CN108206314A - 车辆高压电池装置 - Google Patents

车辆高压电池装置 Download PDF

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CN108206314A
CN108206314A CN201710716608.8A CN201710716608A CN108206314A CN 108206314 A CN108206314 A CN 108206314A CN 201710716608 A CN201710716608 A CN 201710716608A CN 108206314 A CN108206314 A CN 108206314A
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hollow
battery module
cooling
upper plate
coldplate
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CN108206314B (zh
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金敏煜
安进韩
全伦哲
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Hyundai Motor Co
Kia Corp
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Kia Motors Corp
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K1/00Arrangement or mounting of electrical propulsion units
    • B60K1/04Arrangement or mounting of electrical propulsion units of the electric storage means for propulsion
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L50/00Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle
    • B60L50/50Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle using propulsion power supplied by batteries or fuel cells
    • B60L50/60Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle using propulsion power supplied by batteries or fuel cells using power supplied by batteries
    • B60L50/64Constructional details of batteries specially adapted for electric vehicles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L50/00Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle
    • B60L50/50Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle using propulsion power supplied by batteries or fuel cells
    • B60L50/60Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle using propulsion power supplied by batteries or fuel cells using power supplied by batteries
    • B60L50/66Arrangements of batteries
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L58/00Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles
    • B60L58/10Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles for monitoring or controlling batteries
    • B60L58/24Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles for monitoring or controlling batteries for controlling the temperature of batteries
    • B60L58/26Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles for monitoring or controlling batteries for controlling the temperature of batteries by cooling
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    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/60Heating or cooling; Temperature control
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    • H01M10/655Solid structures for heat exchange or heat conduction
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    • H01M10/60Heating or cooling; Temperature control
    • H01M10/65Means for temperature control structurally associated with the cells
    • H01M10/656Means for temperature control structurally associated with the cells characterised by the type of heat-exchange fluid
    • H01M10/6567Liquids
    • H01M10/6568Liquids characterised by flow circuits, e.g. loops, located externally to the cells or cell casings
    • HELECTRICITY
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    • H01M50/20Mountings; Secondary casings or frames; Racks, modules or packs; Suspension devices; Shock absorbers; Transport or carrying devices; Holders
    • H01M50/249Mountings; Secondary casings or frames; Racks, modules or packs; Suspension devices; Shock absorbers; Transport or carrying devices; Holders specially adapted for aircraft or vehicles, e.g. cars or trains
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    • H01M50/253Mountings; Secondary casings or frames; Racks, modules or packs; Suspension devices; Shock absorbers; Transport or carrying devices; Holders adapted for specific cells, e.g. electrochemical cells operating at high temperature
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    • H01M50/258Modular batteries; Casings provided with means for assembling
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    • H01M50/20Mountings; Secondary casings or frames; Racks, modules or packs; Suspension devices; Shock absorbers; Transport or carrying devices; Holders
    • H01M50/262Mountings; Secondary casings or frames; Racks, modules or packs; Suspension devices; Shock absorbers; Transport or carrying devices; Holders with fastening means, e.g. locks
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K1/00Arrangement or mounting of electrical propulsion units
    • B60K2001/003Arrangement or mounting of electrical propulsion units with means for cooling the electrical propulsion units
    • B60K2001/005Arrangement or mounting of electrical propulsion units with means for cooling the electrical propulsion units the electric storage means
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K1/00Arrangement or mounting of electrical propulsion units
    • B60K1/04Arrangement or mounting of electrical propulsion units of the electric storage means for propulsion
    • B60K2001/0405Arrangement or mounting of electrical propulsion units of the electric storage means for propulsion characterised by their position
    • B60K2001/0438Arrangement under the floor
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60YINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO ASPECTS CROSS-CUTTING VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY
    • B60Y2306/00Other features of vehicle sub-units
    • B60Y2306/01Reducing damages in case of crash, e.g. by improving battery protection
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
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    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
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  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
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  • Secondary Cells (AREA)
  • Battery Mounting, Suspending (AREA)

Abstract

本发明提供一种用于车辆的高压电池装置。该电池装置安装在车辆的下部并且包括多个电池模块和冷却单元,该冷却单元具有多个腔体,电池模块插入并固定在腔体中。冷却单元具有中空部,冷却水流过中空部,由此利用冷却水冷却电池模块。

