CN107419814B - Grading damper - Google Patents

Grading damper Download PDF

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Publication number
CN107419814B
CN107419814B CN201710348989.9A CN201710348989A CN107419814B CN 107419814 B CN107419814 B CN 107419814B CN 201710348989 A CN201710348989 A CN 201710348989A CN 107419814 B CN107419814 B CN 107419814B
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
steel
damper
spring
inner cylinder
outer sleeve
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Expired - Fee Related
Application number
CN201710348989.9A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN107419814A (en
Inventor
崔迪
张威
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Dalian Bohai Testing Co.,Ltd.
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Dalian University
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Application filed by Dalian University filed Critical Dalian University
Priority to CN201811216048.0A priority Critical patent/CN108999309B/en
Priority to CN201811215973.1A priority patent/CN108999308B/en
Priority to CN201711358208.0A priority patent/CN108049516B/en
Priority to CN201710348989.9A priority patent/CN107419814B/en
Priority to CN201811215288.9A priority patent/CN109208775B/en
Publication of CN107419814A publication Critical patent/CN107419814A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of CN107419814B publication Critical patent/CN107419814B/en
Expired - Fee Related legal-status Critical Current
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04HBUILDINGS OR LIKE STRUCTURES FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSES; SWIMMING OR SPLASH BATHS OR POOLS; MASTS; FENCING; TENTS OR CANOPIES, IN GENERAL
    • E04H9/00Buildings, groups of buildings or shelters adapted to withstand or provide protection against abnormal external influences, e.g. war-like action, earthquake or extreme climate
    • E04H9/02Buildings, groups of buildings or shelters adapted to withstand or provide protection against abnormal external influences, e.g. war-like action, earthquake or extreme climate withstanding earthquake or sinking of ground

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  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Architecture (AREA)
  • Business, Economics & Management (AREA)
  • Emergency Management (AREA)
  • Environmental & Geological Engineering (AREA)
  • Civil Engineering (AREA)
  • Structural Engineering (AREA)
  • Buildings Adapted To Withstand Abnormal External Influences (AREA)
  • Vibration Prevention Devices (AREA)
  • Vibration Dampers (AREA)

Abstract

Grading damper, belong to building engineering structure anti-seismic technology field, for solving the problems, such as to widen damper use scope, have technical point that, including sliding damper, spring damper and the connector for sliding damper and spring damper, connector starts spring damper when sliding damper movement and stopping.Effect is: no matter meeting with the vibration of smaller or larger intensity, it can carry out adaptability energy consumption, thus, use connector, so that sliding friction is consumed energy in small shake, spring consumes energy when big shake, and is selected by connector according to shockproofness adaptability, is greatly broadened the use scope of damper in this way.

