CN108145531B - Device and method for detecting motion characteristic and precision degradation rule of machine tool - Google Patents

Device and method for detecting motion characteristic and precision degradation rule of machine tool Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108145531B
CN108145531B CN201810014457.6A CN201810014457A CN108145531B CN 108145531 B CN108145531 B CN 108145531B CN 201810014457 A CN201810014457 A CN 201810014457A CN 108145531 B CN108145531 B CN 108145531B
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machine tool
main shaft
precision
workbench
detecting
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CN108145531A (en
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张巍
张国芳
张利新
韩艳
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Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology
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Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q17/00Arrangements for observing, indicating or measuring on machine tools
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q17/00Arrangements for observing, indicating or measuring on machine tools
    • B23Q17/22Arrangements for observing, indicating or measuring on machine tools for indicating or measuring existing or desired position of tool or work

Abstract

The invention discloses a device for detecting the motion characteristic and the precision degradation rule of a machine tool, which comprises a fixed rotating shaft, a connecting plate, a mechanical sensor, a groove type connecting plate and a main shaft cutter handle, wherein the fixed rotating shaft is arranged on the connecting plate; wherein, the fixed rotating shaft is connected with the machine tool workbench. The main shaft tool handle is connected with a main shaft of the machine tool. The invention also discloses a method for detecting the motion characteristic and the precision degradation rule of the machine tool based on the device. The device and the method for detecting the motion characteristic and the precision degradation rule of the machine tool are simple and convenient to install and detect, realize the detection of the coupling precision retentivity and the dynamic characteristic of the main shaft and the workbench of the machine tool, and can effectively detect the dynamic rotation precision, the dynamic characteristic of a main shaft bearing and the degradation rule of the rotation precision of the main shaft of the machine tool without excessive disassembly. The device effectively avoids the problem that the measurement result is inaccurate due to inconsistent experimental conditions. The method is favorable for accurately controlling the errors and the abrasion of the machine tool and improving the precision control level of the domestic machine tool.

Description

Device and method for detecting motion characteristic and precision degradation rule of machine tool
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of precision numerical control equipment, in particular to a device and a method for detecting motion characteristics and precision degradation rules of a machine tool.
Background
With the rapid development of social production and scientific technology, mechanical products are increasingly precise and complex, and need to be frequently modified, particularly mechanical parts required in the fields of space navigation, shipbuilding, military and the like, and have high precision requirement, complex shape and small batch. Equipment is required to be frequently modified or adjusted when the products are machined, and a common machine tool or an automatic machine tool with high specialization degree cannot meet the requirements, so that higher requirements are put forward for the numerical control machining technology; the application of technologies such as ultra-high speed cutting, ultra-precision machining and the like provides higher performance indexes for a numerical control system, servo performance, main shaft driving, a machine tool structure and the like of a numerical control machine tool.
The machine tool spindle developed and produced in China has many defects in the aspects of precision and dynamic characteristics. The motion characteristics, the precision performance and the like are still to be further improved, and the measurement of the positioning precision and the fretting wear of the main shaft bearing are also further researched. In order to improve the coupling precision retentivity and the dynamic characteristics of a spindle and a workbench of a domestic machine tool and research and detect the dynamic rotation precision, the dynamic characteristics of a spindle bearing and the degradation rule of the rotation precision of the machine tool spindle, domestic scholars are making continuous efforts, and at present, how to research a spindle and workbench dynamic coupling system which meets the machining working condition of a real machine tool becomes a difficult problem for researchers.
Therefore, those skilled in the art are dedicated to develop a device and a method for detecting the motion characteristics and the accuracy degradation law of the machine tool, so as to solve the above-mentioned defects of the machine tool in the prior art during the use process.
Disclosure of Invention
In view of the above-mentioned drawbacks of the prior art, the technical problems to be solved by the present invention are: the existing machine tool spindle has defects in the aspects of precision and dynamic characteristics, and the motion characteristic and the precision degradation performance of the existing machine tool spindle cannot be effectively detected.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention provides a device for detecting the motion characteristic and the precision degradation rule of a machine tool, which comprises a fixed rotating shaft, a connecting plate, a mechanical sensor, a groove type connecting plate and a main shaft tool handle; the device is simultaneously connected with a machine tool workbench and a machine tool spindle.