Description

车辆高压电池装置
技术领域
本发明涉及用于混合动力车辆或者电动车辆中的高压电池装置,并且更具体地,涉及在冷却单元与电池模块之间具有高效率的热交换,且重量轻、尺寸小的车辆高压电池装置。
背景技术
环保型车辆,如电动车辆和混合动力车辆,使用电动机作为驱动源,而电动机的能量源是电。因此,需要在环保型车辆内部安装电池作为能量源。环保型车辆的行驶距离与安装在其中的电池组容量成正比。因此,对于具有大能量容量电池的关注度有所提升。然而,电池容量的增加会导致电池所产生热量的增加。如果热量不能充分地逸散,则电池的性能会恶化。因此,将电池维持在合适的温度是至关重要的。
常规的空气冷却系统通过在电池模块之间形成空气通道,并循环空气穿过空气通道来冷却电池模块。然而,在常规的空气冷却系统中,尽管车辆的内部空间受限,但通常还是需要增加安装在车辆内部的电池模块的数量。由于车辆的空间受限,难以形成多个空气通道用以冷却大量的电池模块,这阻碍了冷却效率的改善。因此,已经提出冷却单元采用间接冷却系统来取代采用直接冷却系统,该间接冷却系统利用冷却水来冷却电池模块。
图1是常规车辆高压电池装置的截面图,该装置包括采用根据现有技术的间接冷却系统的冷却单元。如图1所示,利用冷却水的常规间接冷却系统构造有固定至下电池壳31的冷却单元21,并且电池模块11的相应侧表面由布置在下电池壳31上的支架32固定。然而,由于使用支架32将电池模块11和冷却单元21彼此组装并且由于电池模块11的相应侧存在死区,因此常规的间接冷却系统增大了车辆高压电池装置的重量和体积。
此外,常规的冷却单元21容易被外部撞击损坏,因为装配有常规冷却单元的车辆高压电池装置通常安装在车辆的下部。因此,需要设置下盖41来环绕车辆的下部。然而,这是降低车辆行驶性能并增加车辆成本的一个因素。
前述内容仅意在帮助理解本发明的背景技术,并不意在表示本发明落入所属领域技术人员已知的现有技术的范围内。
发明内容
因此,本发明提供一种车辆高压电池装置,其具有可提高冷却单元与电池模块之间的热交换率并且可有效地固定电池模块的结构。
本发明的另一目的是提供一种重量轻体积小的车辆高压电池装置,由此改善车辆的行驶性能。本发明的另一目的是提供具有改进结构的车辆高压电池装置,其可以加固冷却单元,而无需使用额外的下盖。
根据一个方面,安装在车辆下部的车辆高压电池装置可包括:多个电池模块;以及具有多个腔体和中空部的冷却单元,电池模块插入并固定在腔体中,冷却水流过中空部,该冷却单元构造为利用冷却水来冷却电池模块。
冷却单元可包括:冷却板,冷却水流过冷却板,冷却板可包括位于其上表面中的多个固定槽,该固定槽以对应于电池模块长度的距离彼此间隔;以及多个支撑块,部分嵌入相应固定槽中,由此在其间限定出腔体。该冷却单元可进一步包括主架,冷却水流过该主架并且该主架布置在中空冷却板的上表面的边缘处。
中空冷却板可包括:中空下板;多个中空上板,其与电池模块的下表面接触以冷却电池模块,中空上板布置在中空下板上方并与其间隔,中空上板上设置有腔体;多个支撑元件,其夹设在中空下板与中空上板之间以允许中空下板和中空上板穿过其而彼此连通;多个冷却水供给排放构件,其从主冷却架分支出,通过该元件将冷却水供给至中空上板并从中空上板排放。
冷却水供给排放构件可布置为与电池模块的端部接触,由此限制布置在中空上板上的电池模块沿着电池模块的纵向移动。中空上板可由铝制成。中空下板和支撑元件可由比中空上板强度更高的材料制成。电池模块可装配有相应的固定架,其从相应的电池模块延伸至支撑块的上表面并被固定至支撑块。
根据本发明的示例实施例,可以简化车辆高压电池装置的组装并改善车辆高压电池装置的冷却效率。此外,根据本发明,可以使车辆高压电池装置中的死区最小化。还可以加固车辆高压电池装置的冷却单元,无需使用下盖。该加固结构减小了车辆高压电池装置的重量和体积,这改善了车辆的行驶性能。
附图说明
本发明的上述和其它目的、特征和其它优点将通过下面详细的描述并结合附图而更加清晰地理解,其中:
图1是根据现有技术的车辆高压电池装置的截面图,其装配有实施间接冷却的常规冷却单元;
图2是根据本发明一个示例实施例的车辆高压电池装置的透视图;
图3是根据本发明示例实施例的示出了电池模块与冷却单元的组装后结构的透视图;
图4是根据本发明示例实施例的车辆高压电池装置的截面图;以及
图5是根据本发明示例实施例的冷却板的透视图。
具体实施方式
应当理解本文所用术语“车辆”或“车辆的”或其它类似术语通常包括机动车辆,如乘用车,包括运动型多用途车辆(SUV),公共车辆,货车,各种商业车辆,如水运工具,包括各种小舟和轮船,如航空器,等等,并且还包括混合动力车辆、电动车辆、插入式混合电动车辆,氢动力车辆以及其它可替换的燃料车辆(例如源自石油以外资源的燃料)。如本文所述,混合型车辆是具有两种或多种动力源的车辆,例如同时具备汽油和电力的车辆。
本文所使用的术语仅用于描述具体的实施例,并不意在限制本发明。如本文所使用的,单数形式“一”、“一个”、“这个”也包括复数形式,除非文中另有明确地指示。还应当理解术语“包括”和/或“包含”,当用于本说明书时,指定所出现的设定特征、整体、步骤、操作、元件和/或部件,但并不排除其中出现的或额外的一个或多个其它特征、整体、步骤、操作、元件、部件和/或组。如本文所使用的,术语“和/或”包括一个或多个相关所列项目的任意和全部的组合。
除非具体指定或文中明显看出,如本文所使用的,术语“大约”应当理解为在现有正常公差范围内,例如在均值的两个标准差以内。“大约”可被理解为在设定值的10%,9%,8%,7%,6%,5%,4%,3%,2%,1%,0.5%,0.1%,0.05%或0.01%的范围内。除非文中另外明显看出,本文所提出的全部数值均由术语“大约”修饰。
