CN103485796A - Tunnel supporting structure across active fault - Google Patents

Tunnel supporting structure across active fault Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103485796A
CN103485796A CN201310491821.5A CN201310491821A CN103485796A CN 103485796 A CN103485796 A CN 103485796A CN 201310491821 A CN201310491821 A CN 201310491821A CN 103485796 A CN103485796 A CN 103485796A
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China
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lining
tunnel
fault
foam concrete
tomography
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Granted
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CN201310491821.5A
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CN103485796B (en
Inventor
王联
林国进
李玉文
郑金龙
郑建国
田尚志
李晓洪
高世军
朱长安
向龙
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Sichuan Highway Planning Survey and Design Institute Ltd
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SICHUAN DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HIGHWAY PLANNING PROSPECTING AND DESIGN RESEARCH INSTITUTE
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Abstract

The invention relates to a tunnel supporting structure, and in particular to a tunnel supporting structure across an active fault. The tunnel supporting structure comprises a fault across section and common supporting sections connected with the two ends of the tunnel supporting structure, wherein the common supporting sections adopt combined lining structures; the fault across section is orderly provided with a secondary lining, a foam concrete layer, a primary lining, a first waterproof layer and a preliminary support from inside to outside along the radial direction of the tunnel; the primary support, the first waterproof layer and the primary lining form the combined lining structure. The tunnel supporting structure is capable of overcoming the problem of application time selection, and is safe and convenient to construct. The primary lining is capable of partially bearing stress generated by the fault due to creep; in the meantime, the foam concrete is capable of providing a displacement space and absorbing energy; finally, the secondary lining is used for forming safety stock of the structure and ensuring that the clearance is not affected by fault movement; the tunnel supporting structure is high in safety storage, and has excellent shock resistance and excellent ability of resisting damage caused by fault creep and fault movement.

Description

Cross over the tunnel support structure of active fault
Technical field
The present invention relates to tunnel support structure, especially a kind of tunnel support structure of crossing over active fault.
Background technology
Tunnel is a kind of building at underground engineering structure, is widely used in the fields such as traffic, mine, water conservancy and national defence.Current tunnel, usually adopt the New Austrian Tunneling Method construction, supporting and protection structure is the composite lining structure, along the tunnel hoop, comprises vault, inverted arch and both sides abutment wall, radially comprises the preliminary bracing in the outside, inboard secondary lining and the waterproofing course between preliminary bracing and secondary lining along tunnel.
Along with the fast development of China's transportation industry, the geographic coverage of building tunnel is more and more wider.According to the prior art standard, in construction of tunnel, if meet tomography, at first should take to dodge the measure of detouring; If, in the time of must passing through active fault because of the route plan restriction, keep and the tomography quadrature, to reduce the affected scope in tunnel as far as possible.Active fault, still once had activity in activity or geologic(al) period in modern age now, tomography that in the future also may be again movable, and as a kind of geological structure, its movable main manifestations is the upper lower burrs changing of the relative positions relatively in time.The motion mode of active fault has two kinds of stick-slip and creeps, the breaking fast of tomography when wherein the stick-slip changing of the relative positions is earthquake, and the creep changing of the relative positions is the slow changing of the relative positions that tomography is not followed earthquake.Cross over the tunnel of active fault, longitudinally lay respectively in the upper dish and lower wall of active fault plane of fracture both sides, therefore on active fault in the relative changing of the relative positions process of dish and lower wall, the safety formation of tunnel support structure is had a strong impact on.
