CN107695486B - Method for coordinately controlling deformation of welding joint and base metal - Google Patents

Method for coordinately controlling deformation of welding joint and base metal Download PDF

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Publication number
CN107695486B
CN107695486B CN201711107063.7A CN201711107063A CN107695486B CN 107695486 B CN107695486 B CN 107695486B CN 201711107063 A CN201711107063 A CN 201711107063A CN 107695486 B CN107695486 B CN 107695486B
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welding
joint
base plate
base
welded
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CN107695486A (en
Inventor
任金欣
张鑫
孙少波
杨帆
陈久友
李宏伟
李保永
闫寒
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Beijing Hangxing Machinery Manufacturing Co Ltd
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Beijing Hangxing Machinery Manufacturing Co Ltd
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K9/00Arc welding or cutting
    • B23K9/16Arc welding or cutting making use of shielding gas
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K9/00Arc welding or cutting
    • B23K9/32Accessories

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for coordinately controlling deformation of a welding joint and a base metal, which comprises the following steps: step one, providing an auxiliary welding device which comprises a base plate, a support frame and a pair of clamping devices, wherein the support frame is arranged on the back of the base plate; step two, curling a plate into a cylindrical structure to form a longitudinally extending joint part; step three, arranging the auxiliary welding device at the joint part to be welded, and the concrete process is as follows: arranging a base plate on the back of the joint part, supporting a support frame between the inner wall surface of the tubular structure and the base plate so as to keep the base plate attached to the joint part, and clamping two ends of the base plate and the joint part by adopting a pair of clamping devices respectively; and step four, welding the joint part from the front side of the joint part. The welded cylinder body has good internal quality at the welding joint, high forming quality at the back and no defects of cracking or insufficient thickness and the like at the welding joint, and the surplus height at the front meets the requirement of hot superplastic forming.