在下文中,将参照附图更加全面地描述示例实施例。然而,本公开可以多个不同的形式来实施并且不应解释为限制为本文所列出的示例实施例。而且,提供这些示例实施例以使本公开透彻完整,并且全面地将本公开的范围传达给所属领域技术人员。整个附图中,相似的附图标记指代相似的元件。
根据本发明一个示例实施例的车辆高压电池装置装配有冷却单元以改善冷却效率。因此,冷却单元可被构造为有效地冷却多个电池模块,并且不需要常规用于保护冷却单元的保护下盖。本发明的结构由此使电池装置中的死区最小化,并且减小了电池装置的整体重量和体积。
图2是示出了根据本发明一个示例实施例的车辆高压电池装置的透视图。如图2所示,根据本发明的示例实施例,车辆高压电池装置可包括多个电池模块100和冷却单元200,电池模块100固定安装在冷却单元200中,并且冷却单元200可被构造为使用冷却水来冷却电池模块100。冷却单元200可包括多个腔体240,腔体的宽度对应于电池模块100的长度。腔体240可沿着冷却单元200的纵向布置。电池模块100可被插入到腔体240中并被固定,无法在腔体240中移动。
图3示出了根据本发明示例实施例的电池模块与冷却单元的组装后的结构,图4是根据本发明示例实施例的车辆高压电池装置的截面图。如图3和图4所示,根据本发明的示例实施例,冷却单元200可包括:冷却板210,其具有沿冷却板210纵向布置的多个固定槽210a;以及多个支撑块220,其部分嵌入在相应的固定槽210a中以在其间限定腔体240。
根据本发明的示例实施例,冷却单元200可进一步包括主冷却架230,其在冷却板210的边缘处像栅栏一样竖直布置,以便将电池模块100稳固地固定插入到由支撑块220所限定的腔体240中。冷却架230具有框架形状,并且可在边缘处环绕电池模块100和冷却板210。具体地,冷却架230可以是其内部具有通道的环状中空架,并且该通道可与冷却板210的内部空间连通。因此,冷却水可在冷却架230与冷却板210之间流通。冷却架230具有增大热交换区域的作用,与电池模块100的热交换便发生在该区域。
图5是用于描述根据本发明一个示例实施例的冷却板的视图。如图5所示,根据本发明的示例实施例,冷却板210可包括中空下板211和多个中空上板212,该多个中空上板212沿着冷却单元200的纵向布置在中空下板211的上方。中空上板212的宽度大约等于电池模块100的宽度。冷却板210可进一步包括多个支撑元件213以及多个冷却水供给排放构件214,支撑元件安装在中空上板212与中空下板211之间,通过冷却水供给排放构件冷却水可被供给至中空上板212并且从中空上板212排放到外部。
每一个中空上板212具有冷却水流通的内部空间。中空上板212可与布置在其上表面的电池模块100的下表面接触,由此冷却电池模块100。因此,中空上板211可由高导热材料制成,如铝或铝合金。因此,电池模块可被高效地冷却。
根据本发明的示例实施例,中空下板211具有冷却水可流通的内部通道,并且具有足够的纵向的长度来在其上容纳多个中空上板212。中空下板211与中空上板212可通过夹设在其间的多个支撑元件213结合。
中空上板212和中空下板211可通过支撑元件213彼此连通,该支撑元件213为环状中空元件,并且由此,冷却水可以在中空上板212的内部空间与中空下板211的内部空间之间来回地流动。由于支撑元件213用作加固中空上板212和中空下板211的加固元件,因此没有必要使用额外的下盖,在现有技术中该下盖通常布置在冷却单元200的下方用来保护冷却单元200。本发明的该结构不包括下盖,具有减小车辆高压电池装置重量和体积的作用。
此外,由于中空上板212和中空下板211可以彼此连通,因此当冷却板210与物体撞击而损坏时,冷却板210中的冷却水可以撞击的同时被排放。因此,常规冷却单元中存在的如下问题可以被解决,即从被损坏的常规冷却单元中泄露的冷却水被收集到下盖上,导致电池模块短路。因此,本发明能够防止电池故障造成的事故。
此外,中空下板211和支撑元件213可由碳钢或不锈钢制成,其强度大于中空上板212的材质。中空下板211和支撑元件213是零部件,其不与电池模块100直接接触,因此不但不与电池模块100发生热交换,而且当行驶的车辆与物体发生撞击时可以是冲击最小化。
根据本发明的示例实施例,冷却水供给排放构件214是冷却水可被引入冷却板210的内部空间中并从冷却板210中排放的元件。冷却水供给排放构件214安装在中空上板212的顶部并且可与电池模块100的端部接触(例如,邻接),由此限制电池模块100在电池模块纵向上的移动,即冷却单元200的宽度方向。因此,电池模块100可被更加稳固地固定。
根据本发明的示例实施例,多个固定架110可从电池模块100的侧表面延伸至支撑块220的上表面。固定架110可通过焊接方法或使用螺栓被固定至支撑块220。固定架110具有更加稳固地固定电池模块100的作用,由此防止电池模块100从腔体240松脱。
如上所述,根据本发明的示例实施例,冷却单元200具有改善的结构,其更加稳固地固定电池模块100,增加了冷却效率,并且提高了机械强度。因此,冷却单元200不再需要额外的下盖,这减少了车辆高压电池装置的重量、体积和制造成本。
尽管为了示意性的目的描述了本发明的示例实施例,但本发明不应限于示例实施例,而且由附加的权利要求所限定。因此,所属领域技术人员在不脱离本发明在附加权利要求中所公开的范围和精神的情况下,可以获得变型、叠加和替代。

