chamber, the pressure of the sample chamber obtained by the arrangement is more accurate.
The precision of all pressure sensors and differential pressure sensors in the device is 0.05%, and the sensitivity is +/-0.05 F.S; the temperature control precision of the constant-temperature water bath 2.5 is +/-0.1 ℃, and the working temperature is 150 ℃; the flow precision of the ring pressure tracking pump 4.2 is 0.001ml/min, and the axial load precision of the hydraulic servo 4.1 is +/-1%; the measurement precision of the strain tester 1.5 is 0.2% +/-2 mu epsilon; the measurement precision of the temperature sensor is 0.1 ℃; the pressure ratio of the gas booster pump 2.7 is 100: 1; and a high-precision measuring element is selected, so that the accuracy of measured test data is ensured as much as possible.
The pipeline in the whole device adopts a 316L pipeline.
The invention is divided into a control area and a test area for ensuring safety, and the control area is isolated from the test area to ensure that the personnel operation is in a safe area. The whole operation control system is in a single room, and the core holder, the reference cylinder, the air compressor and the like can be observed in the control room through the camera, so that the test safety is ensured.
CO (carbon monoxide)2The displacement simulation test method comprises the following steps:
a) filling a sample into a tank: carrying out balanced moisture or balanced oil treatment on the rock sample; connecting pipelines and circuits of a model system 1, a gas control system 2, a temperature control system 3, a three-axis loading system 4, a vacuum pumping system 5, a gas sample collection system 6 and an electric control and monitoring system; opening the core holder 1.1, placing a rock sample measured by a vernier caliper into a sample chamber of the core holder 1.1, placing a strain gauge on the rock sample before placing the rock sample, and placing the sealed core holder 1.1 into an electric heating sleeve in a temperature control system 3 after placing the rock sample;
b) and (3) checking air tightness: a ring pressure tracking pump 4.2 is used for adding confining pressure to 2MPa to the core holder 1.1; opening all valves except the seven 2.82, eight 2.83 and fifteen 2.90 valves, injecting high-purity helium (with the purity of 99.99%) into the test device, and replacing air in the device; closing all valves, opening all valves except the six 2.81, seven 2.82, eight 2.83 and fifteen 2.90 valves, and starting the vacuum pump 5.1 to vacuumize the device; closing all valves, operating the control software, and heating the core holder 1.1 to a test temperature; opening a valve six 2.81, a valve ten 2.85, a valve thirteen 2.88, a valve sixteen 2.91 and a valve one 1.61, injecting high-purity helium into an upstream reference cylinder 1.21, enabling the pressure in the upstream reference cylinder 1.21 to be higher than the highest test pressure of 1MPa, closing the valve sixteen 2.91, opening a valve two 1.62, enabling the pressure between the upstream reference cylinder 1.21 and a sample chamber of a core holder 1.1 to be balanced, simultaneously increasing confining pressure and axial pressure, ensuring that the injection pressure, the confining pressure and the axial pressure are simultaneously increased to the required test pressure, and closing the valve one 1.61 and the valve two 1.62; or after the core holder 1.1 is heated to the test temperature, opening a valve six 2.81, a valve ten 2.85, a valve thirteen 2.88, a valve sixteen 2.91, a valve two 1.62, a valve three 1.63 and a valve four 1.64, injecting high-purity helium into the downstream reference cylinder 1.22 to ensure that the pressure in the downstream reference cylinder 1.22 is higher than the highest test pressure by 1MPa, closing the valve sixteen 2.91 to ensure that the pressure between the downstream reference cylinder 1.22 and a sample chamber of the core holder 1.1 is balanced, simultaneously increasing the confining pressure and the axial pressure to ensure that the injection pressure, the confining pressure and the axial pressure are simultaneously increased to the test required pressure, and closing the valve two 1.62, the valve three 1.63 and the valve four 1.64; collecting pressure data in an upstream reference cylinder 1.21, a downstream reference cylinder 1.22 and a rock core holder, and observing whether the pressure is stable; if the pressure is stable, releasing the gas in the device, and simultaneously unloading confining pressure, and if the pressure is not stable, repeating the step a);