Take normal fault as example, and upper dish along the downward slippage of the plane of fracture, acts in tunnel lining and shows as the Paraclase place and be subject to shear stress under Action of Gravity Field, and at Paraclase two side positions, be subject to should much larger than the axial push-pull of normal condition.During earthquake, the changing of the relative positions of tomography stick-slip, changing of the relative positions amount enlarges markedly, and causes that shear stress suffered in lining cutting increases rapidly, and destruction occurs directly to cut off in lining cutting.And under non-earthquake conditions, the fault creep changing of the relative positions, changing of the relative positions amount is slowly accumulation in time, the impact that tunnel is produced is the trend of cumulative year after year, its destructive process can be regarded the progressive destruction of liner structure under the Static behavior increased gradually as, and compare with the mode of failure of the stick-slip changing of the relative positions, the more common mode of failure of the creep changing of the relative positions is La Zhang – extruding and the mode of failure of shearing combination.Concretely, La Zhang – extruding and the mode of failure of shearing combination, at the distortion initial stage, the fault movement amount is less, the top of lining cutting and bottom produce in the axial direction and draw, compressive stress, and when the intensity of drawing, compressive stress surpasses lining cutting, lining cutting just produces La Zhang – compression fissure; Along with wrong, apart from amount, increase gradually, La Zhang – compression fissure is gradually to whole Lining Ring to expansion, and when shear stress surpasses while not destroying strength of lining, lining cutting will be cut off destruction.
Current, Chinese scholars is less to the tunnel structure research of passing through active fault, and mainly concentrates on the Shear destruction of tunnel structure, as the patent No. is the patent of invention that ZL200910058875.6, denomination of invention are shock resisting and reducing structure spanning movable fault tunnel.The liner structure of foregoing invention patent tunnel shock resisting structure comprises liner and outer lining, be provided with along tunnel the ,Gai vibration absorber, vibration absorber of vertically extending to the active fault both sides consists of the foam concrete layer be filled between liner, outer lining at rock mass active fault position; Outside the two ends of vibration absorber, respectively be provided with along the stabilization zone of tunnel longitudinal extension, stabilization zone consists of the solidifying soil layer of reinforcing bar be filled between liner, outer lining.When earthquake occurs, vibration absorber can absorb seismic energy effectively, and allows active fault that certain displacement is arranged, thereby reduces the impact of active fault on tunnel, effectively improves the shock resisting performance in tunnel.But the tunnel shock resisting structure of foregoing invention patent, the problem of two aspects below existing:
The first, it only considers that the earthquake situations condition is arranged, and the Shear of tunnel structure destroys.Under non-earthquake conditions, the fault creep changing of the relative positions, drawing, under action of compressive stress, only can put up a resistance by secondary lining, and safety stock is low; And the existence of its stabilization zone may change place of application of force, when reducing shear stress, increase axial draw, compressive stress, worsen drawing, the opposing of compressive stress.And the creep changing of the relative positions can weaken its Shear ability when shake is arranged to the destruction of tunnel structure, even make it to lose efficacy.
The second, the New Austrian Tunneling Method construction, also adopt the composite lining structure, and its core gives full play to the self-supporting ability of country rock.Further say, the preliminary bracing of composite lining structure adopts the spray anchor structure, after cavern excavation, carry out in time, preliminary bracing itself has certain flexibility and deformation characteristic, thereby can control timely and effectively and adjust the heavily distribution of surrouding rock stress after excavation, protect to greatest extent rock mass structure and mechanical characteristic, make country rock and preliminary bracing obtain homeostasis in the process of common distortion, take full advantage of the self-supporting ability of country rock; The secondary lining of composite lining structure adopts reinforced concrete structure, bears the later stage pressure from surrounding rock, applies too early secondary lining, and the self-supporting ability of country rock does not reach optimum state, and then makes secondary lining bear larger pressure from surrounding rock; Therefore delay and apply secondary lining, can affect the stability of preliminary bracing, there is strict requirement the time that applies for the secondary lining of composite lining structure, applies in time after usually requiring supporting in the early stage stable.And the foregoing invention patent, the foam concrete layer is set between supporting in the early stage and secondary lining, its after supporting construction completes in the early stage, secondary lining applies front needs and carries out applying of foam concrete layer, therefore its supporting in the early stage applies secondary lining after stablizing in time, can't give full play to the self-supporting ability of country rock, and then the safety of construction, the strength and stability of lining cutting are impacted.Simultaneously, if between secondary lining and foam concrete layer, waterproofing course is set, can further hinder applying of secondary lining; If between secondary lining and foam concrete layer, waterproofing course is not set, because the foam concrete water permeability is better, in the time of can causing secondary lining to build, the loss of moisture in concrete, cause secondary lining plastic shrinkage cracks or pitted skin to occur, affects the strength and stability of lining cutting.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem to be solved by this invention is to provide a kind of tunnel support structure of crossing over active fault, its construction safety, convenience, and there is the ability of good shock resistance and opposing fault creep changing of the relative positions destruction.
