CN108400636A - Battery set charge/discharge manages system and method - Google Patents

Battery set charge/discharge manages system and method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108400636A
CN108400636A CN201810243342.4A CN201810243342A CN108400636A CN 108400636 A CN108400636 A CN 108400636A CN 201810243342 A CN201810243342 A CN 201810243342A CN 108400636 A CN108400636 A CN 108400636A
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China
Prior art keywords
discharge
charge
cell
voltage
stage
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CN201810243342.4A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN108400636B (en
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刘铭新
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刘铭新
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J7/0013Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries acting upon several batteries simultaneously or sequentially
    • H02J7/0014Circuits for equalisation of charge between batteries
    • H02J7/0019Circuits for equalisation of charge between batteries using switched or multiplexed charge circuits
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/42Methods or arrangements for servicing or maintenance of secondary cells or secondary half-cells
    • H01M10/44Methods for charging or discharging
    • H01M10/441Methods for charging or discharging for several batteries or cells simultaneously or sequentially
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J7/0013Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries acting upon several batteries simultaneously or sequentially
    • H02J7/0026Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries acting upon several batteries simultaneously or sequentially using safety or protection circuits, e.g. overcharge/discharge disconnection
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/42Methods or arrangements for servicing or maintenance of secondary cells or secondary half-cells
    • H01M10/425Structural combination with electronic components, e.g. electronic circuits integrated to the outside of the casing
    • H01M2010/4271Battery management systems including electronic circuits, e.g. control of current or voltage to keep battery in healthy state, cell balancing
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies; Technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/10Energy storage using batteries

Abstract

Battery set charge/discharge manages system and method, is related to the charge and discharge control technology of accumulator, belongs to accumulator control technology field.It solves the problems, such as still cannot effectively solve the inconsistency brought due to deterioration of battery using balancing technique in existing management of charging and discharging system.The management method is using multistage, intermittent charge or discharge method, during charge/discharge, using progressive progress, different charge/discharge conditions is arranged in each stage, meet condition and is switched to next stage, until to the last the condition in stage meets, the switching time between adjacent phases is less than 10ms, and charge/discharge duration in each stage is 20 between 100s.Management system includes the two-way DC converter of the switching control device and adjustment charge/discharge loop voltage of the element cell for switching.The present invention overcomes prior art prejudice, and can ensure that each element cell is full of or is vented in battery pack, and can be energy saving.

Description

Battery set charge/discharge manages system and method

Technical field

The present invention relates to the charge/discharge control technologies of accumulator, belong to accumulator control technology field.

Background technology

Accumulator group is much smaller than load equipment pair as a kind of electrical energy storage device, since cell batteries provide voltage The requirement of supply voltage, it is therefore necessary to be used in a manner of battery pack after being connected.As shown in Figure 1

Due in accumulator group all battery cells all using direct cascaded structure, the filling of series-connected cell monomer/ Discharge current is identical, and all batteries monomer realizes that same electric current is charged and discharged simultaneously.Ideally, single battery electricity Press it is equal, therefore battery pack charge/discharge voltage be monomer battery voltage * single battery quantity;But in practical service environment, due to The reason of nonuniformity and use environment of battery cell manufacture, the characteristics such as monomer battery voltage, capacity are not consistent, normal Battery pack charge/discharge use during, partial monosomy battery can be caused to occur being full of or charge less phenomenon.Single battery is located for a long time In being full of or charge less state, it on the one hand can aggravate the nonuniformity of single battery in battery pack, cause other normal single batteries Appearance is full of or charge less, deterioration of battery problem on the other hand can gradually occurs, and eventually lead to all batteries in battery pack and lose Store the ability of electric energy.

Therefore in battery pack actual use on time, it is desirable that user must replace all batteries to ensure the electric energy of battery pack Storage capacity and emergency service ability, and once find there is single battery to occur deteriorating or fail, if can not be to battery list Body stringent comprehensively detect and filter out and the replaceable electricity for the high consistency of other batteries for deteriorating or failing do not occur Pond is replaced, and just necessary whole group is replaced all with the single battery of group, forms huge waste.

To solve the problems, such as deterioration of battery caused by the nonuniformity of single battery, mostly use at present so-called active (passive) equal Weighing apparatus technology, as shown in Fig. 2, i.e. by the way that parallel discharge loads on battery cell or charge/discharge device is in conventional batteries group discharge charge The charge/discharge that single battery low capacity is carried out on the basis of electricity, to adjust the consistent of monomer battery voltage in battery pack or capacity Property, play the maintenance effects to battery.Its main feature is that external Equilibrium device is connected to battery cell with parallel way, itself does not change Become the original monomer series-connected mode of connection of battery pack.Since monomer balancer cost realizability considers, balancer capacity It is limited, low capacity adjustment can only be carried out, therefore actual effect and its limited, and differ to what battery manufacture or deterioration of battery were brought Cause property is almost without effect.

Invention content

The present invention solves in existing discharge charge electric management system, still can not effectively be solved due to electricity using balancing technique Pond deteriorates the problem of inconsistency brought.

Battery set charge/discharge management method of the present invention is to use multistage, intermittent charge or discharge method, In charging method, using progressive charging method, different charge conditions is set in each stage, and every to monitor and judge The state of a element cell is condition so that all element cells are synchronous as possible, all reach the state being full of;In charging method, Using progressive charging method, different discharging conditions is set in each stage, and to monitor and judge each element cell State be condition so that all element cells are synchronous as possible, all reach the state being vented.When switching between adjacent phases Between be less than 10ms.The charge or discharge duration in each stage is 20 between 100s.