c) carrying out displacement simulation:
firstly, adding confining pressure to a rock core holder 1.1 to 2MPa by a ring pressure tracking pump 4.2, opening all valves except a valve six 2.81, a valve seven 2.82, a valve eight 2.83 and a valve fifteen 2.90, and starting a vacuum pump 5.1 to vacuumize the device; running control software, opening a valve eight 2.83, injecting a small amount of high-purity methane with the purity of 99.99 percent into the device, and cleaning a pipeline; vacuumizing again, repeating for 3-5 times, and ensuring that helium in the device is cleaned;
closing all valves, setting and adjusting the temperature of a temperature control system, and stabilizing the temperature of the core holder 1.1 at the test design temperature;
opening a valve eight 2.83, a valve ten 2.85, a valve thirteen 2.88, a valve sixteen 2.91, a valve two 1.62, a valve three 1.63 and a valve four 1.64, injecting methane gas into a downstream reference cylinder 1.22 to enable the pressure of the methane gas to reach the experimental design pressure, closing the valve sixteen 2.91 and the valve two 1.62 to enable the pressure of the downstream reference cylinder 1.22 and the pressure of a core holder 1.1 to be balanced, and increasing confining pressure and axial pressure;
stopping injecting gas until the pressure, confining pressure and axial pressure in the core holder 1.1 are stable; if the pressure in the core holder 1.1 is reduced, repeating the step (c) until the pressure in the sample chamber of the core holder 1.1, the confining pressure and the axial pressure are stabilized at the experimental design pressure;
fifthly, closing the valve eight 2.83, opening the valve seven 2.82, the valve sixteen 2.91 and the valve I1.61, and injecting CO into the upstream reference cylinder 1.212To make CO therein2The injection pressure is higher than the methane gas pressure in the core holder 1.1 and the downstream reference cylinder 1.22, so that the methane gas pressure reaches the inlet pressure of the experimental design;
sixteenth 2.91 of the valve is closed, gas injection is stopped, and the second 1.62 of the valve is opened, so that the upstream reference cylinder 1.21, the sample chamber of the core holder 1.1 and the downstream reference cylinder 1.22 are communicated;
seventhly, starting control software to collect relevant data such as time, pressure, temperature, stress-strain, pressure and differential pressure in two reference cylinders in the sample chamber of the core holder 1.1 and forming a data file; if the pressure in the upstream reference cylinder 1.21 is obviously reduced in the test process, namely exceeds 5 percent of the inlet pressure of the test design, the upstream reference cylinder 1.21 is supplemented in timeCO charging2To maintain the pressure stable;
eighthly, closing all valves, adjusting the pressure of a back pressure valve 6.5, opening a valve III 1.63, a valve IV 1.64, a valve twenty-four 6.76, a valve twenty-one 6.73 and a valve nineteen 6.71, enabling the gas to sequentially pass through the back pressure valve 6.5, a gas-liquid separator 6.4, a dryer 6.3 and a gas flowmeter five 6.22 and then enter a gas chromatograph 6.1, and obtaining the gas component analysis result in the core holder 1.1 or the downstream reference cylinder 1.22;
d) cleaning a test system: after the test is finished, opening all valves except the six 2.81, seven 2.82 and eight 2.83 valves, discharging gas in the device, and simultaneously discharging confining pressure and axial pressure in the core holder 1.1; releasing the connection of the pipeline and the line, and cooling; and (4) taking out the rock sample in the sample chamber of the core holder 1.1, and classifying and placing all elements of the device.