Furthermore, the connection mode of the main shaft tool handle and the main shaft of the machine tool is rigid connection or semi-rigid contact connection;
furthermore, the fixed rotating shaft is in contact connection with a machine tool workbench;
furthermore, the fixed rotating shaft is fixedly arranged on a machine tool workbench, and the connecting plate is connected with the fixed rotating shaft through a bearing;
further, the connecting plate is connected with the mechanical sensor through bolts;
furthermore, the upper part of the mechanical sensor is connected with the groove type connecting plate through a gasket;
furthermore, the groove of the groove type connecting plate comprises a spring, a bearing sleeve, a bearing and a main shaft cutter handle;
the bearing is arranged in the bearing sleeve, the inner hole of the bearing is a main shaft tool handle, and the main shaft tool handle is connected with a machine tool main shaft through a nut;
furthermore, the bottom of the bearing sleeve is connected with the groove type connecting plate through a butterfly spring.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the springs in the groove of the groove-type connecting plate are symmetrically installed, and two springs are in a group; the elastic coefficient and the number of the mounting springs can be adjusted according to the actual situation;
in a preferred embodiment of the invention, the groove-type connecting plate has four groups of in-groove springs;
in a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the mechanical sensor and the slot-type connection plate are fixed by a screw;
in a preferred embodiment of the invention, the connection mode adopts a steel spring with a proper elastic coefficient to connect the machine tool spindle with a fixed rotating shaft on a workbench in a contact manner, and the steel springs are respectively and symmetrically arranged in the axial direction and the lateral direction of the rotating rod; the vertical direction of the machine tool spindle is connected by a belleville spring and is used for buffering vertical acting force or impact force from the machine tool spindle.
The invention also discloses a method for detecting the motion characteristic and the precision degradation rule of a machine tool by using any one of the devices, which comprises the steps of firstly detecting the errors in two orthogonal directions when a workbench operates on a unit radius circumference after the device is installed, simultaneously measuring the rotation precision of a main shaft, storing the rotation precision as an initial value, measuring the error values in the two orthogonal directions again after the main shaft of the machine tool operates for a certain time with load (or no load), and analyzing the precision loss condition of the workbench in the operation process according to the comparison of the measurement results of the front and the back in a certain time period;
the device and the method can also measure the rotation precision loss of the machine tool spindle, lift the spindle system after the operation is finished, and install the two-dimensional plane grating detection mechanism, wherein the two-dimensional plane grating detection mechanism is used for detecting the circular interpolation error of the rotary motion of the workbench; the two-dimensional plane grating detection mechanism is detached and installed on an auxiliary platform which is relatively static to the earth, and a machine tool spindle system runs at a certain rotating speed to detect the rotation precision of a spindle;
the detection process is off-line measurement or on-line detection and measurement, and dynamic parameters in the coupling motion process of the workbench and the main shaft are acquired in real time.
Further, the method for detecting the motion characteristic and the accuracy degradation rule of the machine tool specifically comprises the following steps:
step 1, installing, debugging and detecting a device for detecting the motion characteristic and the precision degradation rule of a machine tool and measuring the initial installation error of the device;
step 2, loading the machine tool workbench, and detecting the magnitude of loading force through three-direction mechanical sensors; measuring the initial value of the rotation precision of the machine tool spindle;
step 3, designing a program of the main shaft running circular feed motion, and measuring the coupling precision loss condition of the machine tool main shaft and the workbench at different interpolation speeds;
step 4, enabling the rotation center of circumferential feeding of the machine tool spindle and the revolution center of the machine tool spindle to be the same point, and running in the machine tool;
and 5, after running for a period of time, respectively detecting the rotation precision of the main shaft of the machine tool and the motion error of the workbench by using a high-precision two-dimensional plane grating detection mechanism, wherein the motion error of the workbench comprises angle deviation in three directions and two linear displacement precisions in the motion direction.
