CN110936227A - Special static characteristic detection device and measurement method for numerical control swing angle milling head - Google Patents

Special static characteristic detection device and measurement method for numerical control swing angle milling head Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110936227A
CN110936227A CN201911326097.4A CN201911326097A CN110936227A CN 110936227 A CN110936227 A CN 110936227A CN 201911326097 A CN201911326097 A CN 201911326097A CN 110936227 A CN110936227 A CN 110936227A
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China
Prior art keywords
milling head
swing angle
angle milling
rotating shaft
static
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CN201911326097.4A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
刘志峰
赵鹏睿
李志雄
曹子睿
苏李航
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Beijing University of Technology
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Beijing University of Technology
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Pending legal-status Critical Current

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q17/00Arrangements for observing, indicating or measuring on machine tools
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23CMILLING
    • B23C9/00Details or accessories so far as specially adapted to milling machines or cutter
    • B23C9/005Details or accessories so far as specially adapted to milling machines or cutter milling heads

Abstract

The invention discloses a special static characteristic detection device and a special static characteristic measurement method for a numerical control swing angle milling head. In the test process, the force sensor is used for recording the size of a load applied to the swing angle milling head, the laser tracker records deformation of the swing angle milling head in the XYZ three directions after stress, the signal acquisition submodule transmits data recorded by the laser tracker to the single chip microcomputer for processing, the single chip microcomputer transmits the data to the industrial personal computer through the communication serial port, the industrial personal computer is provided with an MATLAB interface, and the data are analyzed after the experiment is finished to obtain the deformation condition of the swing angle milling head in a static environment, so that the static rigidity is detected. The dynamic characteristic detection method provided by the invention is simple and convenient to operate, can be repeatedly used for many times, and can achieve higher precision.