Description

Method for coordinately controlling deformation of welding joint and base metal
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of metal material welding, and particularly relates to a method for coordinately controlling deformation of a welding joint and base metal.
Background
The aluminum alloy has the characteristics of good corrosion resistance, higher specific strength and thermal conductivity, good mechanical property maintenance at low temperature and the like, and is widely applied in the fields of aerospace, rail transit, weaponry and the like. In the field of aerospace, the integration and lightweight degree of aluminum alloy closed special-shaped pneumatic component parts and parts products is higher and higher, and the requirement on manufacturing precision is higher and higher. Before the closed pneumatic component is formed, the aluminum alloy cabin to be formed must be welded and packaged through a metal welding technology. The stress and heat of all parts of the sealing cylinder body in the hot forming process follow corresponding rules, and the welding seam part is often a sensitive part in the hot forming process. Therefore, the welding seam is required to be coordinated with the base metal body to deform in the hot forming process, so that the best forming quality can be ensured. The control of the internal quality, the surface residual height and the back surface bulge of the welding seam is exactly the key point whether the later forming of the welding seam can be coordinated with the deformation of the parent metal body.
Disclosure of Invention
In view of the above technical problems, an object of the present invention is to provide a method for coordinately controlling deformation of a welded joint and a base metal, which can improve the quality of a weld joint and avoid the defects of cracking or insufficient thickness.
The technical scheme of the invention is as follows:
a method for coordinately controlling deformation of a welding joint and a base metal comprises the following steps:
providing an auxiliary welding device, wherein the auxiliary welding device comprises a base plate, a support frame and a pair of clamping devices, and the support frame is arranged on the back of the base plate;
step two, curling a plate into a cylindrical structure to form a longitudinally extending joint part;
step three, the auxiliary welding device is arranged at the joint part to be welded, and the specific process is as follows: arranging the base plate on the back of the joint part, supporting the support frame between the inner wall surface of the cylindrical structure and the base plate so as to keep the base plate attached to the joint part, and clamping two ends of the base plate and the joint part by adopting a pair of clamping devices respectively;
and step four, welding the joint part from the front side of the joint part.
Preferably, in the method for coordinately controlling deformation of a welded joint and deformation of a base metal, the plate material is an aluminum alloy.
Preferably, in the method for coordinately controlling the deformation of the welded joint and the deformation of the base material, the material of the backing plate is copper or stainless steel.
Preferably, in the method for coordinately controlling deformation of the welded joint and deformation of the base material, the support frame is a telescopic support frame.
Preferably, in the method for coordinately controlling deformation of a welded joint and deformation of a base material, in the first step, the backing plate includes a first layer and a second layer stacked on each other, wherein the first layer has a plurality of pores uniformly formed on a surface thereof; in the third step, when the auxiliary welding device is arranged at the joint part to be welded, the first layer is attached to the back of the joint part; and step four, protective gas is introduced to the back of the joint part through the gas hole.
Preferably, in the method for coordinately controlling deformation of a welded joint and deformation of a base material, the step four of welding the joint portion from a front surface of the joint portion includes: welding the joint part by adopting manual argon arc welding, and firstly performing positioning welding, wherein positioning points are uniformly distributed on the whole longitudinal welding line; and after the positioning welding is finished, selecting one end of the joint part to start integral welding, and observing the forming condition of the longitudinal welding seam in real time in the welding process.
Preferably, in the method for coordinately controlling deformation of the welded joint and the base metal, in the fourth step, the length of a single positioning point is controlled to be 3-5mm and the distance between the positioning points is controlled to be 10-20mm during the positioning welding.
Preferably, in the method for coordinately controlling deformation of a welded joint and deformation of a base material, in the fourth step, during the tack welding, welding parameters are as follows: welding current is 90-110A, welding gun airflow is 10-15L/min, flow of protective gas is 5L/min, and the protective gas is argon.
Preferably, in the method for coordinately controlling deformation of a welded joint and deformation of a base material, in the fourth step, during the integral welding, welding parameters are as follows: the welding current is 80-100A, the welding gun airflow is 10-15L/min, the flow of protective gas is 5L/min, and the protective gas is argon.
Preferably, in the method for coordinately controlling a weld joint and deformation of a base material, in the second step, before the plate material is curled into a cylindrical structure, the plate material is further subjected to a pre-weld treatment, the pre-weld treatment including: pickling the plate to remove non-metallic impurities on the surface, placing the plate in a clean environment, and welding within 24 hours; and polishing and cleaning the joint part to be welded until bright white metal luster is exposed, and wiping the joint part to be welded clean by dipping the white silk fabric in acetone.
The method for coordinately controlling the deformation of the welding joint and the deformation of the base metal has the beneficial effects that:
(1) the welded cylinder has good internal quality at the welding joint, the excess height of the front side meets the requirement of hot superplastic forming, and the forming quality of the back side is high;
(2) the sealed cylinder obtained after welding is continuously processed by superplastic forming, the consistency of the welding seam part and the base metal body is kept in the processing process, and the defects of cracking, insufficient thickness and the like at the welding seam joint part can be avoided;
(3) the invention can effectively improve the one-time qualification rate of the subsequent superplastic thermoforming, improve the production efficiency and reduce the cost.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of the structure of a sheet material being curled in one embodiment;
fig. 2 is a schematic structural diagram of an auxiliary welding device according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Detailed Description