Further, the step 1 specifically comprises the steps of installing, debugging and detecting a device for detecting the motion characteristics and the precision degradation rule of the machine tool, and detecting an initial installation error of the test device by using a related laser measuring instrument, wherein the initial installation error comprises two linear position errors of the distance between the rotation center of the main shaft of the machine tool and the center of the fixed rotating shaft in the orthogonal direction of the plane of the workbench; further detecting the error of an included angle between the connecting line of the rotation center of the machine tool spindle and the center of the fixed rotating shaft and the two linear motion directions of the workbench;
further, the step 2 specifically comprises the steps of performing motion control on a machine tool spindle through a numerical control system, loading the workbench through the displacement deviation of the machine tool spindle and a fixed rotating shaft, and detecting the magnitude of the loading force through three-direction mechanical sensors; measuring the initial value of the rotation precision of the machine tool spindle;
further, the step 3 specifically comprises designing a circumferential feeding program for the operation of the machine tool spindle, planning the radius and the number of running turns of the circumferential motion, and respectively measuring the coupling precision loss conditions of the machine tool spindle and the workbench under different speed operation conditions;
further, the step 4 specifically operates to perform running-in operation for a certain time by accurately positioning the rotation center of circumferential feeding of the machine tool spindle and the revolution center (center of the rotating shaft) of the machine tool spindle to be the same point;
further, the specific operation of the step 5 is to remove the machine tool spindle and the rigid spring of the connecting plate after operation, lift the spindle, and detect the rotation precision of the machine tool spindle and the motion error of the workbench respectively by using a high-precision two-dimensional plane grating detection mechanism, wherein the motion error of the workbench comprises angle deviation in three directions and two linear displacement precisions in the motion direction.
By adopting the scheme, the device and the method for detecting the motion characteristic and the precision degradation rule of the machine tool disclosed by the invention have the following technical effects:
(1) the device for detecting the motion characteristic and the precision degradation rule of the machine tool can be used for detecting the precision degradation running-in test of the main shaft of the machine tool and the degree of a main shaft bearing abrasion test, can also be used for simulating and detecting the dynamic rotation precision of the main shaft, and can also be used for detecting the fretting abrasion of the main shaft bearing; the device is widely applied to detection of the coupling motion characteristic, the precision degradation rule and other properties of the workbench and the main shaft of the machine tool, provides good support for research of the motion rule of the machine tool, is beneficial to efficient use of the machine tool, prolongs the service life and reduces the production cost;
(2) the device for detecting the motion characteristic and the precision degradation rule of the machine tool improves the precision measurement standard of the main shaft of the machine tool by detecting various performance parameters of the machine tool, effectively monitors and controls the error and the abrasion of the machine tool and improves the product quality;
(3) the method for detecting the motion characteristic and the precision degradation rule of the machine tool can be used for off-line measurement and on-line detection and measurement, collects dynamic parameters in the coupling motion process of the workbench and the main shaft in real time, is simple and convenient to operate, and effectively solves the problem that the coupling motion error is difficult to measure under the rigid connection condition of tension/compression load motion of the workbench and the main shaft of the machine tool; meanwhile, the method can also detect comprehensive statics and dynamic parameters under the condition that the machine tool spindle is coupled with the workbench, and has an excellent reference function on researches on precision retentivity and the like of the spindle and a spindle bearing.
In conclusion, the device and the method for detecting the motion characteristic and the precision degradation rule of the machine tool are simple and convenient to detect, improve the coupling precision retentivity and the dynamic characteristic of the main shaft of the machine tool and the workbench of the domestic manufacturing equipment, effectively detect the dynamic rotation precision of the main shaft of the machine tool, the dynamic characteristic of a main shaft bearing and the degradation rule of the rotation precision, are beneficial to avoiding the error and the abrasion of the machine tool and are beneficial to improving the product quality.
The conception, the specific structure and the technical effects of the present invention will be further described with reference to the accompanying drawings to fully understand the objects, the features and the effects of the present invention.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a front view of a device for detecting the motion characteristics and the accuracy degradation law of a machine tool according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a left side view of the apparatus for detecting the motion characteristics and the accuracy degradation law of the machine tool of FIG. 1 according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a top view of the apparatus for detecting the motion characteristics and accuracy degradation law of the machine tool of FIG. 1 according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a diagram showing the distribution of the internal structure of a slot type connecting plate in the device for detecting the motion characteristics and the precision degradation law of the machine tool according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 5 is a plane grating detection diagram of the device for detecting the motion characteristics and the accuracy degradation rule of the machine tool according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention;
in the figure, 1-a fixed rotating shaft, 2 and 7-bearings, 3-screws, 4-springs, 5-groove type connecting plates, 6-bearing sleeves, 8-nuts, 9-a spindle handle, 10-groove type connecting plate covers, 11-belleville springs, 12-gaskets, 13-mechanical sensors, 14-connecting plates, 15-a machine tool workbench, 16-a glass material disc, 17-a positioning plate and 18-a machine tool spindle.
