CN108252721B - A kind of anti-disconnected hinged tunnel of type and its application for passing through Active Fault Area - Google Patents

A kind of anti-disconnected hinged tunnel of type and its application for passing through Active Fault Area Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108252721B
CN108252721B CN201810025136.6A CN201810025136A CN108252721B CN 108252721 B CN108252721 B CN 108252721B CN 201810025136 A CN201810025136 A CN 201810025136A CN 108252721 B CN108252721 B CN 108252721B
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tunnel
fault
disconnected
hinged
passing
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CN108252721A (en
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钟紫蓝
汪振
赵密
杜修力
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Beijing University of Technology
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Beijing University of Technology
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D9/00Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • E21D9/14Layout of tunnels or galleries; Constructional features of tunnels or galleries, not otherwise provided for, e.g. portals, day-light attenuation at tunnel openings
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D11/00Lining tunnels, galleries or other underground cavities, e.g. large underground chambers; Linings therefor; Making such linings in situ, e.g. by assembling
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D11/00Lining tunnels, galleries or other underground cavities, e.g. large underground chambers; Linings therefor; Making such linings in situ, e.g. by assembling
    • E21D11/04Lining with building materials
    • E21D11/10Lining with building materials with concrete cast in situ; Shuttering also lost shutterings, e.g. made of blocks, of metal plates or other equipment adapted therefor
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D11/00Lining tunnels, galleries or other underground cavities, e.g. large underground chambers; Linings therefor; Making such linings in situ, e.g. by assembling
    • E21D11/04Lining with building materials
    • E21D11/10Lining with building materials with concrete cast in situ; Shuttering also lost shutterings, e.g. made of blocks, of metal plates or other equipment adapted therefor
    • E21D11/107Reinforcing elements therefor; Holders for the reinforcing elements
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D11/00Lining tunnels, galleries or other underground cavities, e.g. large underground chambers; Linings therefor; Making such linings in situ, e.g. by assembling
    • E21D11/14Lining predominantly with metal
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D11/00Lining tunnels, galleries or other underground cavities, e.g. large underground chambers; Linings therefor; Making such linings in situ, e.g. by assembling
    • E21D11/38Waterproofing; Heat insulating; Soundproofing; Electric insulating

Abstract

A kind of anti-disconnected hinged tunnel of type and its application for passing through Active Fault Area belongs to tunnel structure, tunnel structure includes the circumferential flexible hinge between first lining, segment linings and adjacent segment liner, and circumferential flexible hinge influences to arrange in section by different spacing in fault disruption zone tape section and fault belt.Deformed bar is circumferentially disposed in tunnel segment linings;Circumferential flexible hinge is by tunnel-liner inner wall to outer respectively corrugated steel tube, rubber spacer, steel mesh and flexible break resistant concrete layer.It is connected between corrugated steel tube and segment linings by deformed bar.Tunnel water proofing is guaranteed by setting multilayer flashing measure, including PVC splash guard, geomembrane and back-adhering waterstop.Flexible break resistant concrete layer selects superhigh tenacity cement-base composite material, with good impervious and durability.The present invention meets serious mistake momentum caused by active fault, guarantees the safety across active fault tunnel, and the local failure at circumferential flexible hinge is easy and fast to repair, and can guarantee the normal usage function in tunnel after the active fault changing of the relative positions.