In above-mentioned charging/discharging thereof, during charge or discharge, it is fixed value to maintain online element cell quantity N, offline element cell quantity are x, the sum for the element cell that wherein n+x includes by battery pack;In charging method, every In a stage, the terminal voltage of all element cells in battery pack is monitored in real time, when the terminal voltage of n online element cell is average When variable quantity is more than y, then stage charging stops, and i element cell of voltage maximum in n online element cell is cut off, Then i element cell of voltage minimum in x offline element cell is cut, continues to charge into next stage, directly Until all element cells are filled in battery pack;In charging method, in each stage, institute in battery pack is monitored in real time The terminal voltage for having element cell, when the terminal voltage mean change amount of n online element cell is more than y, then the stage discharge Stop, it, then will be electric in x offline element cell by i element cell excision of voltage minimum in n online element cell It presses maximum i element cell to cut, continues to discharge into next stage, until all element cells are put in battery pack Until sky;The value of the y ensures that in the charge or discharge duration in each stage be 20 between 100s, and the i is big In 0 and simultaneously be less than n and x integer.

In above-mentioned charging/discharging thereof, the threshold value in each stage is the terminal voltage threshold value of element cell, and is opened in each stage When the beginning, it must be selected to cut online element cell according to the threshold value in the stage and be adjusted according to the sum of online unit battery Corresponding charge or discharge voltage, specially:In charging method, the threshold value in each stage is incremented by successively and max-thresholds are unit Terminal voltage when battery is full of;When each stage starts, the element cell that all terminal voltages are less than the phase threshold is selected to cut Enter charge circuit, and the charging voltage of the sum adjustment charge circuit according to the element cell in incision charge circuit, then opens Begin charging, the terminal voltage of all element cells in battery pack is monitored in real time in charging process, when detecting in charge circuit When the terminal voltage of some element cell is less than the threshold value in the stage, suspend charging, which is cut off and then according to charging Element cell quantity in circuit adjusts charge circuit voltage, continues to charge, until the last one unit electricity in charge circuit When the terminal voltage in pond is not less than the threshold value in the stage, which stops, into next stage, until completing the last stage Charging until;In charging method, the end electricity when threshold value in each stage is successively decreased successively and minimum threshold is element cell emptying Pressure;When each stage starts, select all terminal voltages be more than the phase threshold element cell incision discharge loop, and according to The discharge voltage for cutting the sum adjustment discharge loop of the element cell in discharge loop, then starts to discharge, in discharge process In monitor the terminal voltages of all element cells in battery pack in real time, when the end electricity for detecting some element cell in discharge loop No more than the stage threshold value when, pause electric discharge, by the element cell cut off then according to the element cell number in discharge loop Amount adjustment discharge loop voltage, continues to discharge, and is somebody's turn to do until the terminal voltage of the last one element cell in discharge loop is not more than When the threshold value in stage, which stops, into next stage, until completing the electric discharge of the last stage.

Realize that the management of charging and discharging system of above-mentioned method for managing charge/discharge includes two-way DC converter, switching control device With multiple fling-cut switches, the switching control device includes switching execution unit and excision execution unit, in charging management system In, incision execution unit is used to control the fling-cut switch according to the incision instruction of reception will be specified in battery pack to be charged In one or more element cell incision charge circuits;Execution unit is cut off to be used to control the throwing according to the excision of reception instruction It cuts to close and specified one or more element cells is cut off into charge circuit;In management system of discharging, incision execution unit is used It is in controlling the fling-cut switch according to the incision instruction of reception that specified one or more units in battery pack to be charged are electric It cuts in discharge loop in pond;Execution unit is cut off to be used to control the fling-cut switch by specified one according to the excision of reception instruction A or multiple element cells cut off discharge loop;The two-way DC converter, for according to charging in charging management system The sum of element cell determines charging voltage in circuit, and voltage conversion ratio example is determined according to the charging voltage, and then by input DC voltage is converted into the charging voltage and exports to charge circuit;For according to single in discharge loop in management system of discharging The sum of first battery determines discharge voltage, determines voltage conversion ratio example according to the discharge voltage, and then discharge voltage is converted into External DC bus-bar voltage output.

It can further include battery charge controller and element cell monitoring device, institute in above-mentioned charging management system Element cell monitoring device is stated for monitoring the terminal voltage of each element cell, and by each terminal voltage monitored with And the serial number of corresponding element cell is sent to battery charge controller;The battery charge controller includes threshold value storage unit and fills Electricity condition judging unit, wherein:There are one charge thresholds for threshold value storage unit storage;Charged state judging unit is for comparing list The each terminal voltage and charge threshold that first battery monitoring device is sent, when the terminal voltage is greater than or equal to the charge threshold When, it sends excision instruction and gives switching control device, include the corresponding element cell of the terminal voltage in the excision instruction Serial number.

In above-mentioned charging management system, it is more than 0 that n charge threshold Ui, i are stored in the threshold value storage unit Positive integer, and U1<U2<…<Un, Un are the charging upper limit voltage of element cell;The battery charge controller further includes threshold value choosing Unit is selected, the threshold value selection unit is used to, when charging beginning, all terminal voltages be less than to the element cell of charge threshold U1 Serial number be added in incision instruction and be sent to switching control device, and by the charge threshold U1 be sent to charged state judge it is single Member, as the charge threshold in charged state judging unit;The threshold value selection unit is additionally operable in charge circuit last After a element cell is removed, the serial number of the element cell by all terminal voltages less than charge threshold Uj is added in incision instruction It is sent to switching control device, and the charge threshold Uj is sent to charged state judging unit and judges list as charged state Charge threshold in member;The j successively value be 2,3 ..., n.