The technical solution adopted for the present invention to solve the technical problems is: the tunnel support structure of crossing over active fault, comprise vault, inverted arch and both sides abutment wall along the tunnel hoop, vertically comprise tomography leap section along tunnel and cross over the section common supporting section that axially two ends join with tomography respectively; Described common supporting section adopts the composite lining structure, comprises the preliminary bracing of radial outside, secondary lining and the waterproofing course between preliminary bracing and secondary lining of radially inner side; Along tunnel radially, described tomography is crossed over section and is respectively arranged with from inside to outside secondary lining, foam concrete layer, preliminary bracing; Cross between the secondary lining of section and preliminary bracing and be provided with the once lining of loopful to sealing at described tomography, be provided with the first waterproofing course between supporting in the early stage and once lining, described once lining adopts reinforced concrete structure, by preliminary bracing, the first waterproofing course and once lining, forms the composite lining structure; Described foam concrete layer is between secondary lining and once lining.
Further, the axial two ends of described tomography leap section flexibly connect with corresponding common supporting section.Concrete, be respectively arranged with aseismatic joint between the axial two ends that described tomography is crossed over section and corresponding common supporting section.
Further, described foam concrete layer between secondary lining and once lining and cross section c-shaped, the foam concrete layer of described C shape is between vault and the corresponding secondary lining and once lining of both sides abutment wall, and the opening of the foam concrete layer of described C shape is corresponding with inverted arch.
Further, the two ends of described foam concrete layer are wedge shape and insert between inverted arch two ends corresponding secondary lining and once lining.
Further, be provided with second waterproofing course of loopful to sealing between foam concrete layer and secondary lining.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows: form the composite lining structure by preliminary bracing, the first waterproofing course and once lining, therefore can overcome the problem that applies selection of time, construction safety, convenience.Once lining can partly bear and come from the stress that fault creep produces; Simultaneously, the displacement space that provides the changing of the relative positions to produce by the foam concrete layer also effectively absorbs energy, the headroom that finally by secondary lining, forms the safety stock of tunnel support structure and guarantee tunnel is not subject to the impact of fault movement, safety stock is large, there is good Shear damage capability and tension Zhang – squeeze and destroy ability, also there is the ability that good shock resistance and the changing of the relative positions of opposing fault creep destroy.
The accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the horizontal sectional schematic diagram that the present invention crosses over the active fault tunnel support structure;
Fig. 2 is vertical sectional schematic diagram that the present invention crosses over the active fault tunnel support structure.
The specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with drawings and Examples, the present invention is further described.
As shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2, the tunnel support structure of leap active fault of the present invention, comprise vault 11, inverted arch 12 and both sides abutment wall 13 along the tunnel hoop, vertically comprise tomography leap section 14 along tunnel and cross over tomography the common supporting section 15 that section 14 axial two ends join respectively; Described common supporting section 15 adopts the composite lining structure, comprises the preliminary bracing 21 of radial outside, secondary lining 23 and the waterproofing course 22 between preliminary bracing 21 and secondary lining 23 of radially inner side; Along tunnel radially, described tomography is crossed over section 14 and is respectively arranged with from inside to outside secondary lining 23, foam concrete layer 24, preliminary bracing 21; Cross between the secondary lining 23 of section 14 and preliminary bracing 21 and be provided with the once lining 25 of loopful to sealing at described tomography, be provided with the first waterproofing course 26 between supporting in the early stage 21 and once lining 25, described once lining 25 adopts reinforced concrete structure, by preliminary bracing 21, the first waterproofing course 26 and once lining 25, forms the composite lining structure; Described foam concrete layer 24 is between secondary lining 23 and once lining 25.
The tunnel support structure of leap active fault of the present invention, cross over section 14 at described tomography, form the composite lining structure by preliminary bracing 21, the first waterproofing course 26 and once lining 25, its construction technology is identical with the construction technology of existing composite lining structure, can after cavern excavation, apply in time preliminary bracing 21, after supporting in the early stage 21 is stable, apply in time once lining 25.Therefore, can overcome prior art in the problem applied on selection of time, can take full advantage of the self-supporting ability of country rock, guaranteeing construction safety, simultaneously easily, by formed the composite lining structure division by preliminary bracing 21, the first waterproofing course 26 and once lining 25, bearing and come from the stress that fault creep produces.