Detailed Description
The technical contents of the preferred embodiments of the present invention will be more clearly and easily understood by referring to the drawings attached to the specification. The present invention may be embodied in many different forms of embodiments and the scope of the invention is not limited to the embodiments set forth herein.
Examples
As shown in fig. 1 to 4, the device for detecting the motion characteristic and the accuracy degradation rule of the machine tool in the embodiment includes a fixed rotating shaft 1 installed on a machine tool workbench 15, and a connecting plate 14 is connected with the fixed rotating shaft 1 through a bearing 2; the mechanical sensor 13 is connected with the connecting plate 14 through a bolt, and the mechanical sensor 13 can detect the force in three directions simultaneously; a gasket 12 is arranged at the upper part of the mechanical sensor 13, the gasket 12 is connected with the groove type connecting plate 5 through a bonding agent, and the mechanical sensor 13 and the groove type connecting plate 5 are fixed through a screw 3;
four groups of springs 4 are arranged in the groove type connecting plate 5, the elastic coefficient of the springs 4 is larger than the inertia coefficient of the inertia force generated in the acceleration process of the machine tool spindle, a bearing 7 is arranged in the bearing sleeve 6, a spindle tool handle 9 is arranged in an inner hole of the bearing 7, and the tool handle 9 is connected with the machine tool spindle 18 through a nut 8; a belleville spring 11 is arranged between the bottom of the bearing sleeve 6 and the groove type connecting plate 5, and the belleville spring 11 is used for reducing the impact of the vertical load of the tool holder 9 on the connecting device
When the device is used for detection, the tool handles 9 with different diameters can be replaced according to test requirements, and the size of the bearing 7 is correspondingly adjusted; the torsion spring 11 has a sufficiently large spring constant to act as an increase in the damping constant. The coupling loading of the machine tool spindle workbench is carried out by utilizing the radial position deviation of the tool holder and the connecting plate 14, after the test device is loaded and operated for a period of time, the machine tool spindle rotating bearing or the spindle itself can generate the phenomena of precision degradation, flutter, noise and the like, and the connecting plate on the workbench 15 and the rotating shaft 1 can generate abrasion so as to generate the precision degradation.
After the test is finished, the spindle system is lifted, and the two-dimensional plane grating detection mechanism is installed, as shown in fig. 5, the two-dimensional plane grating detection mechanism is composed of a special glass material disc 16 and an installation positioning plate 17, the installation positioning plate is fixed on the workbench through screws, and the two-dimensional plane grating detection mechanism is used for detecting circular interpolation errors of the rotary motion of the workbench.
The specific detection method comprises the following steps:
firstly, after the installation and debugging are finished, detecting an initial installation error of the test device by using a related laser measuring instrument, wherein the initial installation error comprises two linear position errors of the distance between the main shaft rotation center and the center of the rotating shaft 1 in the orthogonal direction of the plane of the workbench; further detecting the error of an included angle between a connecting line of the main shaft rotation center and the rotating shaft center and two linear motion directions of the workbench;
secondly, the main shaft is controlled to move through a numerical control system, the workbench is loaded through the displacement deviation of the main shaft and the rotating shaft, and the magnitude of the loading force can be detected through three-direction mechanical sensors;
and thirdly, designing a main shaft operation circumference feeding program, setting the test process to be carried out at different speeds, and respectively measuring the coupling precision loss conditions of the main shaft and the workbench under different speed operation conditions. The radius and the number of running turns of the circular motion are reasonably planned according to the test requirements;
fourthly, the main shaft rotates and revolves in the running process, the rotating center of the circumferential feeding of the main shaft and the revolution center of the main shaft (the center of a rotating shaft) are positioned at the same point accurately, and then a running-in running test is carried out for a certain time;
fifthly, after the operation is carried out for a certain time, the spindle and a rigid spring of the connecting plate are detached, the spindle is lifted, the rotation precision of the spindle and the motion error of the workbench are respectively detected by using a high-precision two-dimensional plane grating, and the motion error of the workbench comprises angle deviation in three directions and two normal displacement precisions in the motion direction;
through use evaluation, the connecting structure of the machine tool main shaft and the workbench of the device can be used for detecting the precision degradation running-in test of the main shaft and the occasion of a main shaft bearing abrasion test, can also be used for a simulation detection test of the dynamic rotation precision of the main shaft, and can also be applied to a fretting abrasion test of the main shaft bearing.