In order to make the aforementioned objects, features and advantages of the present invention comprehensible, embodiments accompanied with figures are described in detail below.
The invention provides a method for coordinately controlling deformation of a welding joint and base metal, which comprises the following steps:
step one, providing an auxiliary welding device (see fig. 2), wherein the auxiliary welding device comprises a base plate 1, a support frame 2 and a pair of clamping devices 3, wherein the support frame 2 is arranged on the back surface of the base plate 1;
step two, curling a plate into a cylindrical structure to form a longitudinally extending joint part (see figure 1);
step three, the auxiliary welding device is arranged at the joint part to be welded, and the specific process is as follows: arranging the base plate 1 on the back of the joint part, supporting the support frame 2 between the inner wall surface of the tubular structure and the base plate so as to keep the base plate attached to the joint part, and clamping two ends of the base plate and the joint part by adopting a pair of clamping devices 3 respectively;
and step four, welding the joint part from the front side of the joint part.
The invention is particularly applicable to the following cylindrical members: that is, the parent part of the cylindrical member needs to be integrally formed (for example, superplastic hot forming) after welding, and the weld joint is completely treated the same as the parent material body in the forming process. Aiming at the cylindrical member, the quality of the welding seam per se is required to meet corresponding standards, and the coordination consistency of the welding seam and the base metal is required to be ensured, so that the subsequent superplastic forming condition is met. Therefore, the invention provides an auxiliary welding device, wherein the base plate is arranged on the back surface of the joint part, the support frame is supported on the rear side of the base plate, so that the base plate is attached to the joint part, and two ends of the base plate are clamped with the joint part by using a pair of clamping devices. In the whole welding process, the joint part is always supported and limited by the backing plate, the formed welding line cannot collapse, the back surface is well formed, and the internal quality and the external quality of the welding line are excellent. The welding seam obtained by the method meets the coordination deformability required in the subsequent forming process, and the problems of cracking or poor forming of the welding seam part and the like can not occur in the forming process.
In one embodiment, the clamping device 3 may be composed of a clamping body 6 and a bolt 7, the clamping body 6 being connected to the pad at one end and extending to the front of the pad at the other end, and the other end being formed with a threaded hole into which the bolt 7 is screwed. When the base plate is abutted against the joint part, the joint part is just positioned between the base plate and the clamping main body, and the bolt is screwed into the screw hole and clamps the joint part and the base plate. After the welding is finished, the bolt can be adjusted to separate the base plate from the joint part.
Preferably, in the method for coordinately controlling deformation of the welded joint and deformation of the base metal, the plate material is an aluminum alloy. Preferably, the sheet may be a 5083 or 5a06 wrought aluminum alloy sheet.
Preferably, in the method for coordinately controlling the deformation of the welded joint and the deformation of the base material, the material of the backing plate 1 is copper or stainless steel.
Preferably, in the method for coordinately controlling the deformation of the welding joint and the deformation of the base material, the support frame 2 is an extensible support frame.
The height of the support frame is adjusted to enable the base plate to be tightly attached to the joint part, so that stable clamping and supporting are provided for the joint part, the welding line is prevented from collapsing in the welding process, and the back of the welding line is guaranteed to be formed perfectly.
The supporting frame 2 can be a rigid tensioning mechanism, the rigid tensioning mechanism is composed of a steel cylinder 9 and a rod body 8, and the purpose of tightly supporting the bottom of a welding seam of the copper base plate and the base metal is achieved by adjusting a matching mechanism of the rod body and the steel cylinder. In one embodiment, the steel cylinder is internally provided with internal threads, the rod body comprises a fixed section and a movable section, one end of the fixed section is connected to the back of the base plate, the other end of the fixed section is fixedly connected to the steel cylinder, one end of the movable section is provided with external threads, the movable section is screwed into the steel cylinder, and the other end of the movable section can abut against the inner wall of the cylindrical structure. The length of the support frame is adjusted by rotating the movable section, so that the base plate is tightly pressed on the joint part. Other implementations of the support frame are also possible.
Preferably, in the method for coordinately controlling deformation of a welded joint and a base material, in the first step, the backing plate 1 includes a first layer 5 and a second layer 10 stacked on each other, wherein the first layer is formed with a plurality of pores 4 uniformly distributed on a surface of the first layer; in the third step, when the auxiliary welding device is arranged at the joint part to be welded, the first layer is attached to the back of the joint part; and step four, protective gas is introduced to the back of the joint part through the gas hole.
Specifically, the side surfaces of the plurality of air holes may be communicated, that is, the plurality of air holes form an air passage on the first layer, the air passage is opened on the surface of the first layer, and the protective gas is introduced into the air passage through one or more air holes located on the outer side, and the protective gas is blown to the back surface of the joint part, so that the weld joint is protected.
Preferably, in the method for coordinately controlling deformation of a welded joint and deformation of a base material, in the fourth step, the joint portion is welded from a front side of the joint portion, and the method specifically includes: welding the joint part by adopting manual argon arc welding, and firstly performing positioning welding, wherein positioning points are uniformly distributed on the whole longitudinal welding line; and after the positioning welding is finished, selecting one end of the joint part to start integral welding, and observing the forming condition of the longitudinal welding seam in real time in the welding process.
The manual argon arc welding can be selected to adjust the process parameters in real time according to the forming condition of the welding line in the welding process, so that the best effect of the welding line forming is achieved.