It can further include discharge control device and element cell monitoring device, institute in above-mentioned electric discharge management system Element cell monitoring device is stated for monitoring the terminal voltage of each element cell, and by each terminal voltage monitored with And the serial number of corresponding element cell is sent to discharge control device;The discharge control device includes threshold value storage unit and puts Electricity condition judging unit, wherein:There are one discharge thresholds for threshold value storage unit storage;Discharge condition judging unit is for comparing list The each terminal voltage and the discharge threshold that first battery monitoring device is sent, when the terminal voltage is less than or equal to the electric discharge threshold When value, sends excision instruction and give switching control device, include the corresponding element cell of the terminal voltage in the excision instruction Serial number.

It can further include discharge control device and element cell monitoring device in above-mentioned electric discharge management system, it is described Element cell monitoring device is used to monitor the terminal voltage of each element cell, and by each terminal voltage monitored and The serial number of corresponding element cell is sent to discharge control device;The discharge control device further includes threshold value selection unit, institute Threshold value selection unit is stated for when discharging beginning, the serial number of the element cell by all terminal voltages less than charge threshold U1 to be added It is sent to switching control device in incision instruction, and the discharge threshold U1 is sent to discharge condition judging unit as electric discharge Discharge threshold in condition adjudgement unit;

In above-mentioned electric discharge management system, it is just whole more than 1 that n discharge threshold Ui, i are stored in threshold value storage unit Number, and U1>U2>…>Un, Un are the electric discharge lower voltage limit of element cell;The discharge control device further includes that threshold value selection is single Member, the threshold value selection unit are used for when discharging beginning, the sequence of the element cell by all terminal voltages less than charge threshold U1 It number is added in incision instruction and to be sent to switching control device, and the discharge threshold U1 is sent to discharge condition judging unit and is made For the discharge threshold in discharge condition judging unit;The threshold value selection unit is additionally operable to the last one unit in discharge loop After battery is removed, the serial number of the element cell by all terminal voltages less than discharge threshold Uj, which is added in incision instruction, to be sent to Switching control device, and the discharge threshold Uj is sent to discharge condition judging unit as in discharge condition judging unit Discharge threshold;The j successively value be 2,3 ..., n.

The charge-discharge principle of battery set charge/discharge management system of the present invention overcomes existing battery charging/discharging management The technology prejudice of technical field, specially:First, abandoned completely accumulator group charge and discharge balancing control theory, but with Element cell is full of, is vented and nothing overcharges, crosses the final control targe put as charge and discharge;Secondly, not using traditional, holding The duration of charge/discharge process, but realize management of charging and discharging by the way of intermittent charge/discharge.It is of the present invention Charge-discharge principle compared with existing battery set charge/discharge technology, has the following advantages:

1, battery set charge/discharge management method and system of the present invention, the unit in the battery pack being charged or discharged Battery uses indirect series system, but is connected in series with by a controlled two-way fling-cut switch, in charge and discharge Cheng Zhong, the matching of quantity and charging/discharging voltage by detecting battery status, the online battery of control, periodically dynamic adjusts online The element cell for participating in charge and discharge, finally realize each element cell is full of/emptying, and that objectively realizes is electric to unit The protection for being full of, being vented in pond ensures that the performance of each element cell is optimum state.

2, method for managing charge/discharge of the present invention and system, to be charged or electric discharge accumulator group directly and are not filled The DC bus of electric discharge is connected, but is connected with the DC bus by a two-way DC converter, manages system In switching control device realize the state-detection of element cell, and cut off or put into corresponding according to the testing result of element cell Element cell to charge or discharge circuit in, and two-way DC converter ensure charge and discharge DC bus-bar voltage stablize it is constant Under the premise of, synchronous charging voltage is adjusted according to the quantity of the online unit battery changed in charge or discharge circuit or electric discharge is defeated Enter voltage, the voltage of this charge circuit or discharge loop dynamically adjusts in real time, can effectively ensure that battery set charge/discharge process In discharge during all battery cells are safe and reliable to operation and discharge process it is continual and steady.

3, the charge-discharge principle of management of charging and discharging system and method for the present invention, is totally different from existing cell tube Device is managed, can only be to pass through control in of the invention by controlling the management and control of the voltage, electric current realization of battery pack whole group to battery pack The line duration of each element cell during charge or discharge processed in battery pack is realized to each unit electricity in battery pack Monomer charging/discharging voltage, current control are realized in pond, and it is hereby ensured that each element cells in battery pack to work in setting control It is under mode processed and always range of safety operation, each cell group charge and discharge in maximum battery pack may be implemented Electric control and protection.

4, in management of charging and discharging system and method for the present invention, multiple charge or discharge threshold values are also provided with, It is not just to be cut off or cut when element cell arrival is full of or is vented electricity, but filled during charge or discharge Switching-Threshold is dynamically adjusted in discharge process, in charging process, charge threshold gradually switches from low to high so that electric energy is relatively low Element cell first charge, charge after the higher element cell of electric energy, until all element cells are filled with.Similarly, exist In discharge process, discharge threshold gradually switches from high to low so that the higher first electric discharge of electric energy, the lower rear electric discharge of electric energy, directly Until all element cells are all vented.In that case, each element cell is inevitably resulted in charge/discharge process meeting There is the stopping of certain frequency, i.e.,:Interval charge and discharge, this kind of mode obviously with the mode of existing traditional lasting charge/discharge not Together, as long as by the way that the difference between multiple threshold values is rationally arranged, it will be able to control the interval week in this intermittent charge/electric discharge Phase does not influence the process of cell charging/discharging in (20 to 100s) magnitude, this intermittent time.This intermittent charge and discharge it is excellent Point has:

4.1, the charge and discharge process of battery is electrochemical reaction, the pause of interval is designed in charging process, being equivalent to makes The chemical reaction generates pause during reflection, this pause is that be conducive to electrochemical reaction more thorough, therefore Using this intermittent charge/discharge control method, the electrochemical reaction of inside battery can be made more thorough, in charging process Charge efficiency can be effectively improved, to save the consumed energy that charges.