Description

Grading damper
Technical field
The invention belongs to building engineering structure anti-seismic technology fields, are related to a kind of damper.
Background technique
With earthquake take place frequently and the development of anti-seismic technology, people are while carrying out seismic design of structures, also gradually Start to pay attention to the application of energy dissipator in the structure.Therefore, it can take installation that there is certain energy dissipation capacity in non-weight bearing area The measure of device, and design that have damper itself good from recovery capacity.When meeting with small shake, structure itself has Rigidity can guarantee its normal use;When meeting with big shake, as structure itself deforms, damper also initially enters non-resilient Stage, energy-dissipating and shock-absorbing reduce the destruction of main structure.
Energy-dissipating and shock-absorbing technology is mainly: by adding passive energy-consuming device in original structure, consuming originally by structure structure The seismic energy of part consumption slows down significantly and deforms and damage to structure bring because of shock effect.Current developed energy consumption Device mainly has: viscous damper, viscoelastic damper, Metallic damper and friction energy dissipation device, wherein preceding two class is known as speed phase Pass type energy consumer, rear two class are referred to as hysteresis type energy consumer, and Metallic damper is divided into lead damper and mild steel damper again.Hysteresis Type energy consumer is to consume energy using deformation and hysteresis, and speed relationship type energy consumer is to resist to make using viscosity related with speed Damping force is obtained with, variation from small amplitude to large amplitude.
The cushioning effect to building generally is played using damper in the prior art, however, being shaken the shadow of intensity It ringing, spring rate requirement, which results in damper, can consume energy to offset big metamorphosis, thus, the damping of this rigidity requirement Device is to small metamorphosis and insensitive, still, small vibration be still it is existing, this portion of energy should be also consumed, and be made It obtains no matter damper can meet with the vibration of smaller or larger intensity, adaptability energy consumption can be carried out.
Summary of the invention
In order to solve the problems, such as to widen damper use scope, the present invention proposes following scheme:
A kind of grading damper, including sliding damper, spring damper and the company for sliding damper and spring damper Fitting, connector start spring damper when sliding damper movement and stopping.
Further, the sliding damper includes the first steel plate group and the second steel plate group;First steel plate group is flat by two pieces Capable steel plate composition, two steel plates, which symmetrically run through, the chock for moving chock along the telescopic spring direction of two chocks of connection Accommodating hole is located in the chock accommodating hole by the chock that spring connects;Second steel plate group is made of two blocks of parallel steel plates, this two Distance between a steel plate allows the first steel plate group to slide along the inner wall of the second steel plate, which, which symmetrically runs through to have, makes chock quilt The chock fixation hole of pop-up, and there is axis hole at the rear of chock fixation hole along glide direction.
Further, the spring damper includes outer sleeve, inner cylinder;Outer sleeve is horizontal positioned hollow cylinder, Side bottom surface is not closed, and inner cylinder is the horizontal positioned hollow cylinder that diameter is less than outer sleeve, and also there is side bottom surface not seal It closes, and is placed in outer sleeve by the closing bottom surface for not closing bottom surface towards outer sleeve of inner cylinder, and inner cylinder does not close bottom surface There is a distance between the closing bottom surface of outer sleeve, there is spring between the sealing surface of inner cylinder and the sealing surface of outer sleeve.
Further, the connector includes steel arm, lifting arm, steel column, and the second steel plate group is connected to outer sleeve envelope Close the outer wall of bottom surface;Side of the chock accommodating hole of an at least steel plate for first steel plate group more far from the second steel plate group is solid Surely there is a fixing axle, be attached to be equipped in the axis hole of second steel plate group to form L shape steel arm there are two steel arm One axis, another two steel arm are connected on the axis to form L shape steel arm, and two steel arms extend simultaneously due to the junction of axis It is connected on lifting arm, lifting arm is equipped with steel column;Two L shape steel arms form diamond shape activity box by axis connection;Institute The steel column stated is plugged to inner cylinder by the limit hole activity of outer sleeve, inner cylinder side, when steel column is plugged to inner cylinder, by steel column by bullet Spring demarcates.
Further, the one end of first steel plate far from the second steel plate is connect with a baffle, and the baffle is connected to On connecting plate, the closing bottom surface of inner cylinder is connect with a baffle, and the baffle is connected on connecting plate.
Further, the spring is the spring prepared by memorial alloy, and spring is had by the position that steel column divides Recess;The limit hole being detached from when the movement of diamond shape activity box drives steel column to move up, when moving on inner cylinder, and by outer sleeve Limit hole is limited between inner cylinder and outer sleeve, and lifting arm is connect with an angle with a L shape steel arm, keeps lifting arm parallel In the side of outer sleeve and inner cylinder, steel column is vertical grafting.
The utility model has the advantages that can be carried out the invention enables the vibration no matter damper can meet with smaller or larger intensity Adaptability energy consumption, thus, using connector, so that sliding friction is consumed energy in small shake, spring consumes energy when shake greatly, and by Connector is selected according to shockproofness adaptability, is greatly broadened the use scope of damper in this way.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is grading damper assembling effect figure.