Preferably, in the method for coordinately controlling deformation of the welded joint and the base metal, in the fourth step, the length of a single positioning point is controlled to be 3-5mm and the distance between the positioning points is controlled to be 10-20mm during the positioning welding.
Preferably, in the method for coordinately controlling deformation of a welded joint and deformation of a base material, in the fourth step, during the positioning welding, welding parameters are as follows: welding current is 90-110A, welding gun airflow is 10-15L/min, flow of protective gas is 5L/min, and the protective gas is argon.
Preferably, in the method for coordinately controlling deformation of a welded joint and deformation of a base material, in the fourth step, during the integral welding, welding parameters are as follows: the welding current is 80-100A, the welding gun airflow is 10-15L/min, the flow of protective gas is 5L/min, and the protective gas is argon.
Preferably, in the method for coordinately controlling a weld joint and deformation of a base material, in the second step, before the plate material is curled into a cylindrical structure, the plate material is further subjected to a pre-weld treatment, the pre-weld treatment including: pickling the plate to remove non-metallic impurities on the surface, placing the plate in a clean environment, and welding within 24 hours; and polishing and cleaning the joint part to be welded until bright white metal luster is exposed, and wiping the joint part to be welded clean by dipping the white silk fabric in acetone.
To further illustrate the technical solution of the present invention, the following examples are now provided.
Example one
Taking an aluminum alloy thin plate member as an example, the part material is 5083 aluminum alloy, the length is 1100mm, the thickness is 3mm, and the diameter of a round cylinder is 219 mm.
The welding is carried out according to the following process steps:
(1) designing a tool (namely, an auxiliary welding device): the tool is used for clamping a joint part to be welded and supporting the back of the welding part in the welding process. Fig. 2 is a schematic structural diagram of the tool, the tool comprises a strip-shaped copper base plate 1 and a support frame 2, the length of the strip-shaped copper base plate can be freely adjusted according to the length of a welding seam, and two ends of the copper base plate are respectively provided with a clamping device 3. The plane where the copper shim plate contacts the weld (i.e., the first layer of the shim plate) must be evenly perforated with small holes 4 for the passage of shielding gas on the back of the weld during welding.
(2) Preparing before welding: the aluminum alloy sheet member is pickled to remove non-metallic impurities such as an oxidation film, oil stain and the like on the surface of the part, and the part is placed in a clean environment, and manual argon arc welding is required to be carried out within 24 hours.
(3) Circular butt joint of the components: and (3) coiling the aluminum alloy sheet component into a cylinder shape, aligning welding seams, and ensuring that the size gap of the welding seams of the joint is not more than 0.3mm and the step difference is not more than 0.3 mm. And after the size of the joint meets the welding requirement, polishing and cleaning the material at the joint by using an air brush until bright white metal luster is exposed, and wiping the joint part clean by dipping the white silk cloth in acetone.
(4) Assembling a tool: and (3) placing the strip-shaped copper base plate 1 on the back of the joint part, and simultaneously adjusting the support frame 2 to completely attach the copper base plate to the back of the joint part. Then the joint part is clamped by the clamping devices 3 at the two ends of the base plate, so that the joint part is prevented from moving.
(5) Manual argon arc welding: and welding the longitudinal welding line by adopting a manual argon arc welding mode. Firstly, positioning welding is carried out on an aluminum alloy sheet component, positioning points are required to be uniformly distributed on the whole longitudinal welding line, the length of a single positioning welding point is controlled to be 3mm, and the distance between the welding points is controlled to be 10 mm. When positioning welding is carried out, the adopted main process parameters are as follows: the welding current is 90A, the air flow of a welding gun is 15L/min, the flow of the protective gas of the back cushion plate is 5L/min, and the protective gas is argon. And after the tack welding is finished, selecting one end to start to carry out formal integral welding on the welding line, and observing the forming condition of the welding line in real time in the welding process, wherein the surplus height of the front surface of the welding line cannot be too high or the front surface cannot be sunken. The selected main welding process parameters are as follows: the welding current is 80A, the air flow of a welding gun is 15L/min, the flow of the protective gas of the back backing plate is 5L/min, and the protective gas is argon.
Characterization data: and (4) performing a tensile test on the welded seam after welding, wherein the tensile strength is 343MPa, and the elongation is 16.12%.
Example two
And changing the welding process parameters of manual argon arc welding, wherein other steps are consistent with those in the first embodiment.
Specifically, the welding technological parameters of manual argon arc welding are as follows: and welding the longitudinal welding line by adopting a manual argon arc welding mode. Firstly, positioning welding is carried out on an aluminum alloy sheet component, positioning points are required to be uniformly distributed on the whole longitudinal welding line, the length of a single positioning welding point is controlled to be 5mm, and the distance between the welding points is controlled to be 20 mm. When positioning welding is carried out, the adopted main process parameters are as follows: the welding current is 110A, the air flow of a welding gun is 10L/min, the flow of the protective gas of the back backing plate is 5L/min, and the protective gas is argon. And after the tack welding is finished, selecting one end to start to carry out formal integral welding on the welding line, and observing the forming condition of the welding line in real time in the welding process, wherein the surplus height of the front surface of the welding line cannot be too high or the front surface cannot be sunken. The selected main welding process parameters are as follows: the welding current is 100A, the air flow of a welding gun is 10L/min, the flow of the protective gas of the back cushion plate is 5L/min, and the protective gas is argon.
Characterization data: and (3) after welding, performing a tensile test on the welding seam, wherein the tensile strength is 347MPa, and the elongation is 14.3%.
Although the present invention has been described with reference to the preferred embodiments, it is not intended to limit the present invention, and those skilled in the art can make variations and modifications without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention.