Description

A kind of anti-disconnected hinged tunnel of type and its application for passing through Active Fault Area
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of tunnel structures, specially pass through the anti-disconnected hinged tunnel of type and its application of Active Fault Area.
Background technique
In recent decades, multiple violent earthquake occurs in world wide, building and lifeline engineering are caused seriously It destroys, especially the structures such as tunnel, underground utilities.For most earthquakes, fault movement is the main original that it is induced Cause, such as the Wenchuan earthquake and Japanese Kumamoto in 2016 of the Chi-Chi Earthquake of TaiWan, China in 1999, Sichuan Province China in 2008 Earthquake etc..The dynamic meeting Tectonic earthquake of the glutinous slide of active fault, energy are discharged with seismic wave form, and closing on meizoseismal area tunnel can then meet with By obvious earthquake.If related scholar shows Tunnel Passing seismogenic fault or seismogenic fault to the statistics of near-field region tunnel earthquake Around active fault band when, earthquake is particularly acute, such as in Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, friendship tunnel, purple tiling tunnel, The destructions such as the sub- tunnel of dragon's cave-stalactite cave and LongXi tunnel are extremely serious, and these tunnels pass through different active faults.Active fault Changing of the relative positions amount is usually differed by several centimetres to several meters, just because of fault movement and the weak characteristic of fault zone country rock, so that wearing More active fault band tunnel will appear Lining cracks, peeling, faulting of slab ends even tunnel the serious earthquake such as collapse.
Antidetonation and anti-disconnected aspect in Cross-fault leveling tunnel, mainly take following several measures at present: (1) improving tunnel-liner The mechanical characteristic of material carrys out the anti-seismic performance of lift structure, such as increases damping using steel fiber reinforced concrete, mixed using polymer Solidifying soil reduces rigidity etc.;(2) absorbing joint is set, i.e. reduction lining cutting segmental length, makes to destroy concentrating on seam when fault movement Place, and guarantee the overall performance of lining cutting;(3) according to the possible changing of the relative positions amount of tomography, expand tunnel cross-section size, in outer lining and liner Between fill porous material, offsetting fault movement by gap between outer lining and liner influences, but size of backbreaking can be limited to Economic factor.Above section damping or anti-disconnected measure are at home and abroad applied in different Tunnel Engineering, the black sheath of such as China Ridge super long tunnel, Turkey win Lu tunnel and the Iran water tunnel Koohrang-III etc..However the above measure is only applicable to live In the lesser situation of dynamic circuit breaker fault momentum, and when active fault changing of the relative positions amount reaches meter level, tunnel still can occur seriously to destroy And normal usage function is lost, and tunnel structure can not be repaired after calamity in most cases.
Summary of the invention
Present invention aims to overcome that the anti-disconnected measure of existing tunnel is not able to satisfy the shortcomings that tomography big changing of the relative positions, by corrugated steel tube Good tension and shear behavior are applied in tunnel structure, and knot can be kept in the case where the big changing of the relative positions occurs for active fault by providing one kind The safety of structure only generates the anti-disconnected hinged tunnel of type that recoverability is destroyed without influencing its normal use at circumferential flexible hinge Structure.The present invention adopts the following technical scheme:
It is a kind of for passing through the anti-disconnected hinged tunnel of type of Active Fault Area, it is characterised in that: including fault disruption zone tape section, Fault belt influences section and common section;The fault disruption zone tape section and fault belt influence the tunnel-liner of section Structure includes outer lining and segment linings, and is hinged between adjacent segment liner by circumferential flexibility;
The construction of circumferential flexible hinge is by tunnel-liner inner wall to outer respectively corrugated steel tube, rubber spacer, steel mesh, flexibility Anti-crack concrete layer, and waterproof measure is set in circumferential flexible hinge;
Circumferential flexible hinge, which is arranged in fault disruption zone tape section and fault belt, influences section;Circumferential flexible hinge is broken in tomography The arrangement spacing of broken tape section, which is less than fault belt, influences section.
2. further, the flexible break resistant concrete layer selects superhigh tenacity cement-base composite material to combine with reinforcing bar, Wherein the ultimate tensile strength ability of superhigh tenacity cement-base composite material should steadily reach 3% or more, and Elastic Modulus Values It is 1/2~1 of normal concrete selected by segment linings.
3. further, segment linings are circumferentially provided with deformed bar.
4. further, tunnel water proofing is guaranteed by setting multilayer flashing measure, it is provided between outer lining and segment linings anti- Water layer;Back-adhering waterstop is provided on the upstream face of segment linings and flexible break resistant concrete layer seam crossing, on back side It is filled with caulking compounds;Geomembrane is set in flexible break resistant concrete layer.
5. further, the Thickness of flexible break resistant concrete layer is the 1/2 of tunnel thickness of inner lining.
6. further, fault disruption zone bandwidth should be not less than 15m.
7. further, the length value of circumferential flexible hinge takes the 1/4~1/10 of tunnel diameter.
8. further, 2.5m is not to be exceeded in circumferential the taken maximum length of flexible hinge, and minimum length is no less than 1m.
9. further, segment linings should be taken as tunnel diameter 1/3 in the length of fault disruption zone tape section, in fault belt The length value influenced in section takes the 1/3~1/2 of tunnel diameter, and the length of segment linings should be greater than circumferential flexible hinge length.