A triaxial permeability test method comprises the following steps:
a) filling a sample into a tank: carrying out balanced moisture or balanced oil treatment on the rock sample; connecting pipelines and circuits of a model system 1, a gas control system 2, a temperature control system 3, a three-axis loading system 4, a vacuum pumping system 5, a gas sample collection system 6 and an electric control and monitoring system; opening the core holder 1.1, placing a rock sample measured by a vernier caliper into a sample chamber of the core holder 1.1, placing a strain gauge on the rock sample before placing the rock sample, and placing the sealed core holder 1.1 into an electric heating sleeve in a temperature control system 3 after placing the rock sample;
b) and (3) checking air tightness: a ring pressure tracking pump 4.2 is used for adding confining pressure to 2MPa to the core holder 1.1; opening all valves except the seven 2.82, eight 2.83 and fifteen 2.90 valves, injecting high-purity helium (with the purity of 99.99%) into the test device, and replacing air in the device; closing all valves, opening all valves except the six 2.81, seven 2.82, eight 2.83 and fifteen 2.90 valves, and starting the vacuum pump 5.1 to vacuumize the device; closing all valves, operating the control software, and heating the core holder 1.1 to a test temperature; opening a valve six 2.81, a valve ten 2.85, a valve thirteen 2.88, a valve sixteen 2.91 and a valve one 1.61, injecting high-purity helium into an upstream reference cylinder 1.21, enabling the pressure in the upstream reference cylinder 1.21 to be higher than the highest test pressure of 1MPa, closing the valve sixteen 2.91, opening a valve two 1.62, enabling the pressure between the upstream reference cylinder 1.21 and a sample chamber of a core holder 1.1 to be balanced, simultaneously increasing confining pressure and axial pressure, ensuring that the injection pressure, the confining pressure and the axial pressure are simultaneously increased to the required test pressure, and closing the valve one 1.61 and the valve two 1.62; or after the core holder 1.1 is heated to the test temperature, opening a valve six 2.81, a valve ten 2.85, a valve thirteen 2.88, a valve sixteen 2.91, a valve two 1.62, a valve three 1.63 and a valve four 1.64, injecting high-purity helium into the downstream reference cylinder 1.22 to ensure that the pressure in the downstream reference cylinder 1.22 is higher than the highest test pressure by 1MPa, closing the valve sixteen 2.91 to ensure that the pressure between the downstream reference cylinder 1.22 and a sample chamber of the core holder 1.1 is balanced, simultaneously increasing the confining pressure and the axial pressure to ensure that the injection pressure, the confining pressure and the axial pressure are simultaneously increased to the test required pressure, and closing the valve two 1.62, the valve three 1.63 and the valve four 1.64; collecting pressure data in an upstream reference cylinder 1.21, a downstream reference cylinder 1.22 and a rock core holder, and observing whether the pressure is stable; if the pressure is stable, releasing the gas in the device, and simultaneously unloading confining pressure, and if the pressure is not stable, repeating the step a);
c) permeability testing was performed:
firstly, adding confining pressure to a rock core holder 1.1 to 2MPa by a ring pressure tracking pump 4.2, opening all valves except a valve six 2.81, a valve seven 2.82, a valve eight 2.83 and a valve fifteen 2.90, and starting a vacuum pump 5.1 to vacuumize the device; running control software, opening a valve eight 2.83, injecting a small amount of high-purity methane with the purity of 99.99 percent into the device, and cleaning a pipeline; vacuumizing again, repeating for 3-5 times, and ensuring that helium in the device is cleaned;
closing all valves, setting and adjusting the temperature of a temperature control system, and stabilizing the temperature of the core holder 1.1 at the test design temperature;
③ opening the valve ten 2.85, the valve thirteen 2.88, the valve sixteen 2.91, the valve two 1.62, the valve three 1.63 and the valve four 1.64, then opening the valve eight 2.83 or the valve seven 2.82 or the valve six 2.81, and then making the downstream reference cylinder 1.22 insideInjecting methane or CO2Or helium gas, the pressure of the helium gas reaches the design pressure of the test, a sixteen 2.91 valve and a two 1.62 valve are closed, the pressure of the downstream reference cylinder 1.22 and the pressure of the sample chamber of the core holder 1.1 are balanced, and the confining pressure and the axial pressure are increased simultaneously;
stopping injecting gas until the pressure, confining pressure and axial pressure in the core holder 1.1 are stable; if the pressure in the core holder 1.1 is reduced, repeating the step (c) until the pressure in the sample chamber of the core holder 1.1, the confining pressure and the axial pressure are stabilized at the experimental design pressure;
fifthly, opening a valve sixteen 2.91 and a valve I1.61, and injecting methane or CO into an upstream reference cylinder 1.212Or helium, the gas injection pressure in the helium is higher than the gas pressure in the core holder 1.1 and the downstream reference cylinder 1.22, and the helium reaches the inlet pressure of the experimental design;
sixteenth 2.91 of the valve is closed, gas injection is stopped, and the second 1.62 of the valve is opened, so that the upstream reference cylinder 1.21, the sample chamber of the core holder 1.1 and the downstream reference cylinder 1.22 are communicated;
seventhly, starting control software to collect relevant data such as time, pressure, temperature, stress-strain, pressure and differential pressure in two reference cylinders in the sample chamber of the core holder 1.1 and forming a data file; the permeability values of the rock samples were calculated according to the following formula:
wherein K is the test permeability, md; c is the compression coefficient of fluid in the rock sample pores, 1/MPa; μ is the fluid viscosity, mPs · s;is the porosity of the rock sample, decimal; l is the length of the rock sample, m; s is the slope of the differential pressure deltap of the upstream and downstream reference cylinders and the time t in a semilogarithmic coordinate; a. b is the ratio of the rock sample pore volume to the upstream and downstream reference cylinder volumes, respectively, and when a equals 1, f (a, b) equals 1.71.
