CN106840258A - The full state electromagnetic environment monitoring system of wide area and method based on multi-parameter synergic monitoring - Google Patents

The full state electromagnetic environment monitoring system of wide area and method based on multi-parameter synergic monitoring Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106840258A
CN106840258A CN201710049883.9A CN201710049883A CN106840258A CN 106840258 A CN106840258 A CN 106840258A CN 201710049883 A CN201710049883 A CN 201710049883A CN 106840258 A CN106840258 A CN 106840258A
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China
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monitoring
signal
data
circuit
magnetic
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CN201710049883.9A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
张永
赵岩
谢连科
臧玉魏
张广洲
张国英
马新刚
刘辉
陈素红
冯智慧
王飞
李勇
尹建光
Original Assignee
国网山东省电力公司电力科学研究院
国网电力科学研究院武汉南瑞有限责任公司
国家电网公司
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Priority to CN201710049883.9A priority Critical patent/CN106840258A/en
Publication of CN106840258A publication Critical patent/CN106840258A/en

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01DMEASURING NOT SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR A SPECIFIC VARIABLE; ARRANGEMENTS FOR MEASURING TWO OR MORE VARIABLES NOT COVERED IN A SINGLE OTHER SUBCLASS; TARIFF METERING APPARATUS; MEASURING OR TESTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01D21/00Measuring or testing not otherwise provided for
    • G01D21/02Measuring two or more variables by means not covered by a single other subclass

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of full state electromagnetic environment monitoring system of wide area based on multi-parameter synergic monitoring and method, system includes multi-parameter detection unit and Surveillance center, the electromagnetic environment data of detection are transferred to Surveillance center by the multi-parameter detection unit, multi-parameter detection unit is popped one's head in including dimensionally reference type electric-field sensor, three-D magnetic field sensor, digital Temperature and Humidity integrated sensor, digital baroceptor and electret capacitor microphone, electromagnetic environment monitoring system of the invention realizes power frequency electric field, power frequency magnetic field, audible noise, environment temperature, ambient humidity, the isoparametric integrated monitor of air pressure, it is the association analysis of electromagnetic environment informational influence factor, design verification provides data foundation;Ensure that device can carry out continuing to monitor for round-the-clock 24 hours by studying monitoring device continued power technology.