It is a kind of for passing through the anti-disconnected hinged tunnel of type of Active Fault Area, including tunnel outer lining, segment linings and adjacent Circumferential flexible hinge between segment linings.Ring orientation prestress reinforcing bar is provided in segment linings.It is provided between outer lining and segment linings Waterproof layer.The construction of circumferential flexible hinge is by tunnel-liner inner wall to outer respectively corrugated steel tube, rubber spacer, steel mesh, flexibility Anti-crack concrete layer.The Thickness of flexible break resistant concrete layer is the 1/2 of tunnel thickness of inner lining, to guarantee that it can bear activity Shear action when fault movement but rigidity is less than adjacent segment linings simultaneously.Flexible break resistant concrete layer is internally provided with Geomembrane;Segment linings and flexible break resistant concrete layer seam crossing are provided with back-adhering waterstop.Flexible break resistant concrete layer choosing It is combined with superhigh tenacity cement-base composite material with reinforcing bar, wherein the ultimate tensile strength energy of superhigh tenacity cement-base composite material Power should steadily reach 3% or more, and Elastic Modulus Values are 1/2~1 of normal concrete selected by segment linings.Due to not making It is below normal concrete with the elasticity modulus of coarse aggregate, therefore superhigh tenacity cement-base composite material, it is characterized in that high-ductility Property, low-elasticity-modulus and good durability and barrier properties.
A kind of anti-disconnected hinged tunnel of type for passing through Active Fault Area is by active fault bandwidth and its changing of the relative positions to structure The coverage of lining cutting can be divided into fault disruption zone tape section, fault belt influences section and common section.Fault belt Section is active fault bandwidth, and it is the most serious to the destructiveness of lining cutting that the changing of the relative positions occurs in the area for active fault;Tomography It is the damage of lining range beyond fault disruption zone tape section after the active fault changing of the relative positions that crushed zone, which influences section, and beyond the range Region is then common section, and the changing of the relative positions of active fault will not generate destruction to the lining cutting of common section.
The fault disruption zone bandwidth that the present invention is applicable in should be arranged in fault disruption zone zone not less than 15m, circumferential flexible hinge Section and fault belt influence section.Circumferential flexible hinge length value takes the 1/4~1/10 of tunnel diameter, and circumferential flexible hinge is taken 2.5m is not to be exceeded in maximum length, and minimum length is no less than 1m, this is because circumferential flexible hinge category weak link, therefore it is excessive Damage envelope be not only not easy to repair and be difficult to ensure the normal use in tunnel, and not to be able to satisfy activity then disconnected for too small length The big changing of the relative positions of layer, and to needing certain working space in segment linings when deformed bar tensioning.Segment linings are in fault disruption zone The length of tape section should be taken as tunnel diameter 1/3, fault belt influence section in length value take tunnel diameter 1/3~ 1/2, and the length of segment linings should be greater than circumferential flexible hinge length.It is greater than in the length of fault disruption zone tape section inner segments liner Fault belt, which influences section, can achieve higher economy.
The setting of rubber spacer and steel mesh can be played the role of being effectively protected to corrugated steel tube, and it is mixed to bear flexible break resistant Solidifying soil layer issuable cracking and peeling in stress destruction, absorb portion of energy, and reduction adds corrugated steel tube generation Damage.The ring orientation prestress reinforcing bar being arranged in segment linings not only acts as the anchorage effect to corrugated steel tube, and can be to segment Liner applies compressive pre-stress, improves mechanical property of the concrete under outer load action, and the rigidity of lift structure increases lining cutting knot Structure durability and delayed fracture time of occurrence.Tunnel water proofing be the major issue that needs to solve in the construction for pass through weak surrounding rock it One, it is provided with multilayer flashing measure in the present invention, including the waterproof layer being arranged between outer lining and segment linings, waterproof layer includes Non-woven fabrics buffer layer is set on the outside of PVC splash guard and splash guard;In the upstream face of liner and flexible break resistant concrete layer seam crossing The back-adhering waterstop of upper setting is filled with caulking compounds on back side;Geomembrane is set in flexible break resistant concrete layer, and is prolonged It extends in the segment linings of two sides.
Corrugated steel tube is assembled by different tube couplings, and the screw thread position of bolt will be coated positive connecting hole by tube coupling overlap joint Lubricant, bolts and nuts are all made of galvanizing by dipping processing.The tube coupling junction of corrugated steel tube need to use sealing material packing, with Prevent corrugated steel tube junction from seeping water.The medial and lateral tube wall of corrugated steel tube should brushing pitch cementing material be allowed to be formed anti-corrosion, anti- Water layer.The wall thickness of corrugated steel tube takes between 5~10mm, and pitch of waves value is allowed to can to bear certain outer between 100~200mm Pressure simultaneously guarantees flexibility and rigidity needed for active fault changing of the relative positions process.