d) Cleaning a test system: after the test is finished, opening all valves except the six 2.81, seven 2.82 and eight 2.83 valves, discharging gas in the device, and simultaneously discharging confining pressure and axial pressure in the core holder 1.1; releasing the connection of the pipeline and the line, and cooling; and (4) taking out the rock sample in the sample chamber of the core holder 1.1, and classifying and placing all elements of the device.

Claims (8)

1. Triaxial permeability test and CO2Displacement analogue test device, its characterized in that includes: the device comprises a model system (1), a gas control system (2), a temperature control system (3), a three-axis loading system (4), a vacuum pumping system (5), a gas sample collection system (6) and an electrical control and monitoring system;
the model system (1) comprises a core holder (1.1), an upstream reference cylinder (1.21), a downstream reference cylinder (1.22), a strain tester (1.5) and a plurality of valves for controlling gas circulation, wherein the inlet of a sample chamber of the core holder (1.1) is communicated with the inlet of the upstream reference cylinder (1.21), and the outlet of the sample chamber of the core holder is communicated with the inlet of the downstream reference cylinder (1.22); the outlet of the upstream reference cylinder (1.21) is communicated with the outlet of the downstream reference cylinder (1.22), and a differential pressure sensor (1.4) is arranged between the upstream reference cylinder (1.21) and the downstream reference cylinder (1.22); a plurality of strain gauges are arranged on the outer circular surface of the rock sample, lead wires of the strain gauges extend out from the end part of the rock core holder (1.1) and are in electrical signal connection with a strain tester (1.5); the upstream reference cylinder (1.21) is connected with a first pressure sensor (1.31), the downstream reference cylinder (1.22) is connected with a second pressure sensor (1.32), and a sample chamber of the core holder (1.1) is connected with a third pressure sensor (1.33);
the gas control system (2) comprises a high-pressure gas cylinder, a pressure reducing valve, a gas flowmeter II (2.32), a thermostatic water bath (2.5), an air compressor (2.6), a gas booster pump (2.7) and a plurality of valves for controlling gas circulation, wherein the high-pressure gas cylinder comprises a helium high-pressure gas cylinder (2.11), a carbon dioxide high-pressure gas cylinder (2.12) and a methane high-pressure gas cylinder (2.13), and the pressure reducing valve comprises a pressure reducing valve I (2.21), a pressure reducing valve II (2.22) and a pressure reducing valve III (2.23); a helium high-pressure gas cylinder (2.11), a carbon dioxide high-pressure gas cylinder (2.12) and a methane high-pressure gas cylinder (2.13) are connected with a gas inlet of a gas booster pump (2.7), and a connecting pipeline penetrates through a constant-temperature water bath (2.5); the first pressure reducing valve (2.21), the second pressure reducing valve (2.22) and the third pressure reducing valve (2.23) are respectively arranged on pipelines at the outlets of a helium high-pressure gas cylinder (2.11), a carbon dioxide high-pressure gas cylinder (2.12) and a methane high-pressure gas cylinder (2.13), and the second gas flowmeter (2.32) is arranged on a main pipeline between the three pressure reducing valves and the constant-temperature water bath (2.5); the air compressor (2.6) is connected with the gas booster pump (2.7), and the gas outlet of the gas booster pump (2.7) is connected with the inlet of the sample chamber of the core holder (1.1) and the inlet of the upstream reference cylinder (1.21);
the temperature control system (3) comprises an electric heating sleeve wrapping the core holder (1.1), the upstream reference cylinder (1.21) and the downstream reference cylinder (1.22), and a temperature sensor is arranged in the electric heating sleeve;