Other technical schemes of the invention also have similar using effects.
The foregoing detailed description of the preferred embodiments of the invention has been presented. It should be understood that numerous modifications and variations could be devised by those skilled in the art in light of the present teachings without departing from the inventive concepts. Therefore, the technical solutions available to those skilled in the art through logic analysis, reasoning and limited experiments based on the prior art according to the concept of the present invention should be within the scope of protection defined by the claims.

Claims (2)

1. A method for detecting the motion characteristic and the precision degradation rule of a machine tool is characterized in that,
the device used by the method comprises a fixed rotating shaft, a connecting plate, a mechanical sensor, a groove type connecting plate and a main shaft cutter handle; the fixed rotating shaft is connected with a machine tool workbench, and the spindle tool shank is connected with a machine tool spindle through a nut; the connecting plate is connected with the fixed rotating shaft through a bearing; the mechanical sensor is connected with the connecting plate through a bolt and can detect the force in three directions simultaneously; the upper part of the mechanical sensor is provided with a gasket, the gasket is connected with the groove type connecting plate through a bonding agent, and the mechanical sensor and the groove type connecting plate are fixed through screws; the groove of the groove type connecting plate comprises a spring, a bearing sleeve, a bearing and a main shaft tool handle, wherein the elastic coefficient of the spring is greater than the inertia coefficient of the inertia force generated in the acceleration process of the main shaft of the machine tool; a belleville spring is arranged between the bottom of the bearing sleeve and the groove type connecting plate, and the belleville spring has the function of reducing the impact of the vertical load of the tool holder on the connecting device;
the method comprises the following steps: after the device is installed, firstly detecting errors in two orthogonal directions when the unit radius circumference of the workbench operates, and simultaneously measuring the rotation precision of the main shaft and storing the rotation precision as an initial value; after the main shaft of the machine tool runs for a period of time, measuring error values in two orthogonal directions again, and analyzing the precision loss condition of the workbench in the running process according to comparison of a front measurement result and a rear measurement result of a certain period of time;
when the rotation precision loss of the machine tool spindle is measured, the spindle system is lifted after the operation is finished, and a two-dimensional plane grating detection mechanism is installed and used for detecting the circular interpolation error of the rotary motion of the workbench; the two-dimensional plane grating detection mechanism is detached and installed on an auxiliary platform which is relatively static to the earth, and a machine tool spindle system runs at a certain rotating speed to detect the rotation precision of a spindle;
the detection process is off-line measurement or on-line detection and measurement, and dynamic parameters in the coupling motion process of the workbench and the main shaft are collected in real time;
the method is particularly operable to:
step 1, installing, debugging and detecting a device for detecting the motion characteristic and the precision degradation rule of a machine tool and measuring the initial installation error of the device;
step 2, loading the machine tool workbench, and detecting the magnitude of loading force through three-direction mechanical sensors; measuring the initial value of the rotation precision of the machine tool spindle;
step 3, designing a program of the main shaft running circular feed motion, and measuring the coupling precision loss condition of the machine tool main shaft and the workbench at different interpolation speeds;
step 4, enabling the rotation center of circumferential feeding of the machine tool spindle and the revolution center of the machine tool spindle to be the same point, and running in the machine tool;
and 5, after running for a period of time, respectively detecting the rotation precision of the main shaft of the machine tool and the motion error of the workbench by using a high-precision two-dimensional plane grating detection mechanism, wherein the motion error of the workbench comprises angle deviation in three directions and two linear displacement precisions in the motion direction.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the slotted link plate in-slot springs are symmetrically mounted in groups of two.
CN201810014457.6A 2018-01-08 2018-01-08 Device and method for detecting motion characteristic and precision degradation rule of machine tool Active CN108145531B (en)

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