4.2, on the surface, due to there are multiple intermittent times in intermittent charging process, can cause the charging time Extend, actual conditions are but far from it.Existing normal charge mode, can be by the way of low current charge in the later stage of charge cycle Charge, the charging time under this state can be long, and charging method of the present invention battery full of it is former It can be always maintained at larger current charging, be not necessarily to the low current charge process in normal charge later stage, and intermittent charging more has Conducive to the electrochemical reaction of inside battery, therefore, the element cell online charging time in charging process of the invention is than normal The rule charging time is short, and whole charge cycle and normal charge mode are more almost the same.

4.3, it is to adjust online unit electricity in time that the present invention, which uses interval charge and discharge system, the wherein first purpose, Pond, and then ensure that all element cells in battery pack can be filled or be vented, it is entirely avoided conventional charging/discharging thereof In the problem of always having percentage of batteries charge less or owing to put.

4.4, the switching for using mos pipes in the present invention to the switching of element cell switchs realization, in the throwing of element cell Cutting moment is equivalent to the positive/negative rush of current that a full frequency band is carried out to element cell, and this impact a degree of eliminates The foul disease of battery salinization, and help that unit battery is allowed to improve charging and discharging capabilities, extend discharge time effect.

5, battery set charge/discharge management method and system of the present invention, charge and discharge process are different from existing battery Managed equilibrium device is mainly finely adjusted section under battery back up state to battery status, and almost to battery set charge/discharge process Do not influence (the adjusting electric current of existing battery management balancer be 0.1~5A, battery set charge/discharge electric current be 30~100A very To bigger), battery set charge/discharge of the present invention manages switching control device, two-way DC converter in system and method An entirety is formed with all element cells in fling-cut switch and battery pack, full work is carried out to the operating status of each element cell Make spatial load forecasting, i.e., realizes control comprehensively in the current margin that element cell allows.

Battery set charge/discharge management method and system of the present invention can realize the storage energy of battery pack maximum power Power.

Method for charging batteries of the present invention can be applied in various battery chargers, can also be applied to battery Formation system in.

Description of the drawings

Fig. 1 is the functional block diagram of existing common battery pack discharge charge electric management system.

Fig. 2 is the functional block diagram of the battery pack discharge charge electric management system with balancing technique in the prior art.

Fig. 3 is the functional block diagram of battery pack charge/discharge management working state of system of the present invention.

Fig. 4 is a kind of circuit diagram of fling-cut switch K shown in specific Fig. 3.

Embodiment

Battery pack charge/discharge management method described in specific implementation mode one, present embodiment is using multistage, interval The charge or discharge method of formula;

In charging method, using progressive charging method, different charge conditions is set in each stage, and with monitoring With judge each element cell state for condition so that all element cells are synchronous as possible, all reach the state being full of;

In charging method, using progressive charging method, different discharging conditions is set in each stage, and with monitoring With judge each element cell state for condition so that all element cells are synchronous as possible, all reach the state being vented.

Switching time between adjacent phases is less than 10ms, and when optimal value is less than 5ms.

The charge or discharge duration in each stage is 20 between 100s.

The charge/discharge method of present embodiment uses intermittent method, this pause during charge or discharge It is more advantageous to electrochemical reaction more fully, more thoroughly, under the premise of chemical reaction obtains fully excitation, has reached shortening entirely The effect of chemical time, and then achieve the effect that shorten discharge time, also reach and has saved the consumed energy that charges Effect.

Specific implementation mode two, this implementation the battery pack charge/discharge management method are described in specific implementation mode one Battery pack charge/discharge management method a kind of concrete condition, the battery pack charge/discharge management method described in present embodiment exists During charge or discharge, it is fixed value n to maintain online element cell quantity, and offline element cell quantity is x, wherein The sum for the element cell that n+x includes by battery pack;

In charging method, in each stage, the terminal voltage of all element cells in battery pack is monitored in real time, when online When the terminal voltage mean change amount of n element cell is more than y, then stage charging stops, will be electric in n online element cell The maximum i element cell excision of pressure, then i element cell of voltage minimum in x offline element cell is cut, enter Next stage continues to charge, until all element cells are filled in battery pack;

In charging method, in each stage, the terminal voltage of all element cells in battery pack is monitored in real time, when online When the terminal voltage mean change amount of n element cell is more than y, then the stage discharge stops, will be electric in n online element cell The minimum i element cell excision of pressure, then the maximum i element cell of voltage in x offline element cell is cut, enter Next stage continues to discharge, until all element cells are vented in battery pack;

The value of the y ensures that in the charge or discharge duration in each stage be 20 between 100s, and the i is big In 0 and simultaneously be less than n and x integer.

In present embodiment, the value of the y can be 2% to 10%.

In charge/discharge method described in present embodiment, the element cell in charge circuit or discharge loop is maintained always Quantity be fixed value so that charging voltage or discharge voltage immobilize during entire charge/discharge, i.e.,:It can be with It is realized using the charge/discharge power supply in existing charge/discharge method.

It is the change according to the online battery average voltage of maximum/minimum in intermittent charge/discharge method in present embodiment Change function is as a method for controlling threshold value:When the mean change of the element cell terminal voltage in charge circuit or discharge loop When amount reaches certain value, suspend charge/discharge, replace unit battery, then proceed to, so that in charging method middle-end electricity The charging time of the element cell forced down is longer, finally realizes that all element cells are filled with, and terminal voltage is high in charging method Element cell discharge time it is longer, finally realize that all element cells are all vented.