The present invention provides a kind of anti-disconnected hinged tunnels of type for passing through Active Fault Area, by setting tunnel liner to not Same segment uses ring so that each segment linings in tunnel after fault movement in the zone of influence are relatively independent between adjacent segment liner It is hinged to flexibility, the overall stiffness of circumferential flexible hinge is less than segment linings, bears main power in the active fault changing of the relative positions And deformation.The main structure of circumferential flexible hinge is by tension and the preferable corrugated steel tube of shear behavior and has high ductility and resists The flexible break resistant concrete layer of collapsing ability forms, and in the active fault changing of the relative positions, utilizes corrugated steel tube drawing in all directions It stretches and compression property, realizes that similar concertina deforms, and is by deformed bar circumferential in liner that adjacent circumferential direction is flexible Hinge is associated, and finally the tunnel axis in the active fault changing of the relative positions zone of influence will become S type, and multiple circumferential flexible hinge deformations It is cumulative then large deformation caused by the active fault changing of the relative positions can be met, destruction of the active fault changing of the relative positions to tunnel-liner is down to most It is low.In circumferential flexible hinge, due to flexible break resistant concrete layer and the good mechanical property of corrugated steel tube, it is ensured that circumferential The corrugated steel tube of its inside and flexible break resistant concrete layer generation part is caused to draw even if flexible hinge bears biggish displacement and power Stretch, shear or bending failure after, can still guarantee junction globality, and after calamity can be changed quickly repair.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is the structural schematic diagram in the anti-disconnected hinged tunnel of type;
Fig. 2 is in Fig. 1 along the organigram of the cross section A-A;
Fig. 3 is circumferential flexible hinge schematic diagram in the anti-disconnected hinged tunnel of type;
Fig. 4 is the enlarged diagram of the part C in Fig. 3;
Fig. 5 is in Fig. 3 along the organigram of the cross section B-B;
Fig. 6 is the splicing schematic diagram of corrugated steel tube;
Fig. 7 is deformation pattern of the segment linings under the active fault changing of the relative positions;
Specific embodiment
1 to Fig. 7 the present invention will be described in detail specific embodiment with reference to the accompanying drawing.
It is a kind of shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 for passing through anti-the break hinged tunnel of type and its application of Active Fault Area.According to work Tunnel is divided into fault disruption zone tape section to the coverage of Structural Lining by dynamic circuit breaker layer bandwidth degree and its changing of the relative positions along its length 1, fault belt influences section 2 and common section 3.The present embodiment is influenced in fault disruption zone tape section 1 and fault belt Tunnel lining-design is segment linings 4 by section 2, is connected between adjacent segment liner 4 by circumferential flexible hinge 5.It is circumferential flexible Hinge 5 influences section 2 in fault disruption zone tape section 1 and fault belt and lays by different spacing to meet active fault changing of the relative positions when institute The big displacement of generation guarantees the safety of tunnel structure.
In tunnel during main structure construction, initial support is carried out to excavation face by outer lining 6 first, is then saved The pouring construction of section liner 4, will reserve corresponding duct in 10 position of deformed bar in the construction of segment linings 4, to mixed After solidifying soil reaches defined intensity, deformed bar 10 is penetrated in reserving hole channel and utilizes anchorage tensioning.
Referring to shown in Fig. 3 to Fig. 6, circumferential flexible hinge 5 is made of five parts, respectively corrugated steel tube 11, flexible break resistant Concrete layer 8, rubber spacer 9, steel mesh 14 and geomembrane 13.Rubber spacer 9 is located at corrugated steel tube 11 and flexible break resistant is mixed Between solidifying soil layer 8, geomembrane 13 is located inside flexible break resistant concrete layer 8, and extends in two sides segment linings 4.Flexibility is anti- Splitting concrete layer 8 selects superhigh tenacity cement-base composite material to be irrigated, and is equipped with reinforcing bar in inside.Corrugated steel tube 11 uses Assembling construction is connected as closed section, both ends by bolt 18, nut 19 and washer 17 between the different tube couplings 16 of corrugated steel tube 11 Welding flange 15.Corrugated steel tube 11 is anchored together by ring flange 15 and deformed bar 10, and uses gap filler pair Existing gap is sealed processing between corrugated steel tube 11 and segment linings 4.Corrugated steel tube 11 and flexible break resistant concrete The rubber spacer 9 and steel mesh 14 used between layer 8 can play the role of protection to corrugated steel tube 11.
Referring to shown in Fig. 2 and Fig. 4, the present embodiment is equipped with waterproof layer 7 between outer lining 6 and segment linings 4, anti-in flexibility It splits and is provided with back-adhering waterstop 12 between concrete layer 8 and segment linings 4 on the upstream face of construction joint, in flexible break resistant coagulation Geomembrane 13 is equipped in soil layer 8.By setting multi layer waterproof measure and use barrier properties and the better concrete material of durability Material can achieve better waterproof effect.
Referring to fig. 7, after the changing of the relative positions occurs for active fault, the corrugated steel tube 11 between adjacent segment liner 4 is in stress After generate compression and tension, due to the ductility and compressibility of ripple, it is possible thereby to generate corner displacement and tension and compression deformation, And the deformation of multiple corrugated steel tubes 11 is cumulative, can meet large deformation caused by the active fault changing of the relative positions.
The above described is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, not doing limitation in any form to the present invention, appoint What is made to the above embodiment according to the technical essence of the invention any simply to repair without departing from technical solution of the present invention content Change, equivalent variations and modification, all of which are still within the scope of the technical scheme of the invention.