Claims (6)

1. A method for coordinately controlling deformation of a welding joint and a base metal is characterized by comprising the following steps:
providing an auxiliary welding device, wherein the auxiliary welding device comprises a base plate, a support frame and a pair of clamping devices, and the support frame is arranged on the back of the base plate;
step two, curling a plate into a cylindrical structure to form a longitudinally extending joint part;
step three, the auxiliary welding device is arranged at the joint part to be welded, and the specific process is as follows: arranging the base plate on the back of the joint part, supporting the support frame between the inner wall surface of the cylindrical structure and the base plate so as to keep the base plate attached to the joint part, and clamping two ends of the base plate and the joint part by adopting a pair of clamping devices respectively;
welding the joint part from the front side of the joint part by adopting manual argon arc welding;
the base plate comprises a first layer and a second layer which are arranged in a stacked mode, wherein a plurality of air holes which are uniformly distributed on the surface of the first layer are formed in the first layer, when the auxiliary welding device is arranged at a joint part to be welded, the first layer is attached to the back of the joint part, and protective gas is introduced to the back of the joint part through the air holes in the welding process;
the plate is made of aluminum alloy;
the base plate is made of stainless steel;
the support frame is a telescopic support frame;
the supporting frame is a rigid tensioning mechanism, the rigid tensioning mechanism consists of a steel cylinder and a rod body, and the purpose of tightly jacking the base plate and the bottom of the welding seam of the base metal is achieved by adjusting a matching mechanism of the rod body and the steel cylinder; an internal thread is formed inside the steel cylinder, the rod body comprises a fixed section and a movable section, one end of the fixed section is connected to the back of the base plate, the other end of the fixed section is fixedly connected to the steel cylinder, an external thread is arranged at one end of the movable section, the movable section is screwed into the steel cylinder, and the other end of the movable section can abut against the inner wall of the cylindrical structure; the length of the support frame is adjusted by rotating the movable section, so that the base plate is tightly pressed on the joint part.
2. The method for coordinately controlling deformation of a welded joint and deformation of a base material as set forth in claim 1, wherein the fourth step of welding the joint portion from a front side of the joint portion comprises: firstly, positioning welding is carried out, and positioning points are uniformly distributed on the whole longitudinal welding line; and after the positioning welding is finished, selecting one end of the joint part to start integral welding, and observing the forming condition of the longitudinal welding seam in real time in the welding process.
3. The method for coordinately controlling the deformation of a welded joint and a base material as defined in claim 2, wherein in the fourth step, the length of a single positioning point is controlled to be 3-5mm and the distance between the positioning points is controlled to be 10-20mm during the positioning welding.
4. The method for coordinately controlling the deformation of a welded joint and a base material as set forth in claim 2, wherein in the fourth step, the welding parameters during the tack welding are: welding current is 90-110A, welding gun airflow is 10-15L/min, flow of protective gas is 5L/min, and the protective gas is argon.
5. The method for coordinately controlling the deformation of a welded joint and a base material as set forth in claim 2, wherein in the fourth step, the welding parameters during the integral welding are: the welding current is 80-100A, the welding gun airflow is 10-15L/min, the flow of protective gas is 5L/min, and the protective gas is argon.
6. The method of coordinately controlling deformation of a welded joint and a base material as set forth in claim 1, wherein in said second step, before the plate material is curled into a cylindrical structure, the plate material is further subjected to a pre-weld treatment, the pre-weld treatment including: pickling the plate to remove non-metallic impurities on the surface, placing the plate in a clean environment, and welding within 24 hours; and polishing and cleaning the joint part to be welded until bright white metal luster is exposed, and wiping the joint part to be welded clean by dipping the white silk fabric in acetone.
CN201711107063.7A 2017-11-10 2017-11-10 Method for coordinately controlling deformation of welding joint and base metal Active CN107695486B (en)