In present embodiment, the value of the terminal voltage mean change amount y of element cell is smaller, more can ensure each unit Battery can be full of or be vented, it can also cause the charge or discharge time in switching excessively frequent, each stage is too short, because This, the value principle of the parameter be ensuring that charge or discharge time in each stage 20 between 100s, general value exists 2% to 10% is advisable, and optimal value is 2%.

Specific implementation mode three, this implementation the battery pack charge/discharge management method are described in specific implementation mode one Battery pack charge/discharge management method a kind of concrete condition, the battery pack charge/discharge management method described in present embodiment In, the threshold value in each stage is the terminal voltage threshold value of element cell, and when each stage starts, must be according to the threshold in the stage Value selection cuts online element cell and adjusts corresponding charge or discharge voltage, tool according to the sum of online unit battery Body is:

In charging method, the terminal voltage when threshold value in each stage is incremented by successively and max-thresholds are full of for element cell; When each stage starts, all terminal voltages are selected to be less than the element cell incision charge circuit of the phase threshold, and according to incision The charging voltage of the sum adjustment charge circuit of element cell in charge circuit, then starts to charge up,

The terminal voltage for monitoring all element cells in battery pack in real time in charging process, when detecting in charge circuit When the terminal voltage of some element cell is less than the threshold value in the stage, suspend charging, which is cut off and then according to charging Element cell quantity in circuit adjusts charge circuit voltage, continues to charge, until the last one unit electricity in charge circuit When the terminal voltage in pond is not less than the threshold value in the stage, which stops, into next stage, until completing the last stage Charging until;

In charging method, the terminal voltage when threshold value in each stage is successively decreased successively and minimum threshold is element cell emptying; When each stage starts, all terminal voltages are selected to be more than the element cell incision discharge loop of the phase threshold, and according to incision The discharge voltage of the sum adjustment discharge loop of element cell in discharge loop, then starts to discharge,

The terminal voltage for monitoring all element cells in battery pack in real time in discharge process, when detecting in discharge loop When the end electricity of some element cell is not more than the threshold value in the stage, suspend electric discharge, which is cut off and then according to electric discharge Element cell quantity in circuit adjusts discharge loop voltage, continues to discharge, until the last one unit electricity in discharge loop When the terminal voltage in pond is not more than the threshold value in the stage, which stops, into next stage, until completing the last stage Electric discharge until.

In present embodiment, the threshold difference value of adjacent phases is smaller, charge/discharge switching more frequent, each stage The charge/discharge duration is longer.The setting principle of the parameter is to ensure the charge or discharge time in each stage 20 to 100s Between, general value is more than the 5% of element cell rated voltage.

In charge/discharge method described in present embodiment, the unit electricity in each stage in charge circuit or discharge loop The quantity in pond is variation, therefore, at the beginning of each stage, is needed according in charge circuit or discharge loop The quantity of element cell adjusts corresponding loop voltage.This method is although slightly more complex, but due to being according to each unit The case where terminal voltage of battery, carries out charge or discharge management, and then can ensure that each element cell can in battery pack It is full of or is vented.

Specific implementation mode four illustrates present embodiment referring to Fig. 3.Battery pack discharge charge fulgurite described in present embodiment Discharge charge electric management system described in reason system includes two-way DC converter, switching control device and multiple fling-cut switches, the throwing Cutting control device includes switching execution unit and excision execution unit, and in charging management system, incision execution unit is used for root The fling-cut switch is controlled according to the incision instruction of reception to cut specified one or more element cells in battery pack to be charged Enter in charge circuit;Cut off execution unit be used to be controlled according to the excision instruction of reception the fling-cut switch by specified one or Multiple element cells cut off charge circuit;In management system of discharging, incision execution unit is used to be instructed according to the incision of reception Controlling the fling-cut switch will be in specified one or more element cell incision discharge loop in battery pack to be charged;Excision Execution unit is used to control the fling-cut switch according to the excision instruction of reception and cuts off specified one or more element cells Discharge loop;

The two-way DC converter, it is true for the sum according to element cell in charge circuit in charging management system Determine charging voltage, voltage conversion ratio example is determined according to the charging voltage, and then the DC voltage of input is converted into the charging Voltage output is to charge circuit;For determining electric discharge electricity according to the sum of element cell in discharge loop in management system of discharging Pressure determines voltage conversion ratio example according to the discharge voltage, and then discharge voltage is converted into external DC bus-bar voltage and is exported.

Element cell described in present embodiment is the least unit in battery pack, can be single battery, can also be There is the minimum unit battery that multiple single batteries are connected in series or in parallel.

Fling-cut switch described in present embodiment is that can realize the two-way fling-cut switch automatically controlled, can be selected existing There is the two-way fling-cut switch of electronics to realize.

Existing bidirectional direct current converter or output electricity may be used in two-way DC converter described in present embodiment Controllable bidirectional, dc conversion integrated circuit is pressed to realize.The DC voltage of input can be converted by the bidirectional direct current converter Other voltage value outputs.

It is that the DC bus of the voltage input end connection charge/discharge of two-way DC converter, this is straight in practical applications It flows busbar and steady dc voltage is provided, in charging process, calculated according to the quantity of the element cell in charge circuit Charging voltage is obtained, voltage conversion ratio example is then determined according to the charging voltage and DC bus-bar voltage and then by the straight of input Stream busbar voltage is converted into the charging voltage and realizes charging to charge circuit, in charging process, with switching control device The quantity that fling-cut switch changes element cell in charge circuit is controlled, two-way DC converter also adjusts voltage conversion ratio at any time The variation of element cell quantity in the charging voltage adaptation loop of example and then guarantee charge circuit, such as:When having in charge circuit When m element cell, then the DC voltage that DC bus exports is converted into (m* battery unit volumes by two-way DC converter Constant voltage), in charging process, if there is some element cell cuts off charge circuit, then two-way DC converter is by direct current The voltage of busbar output is converted into ((m-1) * battery units rated voltage);Similarly, in discharge process, according to positioned at discharging back The quantity of element cell in road calculates the battery power discharge voltage of discharge loop, and according to the discharge voltage and DC bus electricity Pressure determines voltage conversion ratio example, and then the discharge voltage of discharge loop is converted into DC bus-bar voltage and is connect with DC bus.