Description

Special static characteristic detection device and measurement method for numerical control swing angle milling head
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of machining of multi-axis machine tools with accessory milling heads, and particularly relates to static characteristic research such as deformation analysis under the static force action of a detection swing angle milling head.
Background
The numerical control swing angle milling head is a core functional component of a five-axis linkage numerical control machine tool and is a key for realizing five-axis linkage and high-quality machining of the machine tool, and the swing angle milling head comprises the following mechanisms: the tool bit comprises a head swinging body, a pull rod, a tool taper shank, a latin, a quick-change connector male end, a servo motor and a transmission system.
At present, in the field of precision and ultra-precision machining, various machining errors of a machine tool directly influence the precision of a machined part, a modern numerical control machine tool is developed towards high precision, and the rigidity of the machine tool is a precondition for ensuring the machine tool to obtain high precision. The structural static stiffness of a machine tool can be understood as the relationship between external loads and structural deformations. If the rigidity of the machine tool is insufficient, namely the machine tool deforms too much under the action of external load, the machine tool can work unstably, the machining precision is reduced, and sometimes, the structure of the machine tool can be damaged directly. The static stiffness of the machine tool is one of important indexes for measuring the performance of the machine tool, and the static stiffness of the machine tool can directly influence the efficiency, the processing precision and the surface processing quality of the machine tool, so that the static stiffness characteristic of the swing angle milling head is very important to research. The static stiffness of the swing angle milling head is an important research content of static characteristics, and the problem of deformation of the swing angle milling head in a static environment is solved. At present, static rigidity analysis of a numerical control machine tool is mainly performed on components such as a main shaft and the like, and is mainly obtained through theoretical calculation. However, the stress condition of the swing angle milling head under the action of a static load is complex, and all swing angle milling head mechanisms are divided into three swing working conditions of AB, AC and BC, so that a static rigidity detection device capable of detecting the three working conditions needs to be designed, and at present, the research and development of the device for detecting the static rigidity characteristic of the swing angle milling head are not mature.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the defects in the prior art, the invention provides a device for measuring the static rigidity characteristic of a swing angle milling head, finds the kinematics characteristic rule of the swing angle milling head by analyzing the swing structure of the swing angle milling head, and then provides a method for carrying out static test on the milling head to obtain the deformation conditions of the milling head in different directions and under different loads. In the test process, a force sensor records the size of a load applied to a swing angle milling head, a laser tracker records the deformation of the swing angle milling head in the XYZ three directions after stress, a signal acquisition submodule transmits data recorded by the laser tracker to a single chip microcomputer for processing, the single chip microcomputer transmits the data to an industrial personal computer through a communication serial port, the industrial personal computer is provided with an MATLAB interface, and the industrial personal computer analyzes according to the data after the test is finished to obtain the deformation condition of the swing angle milling head in a static environment, so that the static rigidity is detected.
The invention is realized by the following technical scheme:
a kind of numerical control pendulum angle milling head specialized static characteristic checkout gear, including: the device comprises a load applying module, a laser tracking module and a data processing module. The load applying module is used for simulating the swinging working condition of the swing angle milling head to apply the load; the laser tracking module is used for measuring displacement deformation data of the swing angle milling head; the data processing module is used for processing the applied load and the deformation of the swing angle milling head in the XYZ three directions to obtain the static rigidity of the swing angle milling head.
The load applying module comprises a bottom plate, a fixing bolt, a supporting seat, a supporting rod mechanism, a supporting rod fixing groove, a rotating shaft, a rotating assembly and a force application ejector rod mechanism. The laser tracking module comprises a laser tracker. The data processing module comprises a signal acquisition submodule, a single chip microcomputer and an industrial personal computer.