the three-axis loading system (4) comprises a hydraulic servo instrument (4.1) and a ring pressure tracking pump (4.2), wherein the hydraulic servo instrument (4.1) is connected with a pressure head at the upper end of the core holder (1.1) through a pipeline, and a pressure sensor five (4.32) is arranged on the connecting pipeline; the annular pressure tracking pump (4.2) is communicated with the annular space of the core holder through a pipeline, and a pressure sensor IV (4.31) is arranged on the connecting pipeline;
the gas sample collection system (6) comprises a gas chromatograph (6.1), a gas flow meter five (6.22), a gas-liquid separator (6.4), a back pressure valve (6.5), a pressure sensor six (6.6) and a plurality of valves for controlling gas circulation, wherein an outlet of a sample chamber of the core holder (1.1) is connected with the gas chromatograph (6.1) through a pipeline, and the pressure sensor six (6.6), the back pressure valve (6.5), the gas-liquid separator (6.4) and the gas flow meter five (6.22) are sequentially arranged on the connecting pipeline from the core holder (1.1) to the gas chromatograph (6.1);
the vacuum pumping system (5) comprises a vacuum pump (5.1), and the vacuum pump (5.1) is communicated with a pipeline between a gas flowmeter (6.22) and a gas chromatograph (6.1); the vacuum pump (5.1) is also communicated with a pipeline between the upstream reference cylinder (1.21) and the downstream reference cylinder (1.22);
the electrical control and monitoring system comprises an industrial personal computer, a display, a transmitting instrument, a high-speed camera, a relay protection and alarm circuit, an electrical control circuit, a power distribution circuit and control software.
2. The triaxial permeability test and CO of claim 12Displacement analogue test device, characterized by: the gas control system (2) further comprises a one-way valve (2.4), the one-way valve (2.4) is arranged on a pipeline between the gas flowmeter II (2.32) and the thermostatic waterbath (2.5), and the gas outlet faces the thermostatic waterbath (2.5).
3. The triaxial permeability test and CO of claim 22Displacement analogue test device, characterized by: the gas control system (2) further comprises a first gas flowmeter (2.31) and a third gas flowmeter (2.33), which are respectively connected with the second gas flowmeter (2.32) in parallel.
4. A triaxial permeability test and CO according to any of claims 1 to 32Displacement analogue test device, characterized by: the gas sample collection system (6) further comprises a gas flowmeter IV (6.21) and a gas flowmeter VI (6.23), which are respectively connected with the gas flowmeter V (6.22) in parallel.
5. The three-axis permeability test and CO of claim 42Displacement analogue test device, characterized by: the gas sample collection system (6) further comprises a dryer (6.3) arranged between the gas-liquid separator (6.4) and the gas flowmeter (6.22).
6. The three-axis permeability test and CO of claim 52Displacement analogue test device, characterized by: the number of the three pressure sensors (1.33) is four, and the three pressure sensors are arranged at equal intervals along the axial direction of the sample chamber in the core holder (1.1).
7. The three-axis permeability test and CO of claim 62Displacement analogue test device, characterized by: the precision of all pressure sensors and differential pressure sensors in the device is 0.05%, and the sensitivity is +/-0.05 F.S; the temperature control precision of the constant temperature water bath (2.5) is +/-01 ℃ and the working temperature is 150 ℃; the flow precision of the ring pressure tracking pump (4.2) is 0.001ml/min, and the axial load precision of the hydraulic servo instrument (4.1) is +/-1%; the measurement precision of the strain tester (1.5) is 0.2% +/-2 mu epsilon; the measurement precision of the temperature sensor is 0.1 ℃; the pressure ratio of the gas booster pump (2.7) is 100: 1.
8. The triaxial permeability test and CO of claim 72Displacement analogue test device, characterized by: the pipeline in the whole device adopts a 316L pipeline.
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