Fig. 2 is the C-D structural map of Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is the schematic diagram with triangular-shaped wedge steel plate.
Fig. 4 is C-D connection sectional view.
Wherein: 1. first steel plate groups, 2. second steel plate groups, 3. chocks, 4. springs, 5. chock accommodating holes, 6. chocks are fixed Hole, 7. axis holes, 8. outer sleeves, 9. inner cylinders, 10. springs, 11. steel arms, 12. lifting arms, 13. steel columns, 14. fixing axles, 15. gears Plate, 16. connecting plates, 17.U type groove.
Specific embodiment
Embodiment: a kind of grading damper, including sliding damper, spring damper and sliding damper and spring shock absorption The connector of device, connector start spring damper when sliding damper movement and stopping.In the prior art generally using damping Device plays the cushioning effect of building, however, spring rate requirement, which results in damper, to consume energy by damping intensity effect To offset big metamorphosis, thus, the damper of this rigidity requirement is still, small to small metamorphosis and insensitive Vibration be still it is existing, this portion of energy should be also consumed, and damper is allowed no matter to meet with smaller or larger intensity Vibration, adaptability energy consumption can be carried out, thus, using connector so that in small shake sliding friction consume energy, shake greatly When spring consume energy, and by connector according to shockproofness adaptability select, be greatly broadened the use scope of damper in this way.
In one embodiment, the sliding damper includes the first steel plate group and the second steel plate group;
The sliding damper includes the first steel plate group 1 and the second steel plate group 2;
First steel plate group 1 is made of two blocks of parallel steel plates, and two steel plates, which symmetrically run through to have, makes chock 3 along connection two The mobile chock accommodating hole 5 of 4 telescopic direction of spring of chock 3, the chock 3 connected by spring 4 are located in the chock accommodating hole 5;
Second steel plate group 2 is made of two blocks of parallel steel plates, and distance between two steel plates allows the first steel plate group 1 along the The inner wall of two steel plates slides, which, which symmetrically runs through, the chock fixation hole 6 for being ejected chock 3, and along glide direction There is axis hole 7 at the rear of chock fixation hole 6.This solution provides a kind of sliding dampers, embedded using two groups of parallel steel plates Formula sliding, and the mode limited using chock are stopped sliding when sliding intensity and being not suitable for supporting current seismic intensity, provided Level-one damping.
In one embodiment, the spring damper includes outer sleeve 8, inner cylinder 9;Outer sleeve 8 is horizontal positioned sky Heart cylinder, one side bottom surface are not closed, and inner cylinder 9 is the horizontal positioned hollow cylinder that diameter is less than outer sleeve 8, also have one Side bottom surface is not closed, and is placed in outer sleeve 8 by the closing bottom surface for not closing bottom surface towards outer sleeve 8 of inner cylinder 9, and inner cylinder 9 do not close has a distance between bottom surface and the closing bottom surface of outer sleeve 8, in the closing of the sealing surface and outer sleeve 8 of inner cylinder 9 There is spring 10 between face.This solution provides a kind of spring damper, and it is an object of the present invention to provide second level shakes.
In one embodiment, the connector includes steel arm 11, lifting arm 12, steel column 13, and the second steel plate group 2 connects It is connected to the outer wall that outer sleeve 8 closes bottom surface;The chock accommodating hole 5 of an at least steel plate for first steel plate group 1 is more far from The side of two steel plate groups 2 is fixed with a fixing axle 14, and there are two steel arms 11 to be attached to form L shape steel arm, and described the One axis is installed in the axis hole 7 of two steel plate groups 2, another two steel arm 11 is connected on the axis to form L shape steel arm, and this two For a steel arm 11 since the junction of axis extends and is connected on lifting arm 12, lifting arm 12 is equipped with steel column 13;Described two L shape steel arm forms diamond shape activity box by axis connection;The steel column 13 is inserted by the limit hole activity of outer sleeve 8,9 side of inner cylinder It is connected to inner cylinder 9, when steel column 13 is plugged to inner cylinder 9, is demarcated spring 10 by steel column 13.This solution provides a kind of connections Firsts and seconds damping is attached by part, and by connector another grade damping failure after, it is automatic to start second level damping, thus Obtain a kind of damper that adaptability damping selection is carried out automatically according to shockproofness of wide scope.
The one end of first steel plate far from the second steel plate is connect with a baffle 15, and the baffle 15 is connected to connecting plate On 16, the closing bottom surface of inner cylinder 9 is connect with a baffle 15, and the baffle 15 is connected on connecting plate 16.
In one embodiment, the spring between the sealing surface of the inner cylinder 9 and the sealing surface of outer sleeve 8 is by remembering Alloy is prepared, and the position that spring is divided by steel column 13 has recess;The movement of diamond shape activity box drives steel column 13 to moving up The limit hole being detached from when dynamic, when moving on inner cylinder 9, and be limited between inner cylinder 9 and outer sleeve 8 by the limit hole of outer sleeve 8, And lifting arm 12 is connect with an angle with a L shape steel arm, and lifting arm 12 is made to be parallel to the side of outer sleeve 8 and inner cylinder 9, steel Column 13 is vertical grafting.