Secondly, foam concrete layer 24 is between once lining 25 and secondary lining 23, because foam concrete has high compression ratio, make between the composite lining structure that formed by preliminary bracing 21, the first waterproofing course 26 and once lining 25 and secondary lining 23 and form and flexibly connect.After the composite lining consisted of preliminary bracing 21, the first waterproofing course 26 and once lining 25 is destructurized, no matter cut off and destroyed or La Zhang – squeeze and destroy, the displacement space that all can provide the changing of the relative positions to produce by foam concrete layer 24 also effectively absorbs energy, reducing effect is in the deformation pressure of secondary lining 23, and deformation pressure is spread uniformly to secondary lining 23, the headroom that finally by secondary lining 23, forms the safety stock of tunnel support structures and guarantee tunnel is not subject to the impact of fault movement.
Therefore, in sum, the tunnel support structure of leap active fault of the present invention, construction safety, convenience, safety stock is large, has good Shear damage capability and tension Zhang – squeeze and destroy ability, also has the ability that good shock resistance and the changing of the relative positions of opposing fault creep destroy.
The radial thickness of above-mentioned foam concrete layer 24 according to tunnel in service life deformation of fault creep total displacement amount and the compressible space of self determine.The foam concrete parameter can be set according to existing standard, in example as shown in the figure, is: dry apparent density 400kg/m 3~800kg/m 3, compressive strength 2.0~5.0MPa, porosity is not less than 50%, modulus of elasticity 0.3~1.2GPa.The radial thickness of once lining 25 and secondary lining 23 need to be determined according to actual intensity, and in example as shown in the figure, the radial thickness of once lining 25 is 50~70cm, and the radial thickness of secondary lining 23 is 30~50cm.
Because tomography leap section 14 belongs to the same tunnel with common supporting section 15, so tomography leap section 14 secondary linings 23 are consistent with the headroom of common supporting section 15 secondary linings 23; But cross over section 14 at tomography, owing to having increased once lining 25 and foam concrete layer 24, therefore, the tunnel cross section of tomography leap section 14 is greater than the tunnel cross section of common supporting section 15.And the tunnel cross section of crossing over section 14 due to tomography is greater than the tunnel cross section of common supporting section 15, therefore the preliminary bracing 21 of tomography leap section 14 and the preliminary bracing 21 of common supporting section 15 are separate structure, therefore also tomography is crossed over joining of section 14 and common supporting section 15, is in fact also the tomography secondary lining 23 of crossing over section 14 joining with the secondary lining 23 of common supporting section 15.The axial two ends that tomography is crossed over section 14 join with corresponding common supporting section 15, can be that to be rigidly connected can be also to flexibly connect, and its concrete connected mode form can adopt according to actual needs and have arbitrarily connected mode now.
But be rigidly connected with respect to fixed grade, flexibly connect the vertical transmission that can avoid seismic energy, vertical transmission of avoiding tension and compression stress, therefore, best, the axial two ends that described tomography is crossed over section 14 flexibly connect with corresponding common supporting section 15.Concrete, in example as shown in the figure, between the axial two ends that described tomography is crossed over section 14 and corresponding common supporting section 15, be respectively arranged with aseismatic joint 17.
The axial two ends of crossing over section 14 due to tomography flexibly connect with corresponding common supporting section 15, therefore, if foam concrete layer 24 adopts the annular of loopful to sealing, under secondary lining 23 deadweights and action of traffic loading, at the secondary lining 23 of inverted arch 12 positions and foam concrete layer 24 pressurized between once lining 25, easily cause the sedimentation of tomography leap section 14 secondary linings 23.Therefore, further, described foam concrete layer 24 between secondary lining 23 and once lining 25 and cross section c-shaped, the foam concrete layer 24 of described C shape is between the secondary lining 23 and once lining 25 of vault 11 and both sides abutment wall 13 correspondences, the opening of the foam concrete layer 24 of described C shape is corresponding with inverted arch 12, now, the secondary lining 34 of inverted arch 12 correspondences is supported by once lining 32, can avoid the above-mentioned sedimentation that may occur.