Battery pack discharge charge electric management system described in present embodiment, under the premise of external DC bus-bar voltage is constant, According to the quantity of the element cell in charge circuit or discharge loop, the voltage conversion ratio of two-way DC converter is adjusted Example, and then unit is electric under the premise of guarantee busbar voltage is constant, in making charging voltage or discharge voltage adapt to corresponding circuit The variation in pond.

In this formula embodiment, what switching control device can be sent according to outside instructs the list that excision or incision are specified First battery, i.e.,:Present embodiments provide for one kind can cut from charge or discharge circuit at any time during charge or discharge Enter or cut off the executive device of element cell, the condition of specific incision or excision element cell can design phase according to actual demand The circuit or control software answered.When this kind of discharge charge electric management system can be to the charge/discharge of each element cell in battery pack Between individually controlled, i.e.,:Charge or discharge can be terminated at any time according to the inherent characteristic of each element cell in battery pack, To meet the demand of the element cell of different inherent characteristics, ensure that each element cell can fill in charging process in battery pack It completely and does not overcharge, each element cell can be vented and only put in discharge process.

Battery pack discharge charge electric management system described in present embodiment, can only include charging management system or electric discharge Management system, can also both exist simultaneously.

Specific implementation mode five, present embodiment are to the battery pack charge/discharge management system described in specific implementation mode four Further limiting for system, increases the monitoring function to element cell, and realize automatically according to monitoring result in present embodiment Excision control to element cell, specially:Further include battery charge controller and element cell monitoring in charging management system Device, the element cell monitoring device are used to monitor the terminal voltage of each element cell, and by monitored each Terminal voltage and the serial number of corresponding element cell are sent to battery charge controller;The battery charge controller includes threshold value storage Unit and charged state judging unit, wherein:There are one charge thresholds for threshold value storage unit storage;Charged state judging unit is used In each terminal voltage and charge threshold that comparison unit battery monitoring device is sent, when the terminal voltage is greater than or equal to described fill When electric threshold value, sends excision instruction and give switching control device, include the corresponding unit of the terminal voltage in the excision instruction The serial number of battery;Further include discharge control device and element cell monitoring device, the element cell in management system of discharging Monitoring device is used to monitor the terminal voltage of each element cell, and by each terminal voltage monitored and corresponding list The serial number of first battery is sent to discharge control device;The discharge control device includes that threshold value storage unit and discharge condition judge Unit, wherein:There are one discharge thresholds for threshold value storage unit storage;Discharge condition judging unit is used for comparison unit battery detection The each terminal voltage and the discharge threshold that device is sent are sent when the terminal voltage is less than or equal to the discharge threshold Switching control device is given in excision instruction, includes the serial number of the corresponding element cell of the terminal voltage in the excision instruction.

Present embodiment is increased on the basis of the battery pack discharge charge electric management system described in embodiment one The monitoring function of element cell realizes automatic detection, automatic decision element cell excision condition and cuts off corresponding units electricity automatically The full-automatic process in pond.Battery pack discharge charge electric management system described in present embodiment can ensure each list in battery pack First battery can be full of and not occur overshoot phenomenon, and each element cell can be vented and not occur putting phenomenon.

The increased monitoring function of present embodiment may be used existing common multichannel battery detecting circuit for performance and realize.

Specific implementation mode six, present embodiment are to the battery pack charge/discharge management system described in specific implementation mode five Further limiting for system, increases multiple charge thresholds in present embodiment, for realizing the control process of interruption charge/discharge, tool Body is:In charging management system, it is the positive integer more than 0 that n charge threshold Ui, i are stored in the threshold value storage unit, And U1<U2<…<Un, Un are the charging upper limit voltage of element cell;The battery charge controller further includes threshold value selection unit, The threshold value selection unit is used for when charging beginning, and the serial number of the element cell by all terminal voltages less than charge threshold U1 adds Enter in incision instruction and be sent to switching control device, and the charge threshold U1 is sent to charged state judging unit, as Charge threshold in charged state judging unit;The threshold value selection unit is additionally operable to the last one unit electricity in charge circuit After pond is removed, the serial number of the element cell by all terminal voltages less than charge threshold Uj, which is added in incision instruction, is sent to throwing Cutting control device, and the charge threshold Uj is sent to charged state judging unit as filling in charged state judging unit Electric threshold value;The j successively value be 2,3 ..., n;In management system of discharging, it is stored with n in the threshold value storage unit and puts Electric threshold value Ui, i are positive integer more than 1, and U1>U2>…>Un, Un are the electric discharge lower voltage limit of element cell;It is managed in electric discharge Discharge control device described in system further includes threshold value selection unit, and the threshold value selection unit is used for when discharging beginning, The serial number of element cell by all terminal voltages less than charge threshold U1 is added in incision instruction and is sent to switching control device, and The discharge threshold U1 is sent to discharge condition judging unit as the discharge threshold in discharge condition judging unit;The threshold Value selecting unit is additionally operable in discharge loop after the last one element cell is removed, by all terminal voltages less than electric discharge threshold The serial number of the element cell of value Uj is added in incision instruction and is sent to switching control device, and the discharge threshold Uj is sent to Discharge condition judging unit is as the discharge threshold in discharge condition judging unit;The j successively value be 2,3 ..., n.