Steel column is limited between inner cylinder and outer sleeve, and the vertical grafting of steel column, in order to its maintenance when It waits, it is easier to be restored to the position in inner cylinder, if directly deviating from housing, not only take up larger space, and be not easy to reply, separately On the one hand, spring is selected as memory alloy spring, purpose is also for the superpower restoring force using memorial alloy, so that damping Afterwards, spring can accurately revert to initial state and position, so that steel column smoothly divides spring when being inserted into inner cylinder.Shape note The super elastic characteristics for recalling alloy have many advantages compared with other ordinary metallic materials: super elastic shape memory alloy is tired first Labor characteristic is fine, and inevitably damages in other materials circulation, influences the service life;Secondly marmem can restore Strain value is very big, what ordinary metallic material was difficult to realize;Finally, due to Ovshinsky bulk modulus is greater than geneva bulk modulus, Shape memory alloy elastic modulus increases with temperature and increases (opposite with common metal), this keeps it still at relatively high temperatures High elastic modulus.Therefore, the spring section of the device can be fabricated to using marmem.
The application method of grading damper described in above-mentioned each scheme is as follows:
Two steel plates of the first steel plate group 1 are slided along the inner wall of the second steel plate group 2, until the end of chock 3 and the first steel plate group 1 Contact with compressed spring is moved to chock connect with spring 3 in accommodating hole, chock 3 with the first steel plate group 1 slide up to by It is popped up in the chock fixation hole 6 of second steel plate group 2, the first steel plate group 1, which is fixed, no longer to be slided, described in the first steel plate group 1 Fixing axle 14 is slided with the first steel plate group 1, and in sliding process, and the L shape steel arm being connected thereto gradually deforms, and causes Another L shape steel arm connected to it gradually deforms, which deforms to drive lifting arm 12 to be lifted up, lifting arm 12 drive steel column 13 connected to it to be lifted up, and connect divided spring;
Lifting arm 12 is parallel to the side of outer sleeve 8 and inner cylinder 9, and steel column 13 is vertical grafting, and lifting arm 12 is lifted up When, drive steel column 13 to be detached from the limit hole on inner cylinder 9, and be limited between inner cylinder 9 and outer sleeve 8 by the limit hole of outer sleeve 8.
Chock 3 is squeezed, makes it by bouncing back in chock fixation hole 6, the first steel plate group 1 is outside along 2 inner wall of the second steel plate group It draws and slides, the fixing axle 14 in the first steel plate group 1 slides in and out with the first steel plate group 1, and in sliding process, is connected thereto L shape steel arm gradually deforms, and another L shape steel arm connected to it is caused gradually to deform, which deforms to drive 12 falls downward of lifting arm, lifting arm 12 drive 13 falls downward of steel column connected to it, until steel column 13 is by the recessed of spring 10 Mouth demarcates the spring 10 made of memorial alloy.
In a specific embodiment, the purpose of the disclosure is to mitigate vibration to influence to structure bring, in building Non-weight bearing area adds damper, using the characteristic passively to consume energy, achievees the purpose that energy-dissipating and shock-absorbing, mitigates structural damage.Skill Art scheme is achieved in that a kind of grading damper, SMA spring and the metal arm of force is added in construction, so that the device Friction energy-dissipating is utilized in small deformation effect, is consumed energy when large deformation acts on using spring.Such as Fig. 1 institute when device is without external force Show there was only C-D sections of friction energy-dissipatings as Fig. 4 shows the vibration of structure small deformation, section A-B does not work.Structure large deformation vibration as shown in Figure 2 Dynamic to drive the steel plate (the first steel plate group) with triangular-shaped wedge mobile, triangular-shaped wedge can move under telescopic spring effect Dynamic, the steel plate with triangular-shaped wedge is slided along another steel plate (the second steel plate group) inner wall, until chock enters another steel plate When in chock fixation hole, spring-return is original state, and chock is stuck at fixation hole.This disclosure relates to four steel arms, two steel arms Intersect and crosspoint is connected to by connecting shaft and (corresponds to upper one L shape steel arm as described in the examples, crosspoint is that axis connects End), connecting shaft is fixed on the steel plate with triangular-shaped wedge, and another two steel arm also intersects and is connected to crosspoint by connecting shaft, even Spindle axis is connected on another steel plate, and the free end of the two groups of intersection steel arms axis that intersects connects to form diamond shape steel arm; Wherein, this group that connecting shaft axis is connected on another steel plate intersects steel arm, and in intersection, two steel arms extend, and Extending end connecting cross arm, transverse arm connect steel cylinder.Steel plate with triangular-shaped wedge drives diamond shape steel arm mobile, while diamond shape steel The mobile body arm for driving strip cylinder of arm is rotated around bolt, and steel cylinder can be pulled out, section A-B start-up operation spring-return power meeting Movement in the perforated sleeve for keeping its shown in Fig. 5, using the restoring force dissipation energy of spring, and the band triangular-shaped wedge after shake Steel plate artificially triangular-shaped wedge can be pressed down make its reset, the steel plate can be drawn at this time and be returned to original position.Fig. 3 Showing inner and outer sleeves with holes is cylindrical shape cylinder, and spring is placed directly in cylinder, transports spring in cylinder just Dynamic, spring segmentation is placed as shown in Figure 1, its shiny surface of steel cylinder is conducive to it and is preferably pulled out, the depth being inserted into cylinder Degree is appropriate, so that small vibration is unlikely to be pulled out when acting on.The effect of the disclosure be can mitigate vibration bring influence, and Device is simple to operation can be connected by way of assembling, convenient disassembly and facilitate the reparation and daily after shake Maintenance, can be widely applied to field of civil engineering, can bring huge economic benefit and social benefit.
The preferable specific embodiment of the above, only the invention, but the protection scope of the invention is not It is confined to this, anyone skilled in the art is in the technical scope that the invention discloses, according to the present invention The technical solution of creation and its inventive concept are subject to equivalent substitution or change, should all cover the invention protection scope it It is interior.