The bottom plate and the fixing bolt are matched with a machine tool, and the bottom plate is fixed on a machine tool workbench through the fixing bolt.
The support rod mechanism comprises a bolt, a fixing nut, a locking nut and a support ball.
The force application ejector rod mechanism comprises a stepping motor, a fixed bearing, a bearing gland, a screw rod joint, a force sensor, an ejector rod,
And the rotating shaft is provided with a display dial used for simulating the rotating angle of the swing angle milling head.
The signal output ends of the force sensor and the laser tracker are connected with the signal input end of the data acquisition submodule, the signal output end of the data acquisition submodule is connected with the signal input end of the single chip microcomputer, and the signal output end of the single chip microcomputer is connected with the signal input end of the industrial personal computer.
The numerical control swing angle milling head static characteristic detection system comprises: the device comprises a load applying module, a laser tracking module and a data processing module. The load applying module is used for simulating the swinging working condition of the swing angle milling head to apply the load; the laser tracking module is used for measuring displacement deformation data of the swing angle milling head; the data processing module is used for processing the applied load and the deformation of the swing angle milling head in the XYZ three directions to obtain the static rigidity of the swing angle milling head;
compared with the prior art, the invention has the following technical effects.
1. Compared with the prior art for detecting the static characteristics of machine tool components, the invention optimizes the design of the device and the implementation of the process, mainly analyzes the structure of the swing angle milling head and ensures the accuracy of deformation detection.
2. The detection device is developed aiming at the kinematics rule of the swing angle milling head, can simulate the motion of three swing angle milling heads of AC, BC and AB, and has accurate detection effect.
3. The single chip microcomputer is used as a core chip of the laser tracker in the detection device, the acquisition and transmission are completed, and the detection device has the characteristics of complete functions and small size. The industrial personal computer can realize real-time storage, analysis and processing of the acquired data.
4. The dynamic characteristic detection method provided by the invention is simple and convenient to operate, convenient to use equipment and low in requirement on hardware, can realize monitoring and analysis of the dynamic and static rigidity characteristics of the swing angle milling head at lower cost, can be repeatedly used for many times, and can achieve higher precision.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a schematic view of an application scenario of the system of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a schematic view of the load applying structure of the present invention.
FIG. 3 is a schematic structural view of the force applying push rod mechanism of the present invention.
FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of the force applying ram mechanism of the present invention.
FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional view of the support bar mechanism of the present invention.
In the figure: 1. the device comprises a load applying structure, 2, a swing angle milling head, 3, a laser tracker, 4, a data acquisition submodule, 5, a single chip microcomputer, 6 and an industrial personal computer.
1-1 part of a bottom plate, 1-2 parts of a fixing bolt, 1-3 parts of a supporting rod fixing groove, 1-4 parts of a rotating shaft a, 1-5 parts of a supporting seat, 1-6 parts of a force application ejector rod mechanism, 1-7 parts of a rotating shaft b, 1-8 parts of a rotating assembly, 1-9 parts of a supporting rod mechanism.
1-6-1 parts of a stepping motor, 1-6-2 parts of a fixed bearing, 1-6-3 parts of a bearing gland, 1-6-4 parts of a screw, 1-6-5 parts of a screw joint, 1-6-6 parts of a push rod, 1-6-7 parts of a force sensor, 1-6-7 parts of a shell.
1-9-1 part of bolt, 1-9-2 parts of fixing nut, 1-9-3 parts of locking nut, 1-9-4 parts of supporting ball.
Detailed Description
The invention provides a special static characteristic detection device and a measurement method for a numerical control swing angle milling head, which are disclosed by the invention, and is explained in detail by combining the accompanying drawings and an embodiment:
the overall application scene of the static characteristic detection device is shown in figure 1, and the static characteristic detection device comprises a load applying structure 1, a swing angle milling head 2, a laser tracker 3, a data acquisition submodule 4, a singlechip 5 and an industrial personal computer 6. The signal output ends of the force sensors 1-6-7 and the laser tracker 3 in the load applying mechanism 1 are connected with the signal input end of the data acquisition submodule 4, the signal output end of the data acquisition submodule 4 is connected with the signal input end of the singlechip 5, and the signal output end of the singlechip 5 is connected with the signal input end of the industrial personal computer 6.