Claims (9)

1. a kind of for passing through the anti-disconnected hinged tunnel of type of Active Fault Area, it is characterised in that: including fault disruption zone tape section, break Layer crushed zone influences section and common section;The fault disruption zone tape section and fault belt influence the tunnel-liner knot of section Structure includes outer lining and segment linings, and is hinged between adjacent segment liner by circumferential flexibility;
The construction of circumferential flexible hinge is by tunnel-liner inner wall to outer respectively corrugated steel tube, rubber spacer, steel mesh, flexible break resistant Concrete layer, and waterproof measure is set in circumferential flexible hinge;
Circumferential flexible hinge, which is arranged in fault disruption zone tape section and fault belt, influences section;Circumferential flexible hinge is in fault belt The arrangement spacing of section, which is less than fault belt, influences section.
2. according to claim 1 a kind of for passing through the anti-disconnected hinged tunnel of type of Active Fault Area, it is characterised in that: institute Stating flexible break resistant concrete layer selects superhigh tenacity cement-base composite material to combine with reinforcing bar, and wherein superhigh tenacity cement base is multiple The ultimate tensile strength ability of condensation material should steadily reach 3% or more, and elasticity modulus should be common coagulation selected by segment linings The 1/2~1 of soil.
3. according to claim 1 a kind of for passing through the anti-disconnected hinged tunnel of type of Active Fault Area, it is characterised in that: section Section liner is circumferentially provided with deformed bar.
4. according to claim 1 a kind of for passing through the anti-disconnected hinged tunnel of type of Active Fault Area, it is characterised in that: tunnel Road waterproof is guaranteed by setting multilayer flashing measure, and waterproof layer is provided between outer lining and segment linings;Segment linings with it is soft It is provided with back-adhering waterstop on the upstream face of property anti-crack concrete layer seam crossing, is filled on back side with caulking compounds;In flexibility Geomembrane is set in anti-crack concrete layer.
5. according to claim 1 a kind of for passing through the anti-disconnected hinged tunnel of type of Active Fault Area, it is characterised in that:
The Thickness of flexible break resistant concrete layer is the 1/2 of tunnel thickness of inner lining.
6. according to claim 1 a kind of for passing through the anti-disconnected hinged tunnel of type of Active Fault Area, it is characterised in that:
Fault disruption zone bandwidth should be not less than 15m.
7. according to claim 1 a kind of for passing through the anti-disconnected hinged tunnel of type of Active Fault Area, it is characterised in that:
Circumferential flexible hinge length value takes the 1/4~1/10 of tunnel diameter.
8. according to claim 1 a kind of for passing through the anti-disconnected hinged tunnel of type of Active Fault Area, it is characterised in that:
2.5m is not to be exceeded in circumferential the taken maximum length of flexible hinge, and minimum length is no less than 1m.
9. according to claim 1 a kind of for passing through the anti-disconnected hinged tunnel of type of Active Fault Area, it is characterised in that:
Segment linings should be taken as tunnel diameter 1/3 in the length of fault disruption zone tape section, and integrating tunnel is practical is suitably adjusted It is whole, the length value in section is influenced in fault belt and takes the 1/3~1/2 of tunnel diameter, and the length of segment linings should be greater than Circumferential flexible hinge length.
CN201810025136.6A 2018-01-11 2018-01-11 A kind of anti-disconnected hinged tunnel of type and its application for passing through Active Fault Area Active CN108252721B (en)

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CN110005438B (en) * 2019-04-02 2021-06-18 中交铁道设计研究总院有限公司 Large-deformation tunnel cast-in-place structure design and construction method for crossing movable fault
CN112267901A (en) * 2020-10-23 2021-01-26 西南交通大学 Tunnel structure penetrating through creeping active fault

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