Claims (5)

1. a kind of grading damper, which is characterized in that including sliding damper, spring damper and damper and spring will be slided The connector of damper connection, connector start spring damper when sliding damper movement and stopping;
The sliding damper includes the first steel plate group (1) and the second steel plate group (2);
First steel plate group (1) is made of two blocks of parallel steel plates, and two steel plates, which symmetrically run through to have, makes chock (3) along connection two The mobile chock accommodating hole (5) of spring (4) telescopic direction of chock (3) is located at the chock by the chock (3) that spring (4) connect In accommodating hole (5);
Second steel plate group (2) is made of two blocks of parallel steel plates, and distance between two steel plates allows the first steel plate group (1) along the The inner wall of two steel plates slides, which, which symmetrically runs through, the chock fixation hole (6) for being ejected chock (3), and along sliding Direction has axis hole (7) at the rear of chock fixation hole (6).
2. grading damper as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that the spring damper includes outer sleeve (8), inner cylinder (9);
Outer sleeve (8) is horizontal positioned hollow cylinder, and one side bottom surface is not closed, and inner cylinder (9) is that diameter is less than outer sleeve (8) Horizontal positioned hollow cylinder, also there is side bottom surface not close, and do not close bottom surface towards housing by inner cylinder (9) The closing bottom surface of cylinder (8) is placed in outer sleeve (8), and inner cylinder (9) is not closed between bottom surface and the closing bottom surface of outer sleeve (8) With a distance, there are spring (10) between the sealing surface of inner cylinder (9) and the sealing surface of outer sleeve (8).
3. grading damper as claimed in claim 2, which is characterized in that the connector includes steel arm (11), lifting arm (12), steel column (13), and the second steel plate group (2) is connected to the outer wall of outer sleeve (8) closing bottom surface;First steel plate group (1) Side of the chock accommodating hole (5) more far from the second steel plate group (2) of an at least steel plate be fixed with a fixing axle (14), have two A steel arm (11) is attached to be equipped with an axis in the axis hole (7) of second steel plate group (2), separately to form L shape steel arm Two steel arms (11) are connected on the axis to form L shape steel arm, and two steel arms (11) are due to the junction extension of axis And be connected on lifting arm (12), lifting arm (12) is equipped with steel column (13);Two L shape steel arms form diamond shape by axis connection and live Dynamic frame;The steel column (13) is plugged to inner cylinder (9) by the limit hole activity of outer sleeve (8), inner cylinder (9) side, in steel column (13) when being plugged to inner cylinder (9), spring (10) is demarcated by steel column (13).
4. grading damper as claimed in claim 3, which is characterized in that described one end of the first steel plate far from the second steel plate It is connect with a baffle (15), and the baffle (15) is connected on connecting plate (16), the closing bottom surface and a baffle (15) of inner cylinder (9) Connection, and the baffle (15) is connected on connecting plate (16).
5. grading damper as claimed in claim 3, which is characterized in that the sealing surface of the inner cylinder (9) and outer sleeve (8) Sealing surface between spring be to be prepared by memorial alloy, and the position that is divided by steel column (13) of spring is with recess;Water chestnut The limit hole being detached from when the movement of shape activity box drives steel column (13) to move up, when moving on inner cylinder (9), and by outer sleeve (8) limit hole is limited between inner cylinder (9) and outer sleeve (8), and lifting arm (12) is connect with one jiao with a L shape steel arm Degree, makes lifting arm (12) be parallel to the side of outer sleeve (8) and inner cylinder (9), and steel column (13) is vertical grafting.
CN201710348989.9A 2017-05-17 2017-05-17 Grading damper Expired - Fee Related CN107419814B (en)