Claims (9)

1.一种被安装在车辆下部的车辆高压电池装置,该电池装置包含:
多个电池模块;以及
冷却单元,具有多个腔体和中空部,电池模块插入并固定在腔体中,冷却水流过中空部,
其中该冷却单元构造为利用冷却水来冷却电池模块。
2.根据权利要求1的电池装置,其中该冷却单元包括:
冷却板,冷却水流过该冷却板,该冷却板具有位于其上表面的多个固定槽,该固定槽以对应于电池模块长度的距离彼此间隔;以及
多个支撑块,部分嵌入在相应固定槽中以在其间限定出腔体。
3.根据权利要求2的电池装置,其中该冷却单元进一步包括主冷却架,冷却水流过该主冷却架并且该主冷却架布置在中空冷却板的上表面的边缘处。
4.根据权利要求3的电池装置,其中中空冷却板包括:
中空下板;
多个中空上板,其与电池模块的下表面接触以冷却电池模块,中空上板布置在中空下板上方并与其间隔,中空上板上设置有腔体;
多个支撑元件,其夹设在中空下板与中空上板之间以使中空下板和中空上板彼此连通;以及
多个冷却水供给排放构件,其从主冷却架分支出,通过该冷却水供给排放构件将冷却水供给至该中空上板并从中空上板排放。
5.根据权利要求4的电池装置,其中该冷却水供给排放构件布置为与电池模块的端部接触,以限制布置在中空上板上的电池模块在电池模块的纵向上的移动。
6.根据权利要求4的电池装置,其中该中空上板由铝制成。
7.根据权利要求6的电池装置,其中该中空下板和支撑元件由比该中空上板强度更高的材料制成。
8.根据权利要求2的电池装置,其中该电池模块装配有相应的固定架,该固定架从相应的电池模块延伸至支撑块的上表面并被固定至支撑块。
9.根据权利要求3的电池装置,其中该冷却架是其内部具有通道的环状中空架,并且该通道与冷却板的内部空间连通。
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