In battery pack discharge charge electric management system described in present embodiment, multiple charge/discharge threshold values are provided with, in discharge charge In electric process, using the control mode of discontinuous charge/discharge, i.e.,:Be not reached with element cell when being full of or be vented electricity just into Row excision, but multiple threshold values are arranged with ladder principle during charge/discharge, the battery for meeting present threshold value is cut off, when All element cells all meet present threshold value and then all element cells of incision change next threshold value and carry out charge/discharge again Control, until all element cells all meet and are full of/are vented.During this kind of charge/discharge, unit battery can be caused There is the stopping of certain frequency to act during charge/discharge, i.e.,:For interval charge/discharge, this state will not form battery and produce It is raw to influence.

Battery pack discharge charge electric management system described in present embodiment is in charging process, first by the list of low voltage First battery incision charge circuit first charges, when the electricity of these batteries meet lower charge threshold and then by voltage it is high by one A little element cell incision charge circuit chargings, i.e.,:Element cell first few to electricity charges, then gradually by electricity slightly More element cell additions continue to charge;Similarly:In discharge process, the element cell for selecting electricity more first is put Then electricity adds the element cell that electricity takes second place and discharges.By rationally adjusting the multiple charge/discharge threshold values of setting, realize More reasonably charge/discharge process control.

Threshold value selection unit described in present embodiment is not limited to when converting charge/discharge threshold value by all discharge charges After all element cells are all cut off in electrical circuit, excision item can also be met by the last one element cell in discharge charge circuit While part, discharge charge threshold value is converted, i.e.,:By all element cell incision charge/discharge circuits below or above discharge charge threshold value In;Charge/discharge threshold value can be converted after the element cell of remaining specified quantity in the charge/discharge, i.e.,:It is less than all Or higher than in the element cell incision charge/discharge circuit of discharge charge threshold value.

The realization of mosfet power devices may be used in fling-cut switch described in above-mentioned present embodiment, such as:Using two A mosfet power devices T1, T2 and a zener diode D1 realize that, referring to Fig. 4, the zener diode D1 is used for and throwing It cuts and closes the connection of connection unit cell parallel, a mosfet power device is as cut-through switch, another mosfet power device Part is switched as excision, and the control signal of described two mosfet power devices T1, T2 are opposite.

The cut-through switch is used to, by corresponding element cell incision charge or discharge circuit, be equivalent to switching execution Unit.The excision switch and by-pass switch, for corresponding element cell to be bypassed from charge or discharge circuit, So that the element cell is bypassed from charge circuit or discharge loop, is equivalent to excision execution unit.Moment is simultaneously in order to prevent The generation of battery short circuit electric discharge phenomena caused by conducting, described two mosfet power devices T1, T2 are using dead zone function Control mode avoids the state that cut-through switch and excision switch simultaneously turn on from occurring.

Mosfet power devices T1, T2 described in present embodiment are the mosfet power devices for having anti-paralleled diode Part.

The switching speed of fling-cut switch described in present embodiment is fast, can reach Microsecond grade, and then can ensure every time Element cell incision or during excision action do not interfere with charge or discharge, ensure that battery pack series connection was disconnected without moment Phenomenon.

Claims (10)