Further, the two ends of described foam concrete layer 24 are wedge shape and insert between inverted arch 12 two ends corresponding secondary lining 23 and once lining 25.Wedge-shaped design, the stress of having avoided the shape sudden change to cause is concentrated; Simultaneously, by Wedge insertion inverted arch 12 two ends between corresponding secondary lining 23 and once lining 25, can increase the curvature of the corresponding once lining 25 in inverted arch 12 two ends, reduce the curvature of the corresponding secondary lining 23 in inverted arch 12 two ends simultaneously, thereby increase the relative shift of secondary lining 23 and once lining 25 along continuous straight runs.
Further, be provided with second waterproofing course 27 of loopful to sealing between foam concrete layer 24 and secondary lining 23.By the setting of the second waterproofing course 27, prevent the loss of moisture in concrete when tomography is crossed over the secondary lining 23 of section 14 and built, cause tomography to cross over section 14 secondary linings 23 and plastic shrinkage cracks or pitted skin occur; Simultaneously, as mentioned above, the secondary lining 23 of tunnel support structure inverted arch part is supported by once lining 25, by the setting of the second waterproofing course 27, makes secondary lining 23 and once lining 25 separate, and forms buffering.
Above-mentioned waterproofing course 22, the first waterproofing course 26, the second waterproofing course 27 all adopt synthetic macromolecule coiled material, as polyvinyl chloride sheet, PUR coiled material, high density polyethylene (HDPE) coiled material, low density polyethylene (LDPE) coiled material etc.In example as shown in the figure, waterproofing course 22, the first waterproofing course 26, the second waterproofing course 27 all adopt the high density polyethylene (HDPE) coiled material to form.

Claims (6)

1. cross over the tunnel support structure of active fault, comprise vault (11), inverted arch (12) and both sides abutment wall (13) along the tunnel hoop, vertically comprise tomography leap section (14) along tunnel and cross over section (14) common supporting section (15) that axially two ends join with tomography respectively; Described common supporting section (15) adopts the composite lining structure, comprise radial outside preliminary bracing (21), radially inner side secondary lining (23) and be positioned at preliminary bracing (21) and secondary lining (23) between waterproofing course (22); Along tunnel radially, described tomography leap section (14) is respectively arranged with secondary lining (23), foam concrete layer (24), preliminary bracing (21) from inside to outside; It is characterized in that: at described tomography, cross between the secondary lining (23) of section (14) and preliminary bracing (21) and be provided with loopful to the once lining (25) sealed, be provided with the first waterproofing course (26) between supporting in the early stage (21) and once lining (25), described once lining (25) adopts reinforced concrete structure, by preliminary bracing (21), the first waterproofing course (26) and once lining (25), forms the composite lining structure; Described foam concrete layer (24) is positioned between secondary lining (23) and once lining (25).
2. the tunnel support structure of leap active fault as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that: the axial two ends that described tomography is crossed over section (14) flexibly connect with corresponding common supporting section (15).
3. the tunnel support structure of leap active fault as claimed in claim 2 is characterized in that: between the axial two ends that described tomography is crossed over section (14) and corresponding common supporting section (15), be respectively arranged with aseismatic joint (17).
4. the tunnel support structure of leap active fault as claimed in claim 2, it is characterized in that: described foam concrete layer (24) be positioned between secondary lining (23) and once lining (25) and cross section c-shaped, the foam concrete layer (24) of described C shape is positioned between the secondary lining (23) and once lining (25) of vault (11) and both sides abutment wall (13) correspondence, and the opening of the foam concrete layer (24) of described C shape is corresponding with inverted arch (12).
5. the tunnel support structure of leap active fault as claimed in claim 4, it is characterized in that: the two ends of described foam concrete layer (24) are wedge shape and insert between inverted arch (12) two ends corresponding secondary lining (23) and once lining (25).
6. as the tunnel support structure of claim 1,2,3,4 or 5 described leap active faults, it is characterized in that: be provided with second waterproofing course (27) of loopful to sealing between foam concrete layer (24) and secondary lining (23).
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