Priority Applications (5)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201811216048.0A CN108999309B (en) 2017-05-17 2017-05-17 Connecting piece of grading shock absorber
CN201811215973.1A CN108999308B (en) 2017-05-17 2017-05-17 Sliding shock absorber of grading shock absorber
CN201711358208.0A CN108049516B (en) 2017-05-17 2017-05-17 Grading shock absorber with memory alloy spring
CN201710348989.9A CN107419814B (en) 2017-05-17 2017-05-17 Grading damper
CN201811215288.9A CN109208775B (en) 2017-05-17 2017-05-17 Spring damper of grading damper

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201710348989.9A CN107419814B (en) 2017-05-17 2017-05-17 Grading damper

Related Child Applications (4)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CN201811215973.1A Division CN108999308B (en) 2017-05-17 2017-05-17 Sliding shock absorber of grading shock absorber
CN201811216048.0A Division CN108999309B (en) 2017-05-17 2017-05-17 Connecting piece of grading shock absorber
CN201811215288.9A Division CN109208775B (en) 2017-05-17 2017-05-17 Spring damper of grading damper
CN201711358208.0A Division CN108049516B (en) 2017-05-17 2017-05-17 Grading shock absorber with memory alloy spring

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
CN107419814A CN107419814A (en) 2017-12-01
CN107419814B true CN107419814B (en) 2019-11-15

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Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CN201811215973.1A Active CN108999308B (en) 2017-05-17 2017-05-17 Sliding shock absorber of grading shock absorber
CN201711358208.0A Active CN108049516B (en) 2017-05-17 2017-05-17 Grading shock absorber with memory alloy spring
CN201811216048.0A Active CN108999309B (en) 2017-05-17 2017-05-17 Connecting piece of grading shock absorber
CN201811215288.9A Active CN109208775B (en) 2017-05-17 2017-05-17 Spring damper of grading damper
CN201710348989.9A Expired - Fee Related CN107419814B (en) 2017-05-17 2017-05-17 Grading damper

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Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CN201811215973.1A Active CN108999308B (en) 2017-05-17 2017-05-17 Sliding shock absorber of grading shock absorber
CN201711358208.0A Active CN108049516B (en) 2017-05-17 2017-05-17 Grading shock absorber with memory alloy spring
CN201811216048.0A Active CN108999309B (en) 2017-05-17 2017-05-17 Connecting piece of grading shock absorber
CN201811215288.9A Active CN109208775B (en) 2017-05-17 2017-05-17 Spring damper of grading damper

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CN109208775B (en) 2020-05-19
CN108999309A (en) 2018-12-14
CN107419814A (en) 2017-12-01
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CN108999308A (en) 2018-12-14
CN108049516B (en) 2020-12-08

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