1. battery set charge/discharge management method, which is characterized in that the method is using multistage, intermittent charge or discharge Method,
In charging method, using progressive charging method, different charge conditions is set in each stage, and to monitor and sentence The state of disconnected each element cell is condition so that all element cells are synchronous as possible, all reach the state being full of;
In charging method, using progressive charging method, different discharging conditions is set in each stage, and to monitor and sentence The state of disconnected each element cell is condition so that all element cells are synchronous as possible, all reach the state being vented.
2. battery set charge/discharge management method according to claim 1, which is characterized in that when switching between adjacent phases Between be less than 10ms.
3. battery set charge/discharge management method according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the charge or discharge in each stage Duration is 20 between 100s.
4. battery set charge/discharge management method according to claim 1,2 or 3, which is characterized in that in charge or discharge In the process, it is fixed value n to maintain online element cell quantity, and offline element cell quantity is x, and wherein n+x is battery pack Including element cell sum;
In charging method, in each stage, the terminal voltage of all element cells in battery pack is monitored in real time, when online n When the terminal voltage mean change amount of element cell is more than y, then stage charging stops, by voltage in n online element cell Maximum i element cell excision, then cuts i element cell of voltage minimum in x offline element cell, under One stage continues to charge, until all element cells are filled in battery pack;
In charging method, in each stage, the terminal voltage of all element cells in battery pack is monitored in real time, when online n When the terminal voltage mean change amount of element cell is more than y, then the stage discharge stops, by voltage in n online element cell Minimum i element cell excision, then cuts the maximum i element cell of voltage in x offline element cell, under One stage continues to discharge, until all element cells are vented in battery pack;
The value of the y ensures that the charge or discharge duration in each stage is 20 between 100s, the i be more than 0, And it is less than the integer of n and x simultaneously.
5. battery set charge/discharge management method according to claim 4, which is characterized in that the value of the y be 2% to 5%.
6. battery set charge/discharge management method according to claim 1,2 or 3, which is characterized in that the threshold value in each stage For the terminal voltage threshold value of element cell, and when each stage starts, incision must be selected online according to the threshold value in the stage Element cell simultaneously adjusts corresponding charge or discharge voltage according to the sum of online unit battery, specially:
In charging method, the terminal voltage when threshold value in each stage is incremented by successively and max-thresholds are full of for element cell;Each When stage starts, all terminal voltages are selected to be less than the element cell incision charge circuit of the phase threshold, and charged according to incision The charging voltage of the sum adjustment charge circuit of element cell in circuit, then starts to charge up,
The terminal voltage for monitoring all element cells in battery pack in real time in charging process, when detecting some in charge circuit When the terminal voltage of element cell is less than the threshold value in the stage, suspend charging, which is cut off and then according to charge circuit In element cell quantity adjust charge circuit voltage, continue to charge, until the last one element cell in charge circuit When terminal voltage is not less than the threshold value in the stage, which stops, into next stage, until completing filling for the last stage Until electricity;
In charging method, the terminal voltage when threshold value in each stage is successively decreased successively and minimum threshold is element cell emptying;Each When stage starts, all terminal voltages are selected to be more than the element cell incision discharge loop of the phase threshold, and discharged according to incision The discharge voltage of the sum adjustment discharge loop of element cell in circuit, then starts to discharge,
The terminal voltage for monitoring all element cells in battery pack in real time in discharge process, when detecting some in discharge loop When the end electricity of element cell is not more than the threshold value in the stage, suspend electric discharge, which is cut off and then according to discharge loop In element cell quantity adjust discharge loop voltage, continue to discharge, until the last one element cell in discharge loop When terminal voltage is not more than the threshold value in the stage, which stops, into next stage, until completing putting for the last stage Until electricity.
7. battery set charge/discharge management method according to claim 6, which is characterized in that the threshold difference of adjacent phases Value principle is to ensure that the charge or discharge duration in each stage is 20 between 100s.
8. battery set charge/discharge manage system, which is characterized in that the discharge charge electric management system include two-way DC converter, Switching control device and multiple fling-cut switches,
The switching control device include switching execution unit and excision execution unit,
In charging management system, incision execution unit is used to control the fling-cut switch according to the incision of reception instruction and will wait filling In specified one or more element cell incision charge circuits in the battery pack of electricity;Execution unit is cut off to be used for according to reception Excision instruction controls the fling-cut switch and specified one or more element cells is cut off charge circuit;
In management system of discharging, incision execution unit is used to control the fling-cut switch according to the incision of reception instruction and will wait filling In specified one or more element cell incision discharge loops in the battery pack of electricity;Execution unit is cut off to be used for according to reception Excision instruction controls the fling-cut switch and specified one or more element cells is cut off discharge loop;
The two-way DC converter, for being filled according to the sum determination of element cell in charge circuit in charging management system Piezoelectric voltage determines voltage conversion ratio example according to the charging voltage, and then the DC voltage of input is converted into the charging voltage It exports to charge circuit;For determining discharge voltage according to the sum of element cell in discharge loop in management system of discharging, Voltage conversion ratio example is determined according to the discharge voltage, and then discharge voltage is converted into external DC bus-bar voltage and is exported.
9. battery set charge/discharge according to claim 8 manages system, which is characterized in that also wrapped in charging management system Battery charge controller and element cell monitoring device are included, the element cell monitoring device is for monitoring each element cell Terminal voltage, and the serial number of each terminal voltage monitored and corresponding element cell is sent to battery charge controller;
The battery charge controller includes threshold value storage unit and charged state judging unit, wherein:
There are one charge thresholds for threshold value storage unit storage;
Charged state judging unit is used for each terminal voltage and charge threshold that comparison unit battery monitoring device is sent, when described When terminal voltage is greater than or equal to the charge threshold, sends excision instruction and give switching control device, include in the excision instruction There is the serial number of the corresponding element cell of the terminal voltage;
Further include discharge control device and element cell monitoring device, the element cell monitoring device in management system of discharging Terminal voltage for monitoring each element cell, and by each terminal voltage monitored and corresponding element cell Serial number is sent to discharge control device;
The discharge control device includes threshold value storage unit and discharge condition judging unit, wherein:Threshold value storage unit stores There are one discharge thresholds;Each terminal voltage and described that discharge condition judging unit is sent for comparison unit battery monitoring device Discharge threshold sends excision instruction and gives switching control device when the terminal voltage is less than or equal to the discharge threshold, described It include the serial number of the corresponding element cell of the terminal voltage in excision instruction.
10. battery set charge/discharge according to claim 9 manages system, which is characterized in that in charging management system, institute It states and is stored with n charge threshold Ui in threshold value storage unit, i is the positive integer more than 0, and U1<U2<…<Un, Un are unit electricity The charging upper limit voltage in pond;
The battery charge controller further includes threshold value selection unit, and the threshold value selection unit is used for when charging beginning, by institute There is the serial number of element cell of the terminal voltage less than charge threshold U1 to be added in incision instruction and be sent to switching control device, and by institute It states charge threshold U1 and is sent to charged state judging unit, as the charge threshold in charged state judging unit;
The threshold value selection unit is additionally operable in charge circuit after the last one element cell is removed, by all terminal voltages The serial number of element cell less than charge threshold Uj, which is added in incision instruction, is sent to switching control device, and by the charging threshold Value Uj is sent to charged state judging unit as the charge threshold in charged state judging unit;The j successively value be 2, 3、…、n;
In management system of discharging, it is the positive integer more than 1 that n discharge threshold Ui, i are stored in the threshold value storage unit, And U1>U2>…>Un, Un are the electric discharge lower voltage limit of element cell;
The discharge control device further includes threshold value selection unit, and the threshold value selection unit is used for when discharging beginning, by institute There is the serial number of element cell of the terminal voltage less than charge threshold U1 to be added in incision instruction and be sent to switching control device, and by institute It states discharge threshold U1 and is sent to discharge condition judging unit as the discharge threshold in discharge condition judging unit;
The threshold value selection unit is additionally operable in discharge loop after the last one element cell is removed, by all terminal voltages The serial number of element cell less than discharge threshold Uj, which is added in incision instruction, is sent to switching control device, and by the electric discharge threshold Value Uj is sent to discharge condition judging unit as the discharge threshold in discharge condition judging unit;The j successively value be 2, 3、…、n。
CN201810243342.4A 2018-03-23 2018-03-23 Battery pack charging and discharging management system and method CN108400636B (en)

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