As shown in FIG. 2, the load applying mechanism 1 is used for simulating the swing working condition of the swing angle milling head and can apply load, and mainly comprises a bottom plate 1-1, a fixing bolt 1-2, a supporting rod fixing groove 1-3, a rotating shaft a1-4, a supporting seat 1-5, a force application ejector rod mechanism 1-6, a rotating shaft b1-7, a rotating assembly 1-8 and a supporting rod mechanism 1-9. The base plate 1-1 is fixed on a machine tool workbench to be tested through a 1-2 fixing bolt, the supporting seat 1-5 is connected and fixed with the base plate 1-1, a display dial is arranged on a rotating shaft a1-4 and rotates by 0-90 degrees, and the display dial and the supporting seat 1-5 form a revolute pair; the rotating assembly 1-8 is connected with a rotating shaft a1-4 and rotates along with the rotating shaft a1-4, the supporting rod fixing groove 1-3 is positioned on the bottom plate 1-1 and used for installing the supporting rod mechanism 1-9, and the supporting rod mechanism 1-9 is used for supporting the rotating assembly 1-8; the rotating shaft b1-7 is provided with a display dial capable of rotating at +/-90 degrees, and the force application mandril mechanism 1-6 is connected with the rotating shaft b1-7 and rotates along with the rotating shaft b 1-7.
As shown in figures 3 and 4, the force application ejector rod mechanism 1-6 consists of a stepping motor 1-6-1, a fixed bearing 1-6-2, a bearing gland 1-6-3, a screw rod 1-6-4, a screw rod joint 1-6-5, an ejector rod 1-6-6, a force sensor 1-6-7 and a shell 1-6-7. Wherein, a stepping motor 1-6-1 is connected with a fixed bearing 1-6-2, the fixed bearing 1-6-2 is connected with a bearing gland 1-6-3, a screw rod 1-6-4 is connected with the bearing gland 1-6-3 and a screw rod joint 1-6-5, a mandril 1-6-6 is connected with the screw rod joint 1-6-5, and a force sensor 1-6-7 is arranged on the mandril 1-6-6.
As shown in figure 5, the support rod mechanism 1-9 consists of a bolt 1-9-1, a fixing nut 1-9-2, a locking nut 1-9-3 and a support ball 1-9-4. Wherein the bolt 1-9-1 is connected with the fixed nut 1-9-2, the locking nut 1-9-3 is connected with the bolt 1-9-1, and the supporting ball 1-9-4 is fixed on the locking nut 1-9-3.
The invention provides a measuring method of a special static characteristic detection device for a numerical control swing angle milling head, which comprises the following steps:
in practical tests, the corresponding swing angle of the A shaft of the swing angle milling head is obtained by rotating the rotating shaft a1-4, the rotating angle of the rotating shaft a1-4 is 0-90 degrees, the corresponding swing angle of the B shaft of the swing angle milling head is obtained by rotating the rotating shaft B1-7, the rotating angle of the rotating shaft B1-7 is +/-90 degrees, and the support rod mechanisms 1-9 can support the support rotating assemblies 1-8 by adjusting the locking nuts 1-9-3.
The computer sends a signal to the stepping motor 1-6-1 to enable the stepping motor to rotate at a certain speed so as to drive the screw rod 1-6-4 to rotate, and the screw rod 1-6-4 pushes the ejector rod 1-6-6 to move forwards along the axial direction so as to form an axial force to be applied to the swing angle milling head; the force sensors 1-6-7 capture the force and acquire data through the signal acquisition submodule to form simulated cutting force.
The laser tracker 3 is fixed on a machine tool workbench, and after the load loading mechanism 1 carries out simulated cutting force loading, the displacement deformation of the swing angle milling head in three directions of an X axis and a Y axis and a Z axis is measured through the laser tracker 3.
The force sensors 1-6-7 and the laser tracker 3 transmit the acquired force and displacement information to the industrial personal computer 6 through the single chip microcomputer 5, the industrial personal computer 6 calculates the static stiffness by adopting pre-stored data processing software, the ratio of a cutting component F of a thrust ejector rod 1-6-6 applied load acting on the swing angle milling head to a deformation value y of X, Y, Z in a certain direction generated by displacement after the load is applied is the static stiffness of the swing angle milling head at the moment, and the static stiffness is expressed as follows:
Ki=Fi/yi(N/mm)
where i ═ X, Y, Z
The experimental process is repeated, loading and unloading are carried out repeatedly, the swing angle milling head test point X, Y, Z is tested for three times in each direction, experimental data are processed through MATLAB in the industrial personal computer 6, stress loading and unloading deformation curves of the swing angle milling head X, Y, Z in three directions are drawn, the deformation condition of the swing angle milling head in the static environment is obtained, and therefore static rigidity detection is achieved.
The foregoing embodiments may be modified in many different ways by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, which is defined by the appended claims and all changes that come within the meaning and range of equivalency of the claims are therefore intended to be embraced therein.