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CN107695486B true CN107695486B (en) 2020-06-19

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN111001913A (en) * 2019-12-25 2020-04-14 中国核工业二四建设有限公司 Plasma arc automatic welding method for stainless steel butt joint

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CN104128694A (en) * 2014-07-24 2014-11-05 江门市新会区同达化工机械制造有限公司 Longitudinal seam red copper liner welding process of steel sheet pressure vessel and red copper liner used by same
CN105364262A (en) * 2015-11-25 2016-03-02 中国石油天然气集团公司 Welding device and copper liner
CN106002002A (en) * 2016-05-06 2016-10-12 兰州兰石重型装备股份有限公司 Thin-wall barrel body anti-deformation device adjustable in diameter
KR20170096522A (en) * 2016-02-16 2017-08-24 장선화 Welding machine for manufacturing pipe

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN203109412U (en) * 2013-01-29 2013-08-07 广东禅涛钢结构有限公司 Steel tube longitudinal weld seam welding device
CN104128694A (en) * 2014-07-24 2014-11-05 江门市新会区同达化工机械制造有限公司 Longitudinal seam red copper liner welding process of steel sheet pressure vessel and red copper liner used by same
CN105364262A (en) * 2015-11-25 2016-03-02 中国石油天然气集团公司 Welding device and copper liner
KR20170096522A (en) * 2016-02-16 2017-08-24 장선화 Welding machine for manufacturing pipe
CN106002002A (en) * 2016-05-06 2016-10-12 兰州兰石重型装备股份有限公司 Thin-wall barrel body anti-deformation device adjustable in diameter

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