Claims (5)

1. The utility model provides a dedicated static characteristic detection device of numerical control pendulum angle milling head which characterized in that: the device comprises a load applying structure (1), a swing angle milling head (2), a laser tracker (3), a data acquisition submodule (4), a single chip microcomputer (5) and an industrial personal computer (6); the signal output ends of the force sensors (1-6-7) and the laser tracker (3) in the load applying mechanism (1) are connected with the signal input end of the data acquisition submodule (4), the signal output end of the data acquisition submodule (4) is connected with the signal input end of the single chip microcomputer (5), and the signal output end of the single chip microcomputer (5) is connected with the signal input end of the industrial personal computer (6).
2. The device for detecting the static characteristics of the numerical control swing angle milling head according to claim 1, wherein: the load applying mechanism (1) is used for simulating the swinging working condition of the swinging angle milling head and can apply load, and mainly comprises a bottom plate (1-1), a fixing bolt (1-2), a supporting rod fixing groove (1-3), a rotating shaft a (1-4), a supporting seat (1-5), a force application ejector rod mechanism (1-6), a rotating shaft b (1-7), a rotating assembly (1-8) and a supporting rod mechanism (1-9); the base plate (1-1) is fixed on a machine tool workbench to be tested through a fixing bolt (1-2), the supporting seat (1-5) is connected and fixed with the base plate (1-1), a display dial is arranged on the rotating shaft a (1-4) and rotates by 0-90 degrees, and the display dial and the supporting seat (1-5) form a rotating pair; the rotating assembly (1-8) is connected with the rotating shaft a (1-4) and rotates along with the rotating shaft a (1-4), the supporting rod fixing groove (1-3) is positioned on the bottom plate (1-1) and used for installing the supporting rod mechanism (1-9), and the supporting rod mechanism (1-9) is used for supporting the rotating assembly (1-8); the rotating shaft b (1-7) is provided with a display dial scale which can rotate at +/-90 degrees, and the force application ejector rod mechanism (1-6) is connected with the rotating shaft b (1-7) and rotates along with the rotating shaft b (1-7).
3. The device for detecting the static characteristics of the numerical control swing angle milling head according to claim 1, wherein: the force application ejector rod mechanism (1-6) consists of a stepping motor (1-6-1), a fixed bearing (1-6-2), a bearing gland (1-6-3), a screw rod (1-6-4), a screw rod joint (1-6-5), an ejector rod (1-6-6), a force sensor (1-6-7) and a shell (1-6-7); the stepping motor (1-6-1) is connected with the fixed bearing (1-6-2), the fixed bearing (1-6-2) is connected with the bearing gland (1-6-3), the screw rod (1-6-4) is connected with the bearing gland (1-6-3) and the screw rod joint (1-6-5), the ejector rod (1-6-6) is connected with the screw rod joint (1-6-5), and the force sensor (1-6-7) is installed on the ejector rod (1-6-6).
4. The device for detecting the static characteristics of the numerical control swing angle milling head according to claim 1, wherein: the support rod mechanism (1-9) consists of a bolt (1-9-1), a fixing nut (1-9-2), a locking nut (1-9-3) and a support ball (1-9-4); wherein the bolt (1-9-1) is connected with the fixed nut (1-9-2), the locking nut (1-9-3) is connected with the bolt (1-9-1), and the supporting ball (1-9-4) is fixed on the locking nut (1-9-3).
5. The method for measuring the static characteristic detection device special for the numerical control swing angle milling head by using the detection device as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that:
in actual test, a corresponding swing angle of an A shaft of the swing angle milling head is obtained by rotating a rotating shaft a (1-4), the rotating angle of the rotating shaft a (1-4) is 0-90 degrees, a corresponding swing angle of a B shaft of the swing angle milling head is obtained by rotating a rotating shaft B (1-7), the rotating angle of the rotating shaft B (1-7) is +/-90 degrees, and a support rod mechanism (1-9) can support a support rotating assembly (1-8) by adjusting a locking nut (1-9-3);
the computer sends a signal to the stepping motor (1-6-1) to enable the stepping motor to rotate at a certain speed so as to drive the screw rod (1-6-4) to rotate, and the screw rod (1-6-4) pushes the ejector rod (1-6-6) to move forwards along the axial direction so as to form an axial force to be applied to the swing angle milling head; the force sensor (1-6-7) captures the force and acquires data through the signal acquisition submodule to form simulated cutting force;
fixing a laser tracker (3) on a machine tool workbench, and measuring displacement deformation of the swing angle milling head in three directions of an X axis and a Y axis Z axis through the laser tracker (3) after the load loading mechanism 1 carries out simulated cutting force loading;
the force sensors (1-6-7) and the laser tracker (3) transmit the acquired force and displacement information to the industrial personal computer (6) through the single chip microcomputer (5), the industrial personal computer (6) calculates the static stiffness by adopting pre-stored data processing software, and the ratio of a cutting component F of a thrust ejector rod (1-6-6) applied load acting on the swing angle milling head and a deformation value y of X, Y, Z in a certain direction generated by the displacement after the load is applied is the static stiffness of the swing angle milling head at the moment, and the static stiffness is expressed as follows:
Ki=Fi/yi(N/mm)
wherein i ═ (X, Y, Z);
the experimental process is repeated, loading and unloading are carried out repeatedly, the swing angle milling head test point X, Y, Z is tested for three times in each direction, experimental data are processed in the industrial personal computer (6) through MATLAB, stress loading and unloading deformation curves of the swing angle milling head X, Y, Z in the three directions are drawn, the deformation condition of the swing angle milling head in the static environment is obtained, and therefore static rigidity detection is achieved.
CN201911326097.4A 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 Special static characteristic detection device and measurement method for numerical control swing angle milling head Pending CN110936227A (en)

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Cited By (3)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN112798314A (en) * 2021-01-25 2021-05-14 北京工业大学 Dynamic and static thermal characteristic test automatic posture-adjustable tool special for numerical control swing angle milling head
CN112917191A (en) * 2021-03-03 2021-06-08 北京工业大学 Device for assisting in positioning of B-axis rotation center of swing angle milling head
CN115096567A (en) * 2022-06-15 2022-09-23 吉林大学 Testing device and testing method for testing reliability of swing angle milling head

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CN110346137A (en) * 2019-06-20 2019-10-18 杭州电子科技大学 Automatic continuous dynamic loading method for the test of air-floating ball bearing bearer properties

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN112798314A (en) * 2021-01-25 2021-05-14 北京工业大学 Dynamic and static thermal characteristic test automatic posture-adjustable tool special for numerical control swing angle milling head
CN112917191A (en) * 2021-03-03 2021-06-08 北京工业大学 Device for assisting in positioning of B-axis rotation center of swing angle milling head
CN112917191B (en) * 2021-03-03 2022-05-17 北京工业大学 Device for assisting in positioning of B-axis rotation center of swing angle milling head
CN115096567A (en) * 2022-06-15 2022-09-23 吉林大学 Testing device and testing method for testing reliability of swing angle milling head

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