Description

The full state electromagnetic environment monitoring system of wide area and method based on multi-parameter synergic monitoring
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of full state electromagnetic environment monitoring system of wide area based on multi-parameter synergic monitoring and method.
Background technology
With the continuous quickening of power grid construction paces, the continuous improvement of people's living standard, people protect to power grid environment Requirement higher is proposed, power grid construction is also constantly environmentally protected the puzzlement of aspect problem.On the one hand, throughout the country not Shi Fasheng closed on because of transmission line of electricity, across house owed by a citizen, the power network environmental issue such as transformer station, current conversion station noise disturb residents triggers complains and entangles Confusingly.Power network environmental protection letters and calls event number constantly rose in recent years, and the masses obstruct the event that project of transmitting and converting electricity is constructed to happen occasionally, this The not only construction to power network brings difficulty, has had a strong impact on the safe operation of power network, is also brought to project of transmitting and converting electricity environmental protection supervision Problems and pressure.On the other hand, existing electromagnetic measurement instrument is generally used for in-site measurement in the market, it is impossible to carry out Monitoring and data storage be, it is necessary to manual record data for a long time, inconvenient operation, and monitoring climate conditionality is larger, It is difficult to realize many data of monitoring point to monitor simultaneously and data sharing, it is impossible to form data with existing power network environmental protection management subsystem Slitless connection, causes data scattered.
The electromagnetic environmental impact of scientific propaganda project of transmitting and converting electricity, publicity electromagnetic environment parameter level, rationally The explanation common people puzzlement related to project of transmitting and converting electricity for running into, the monitoring for realizing the round-the-clock electromagnetic environment parameter of wide area and data Intelligent integration with application, be the fundamental way of solve problem.
But it is existing to there are problems that following both sides on power frequency electromagnet field measurement device and its on-line monitoring system:
(1) cannot realize exchanging round-the-clock monitoring
Floated emf sensor being used electromagnetic environment monitor device, the electric field monitoring developed according to this principle sets more It is standby, influenceed more serious by air humidity, only when air humidity is less than 80%, data monitoring can be just carried out, in humidity Measurement error is larger in the case of larger;Meanwhile, the electromagnetic environment measurement work for carrying out at present generally requires to carry electromagnetic environment The equipment such as monitoring device, Hygrothermograph, barometer, noise meter, carrying instrument is more, inconvenient operation.
(2) Monitoring Data cannot realize various dimensions application
Current electromagnetic monitoring environmental data software, it is impossible to meet the demand of enriched data displaying, exhibition method is excessively single One;Producing level simultaneously for data is limited, in the inquiry, analysis, value excavation and opening in data, it is also desirable to Further investigation, it is ensured that effective utilization of data.
The content of the invention
The present invention is in order to solve the above problems, it is proposed that a kind of full state electromagnetic environment of wide area based on multi-parameter synergic monitoring Monitoring system and method, the present invention set up the full state electromagnetic environment intelligent monitor system of wide area, realize the storage of field data, long-range The function such as have access to, to public display electromagnetic environment real time data, assist to solve potential electromagnetic environment dispute, can realize monitoring number According to unitized management and application, electromagnetic environment is managed facilitation, integrated, be the environmental protection pipe of national grid Reason subsystem provides data, information and decision support.
To achieve these goals, the present invention is adopted the following technical scheme that:
A kind of full state electromagnetic environment monitoring system of wide area based on multi-parameter synergic monitoring, including multi-parameter detection unit and The electromagnetic environment data of detection are transferred to Surveillance center by Surveillance center, the multi-parameter detection unit, wherein:
The multi-parameter detection unit includes dimensionally reference type electric-field sensor probe, three-D magnetic field sensor, numeral Formula humiture integrated sensor, digital baroceptor and electret capacitor microphone, the sensor may be contained within fixing On support;
The dimensionally reference type electric-field sensor probe, it is used to that electric field intensity signal will to be detected successively through signal tune Reason circuit and A/D change-over circuits are sent to microcontroller;The three-D magnetic field sensor, it is used to that magnetic field intensity letter will to be detected Number it is converted into voltage signal, then through signal conditioning circuit and A/D change-over circuits is sent to microcontroller successively;The electret electricity Hold microphone, it is used to collecting noise and is converted into voltage signal, then pass through signal conditioning circuit and A/D change-over circuits successively Deliver to microcontroller;The digital Temperature and Humidity integrated sensor is connected with microcontroller, the digital baroceptor with Microcontroller is connected, and the microcontroller is connected with data is activation with receiver module;
The multi-parameter detection unit is to the electric field, magnetic field, temperature, humidity, air pressure and the noise parameter that detect by communication Module transfer carries out real-time storage and the display of data to Surveillance center, and the communication module is led to based on optical fiber transport channel News passage, Bluetooth transmission passage are cold standby passage.
The dimensionally reference type electric-field sensor probe, it is made up of three pairs of parallel-plates and an earth electrode, each pair Filled by insulating barrier between parallel-plate and an earth electrode and connected, also separated by insulating barrier in the middle of each pair parallel-plate.Because Probe is made up of flat board, and it is using flat ground is confined to, and the distortion to distribution of charges on interface is typically little.
It is the monitoring accuracy for improving warm and humid degrees of data in round-the-clock monitoring process, it is specifically configured external digital warm and humid Degree integrated sensor.The external benefit of digital Temperature and Humidity integrated sensor, one can be to avoid component element long period operational heat Make temperature data higher, two can be to avoid built-in making humidity detection inaccurate.
The present invention also using the pressure information around digital baroceptor detection transmission line of electricity and is sent to microcontroller Device is stored.
Further, it is additionally provided with noise hurricane globe outside the electret capacitor microphone.In order to ensure that noise is popped one's head in The stabilization of measurement, noise testing is carried out after noise hurricane globe is additionally provided with outside electret capacitor microphone.
Further, the microcontroller is connected to server by data is activation and receiver module, the server with Monitor terminal is connected.
Electromagnetic environment monitoring system of the invention uses Integration Design, can to power frequency electric field, power frequency magnetic field, noise, The gentle pressure of temperature, humidity carries out fixed point real-time monitoring, can as needed dispose multiple subsystem composition distributed monitoring networks, tool Have data storage and data sharing functionality, monitoring information can in real time be sent to host computer by optical fiber or bluetooth communication module or Server, real-time Communication for Power is carried out with main website, it is also possible to meet the various outdoor use conditions such as sleet cold and heat.
The microcontroller is also connected with data memory module.Microcontroller obtain humiture, air pressure, electric-field intensity or The later stage application that data memory module is stored to ensure measurement data is sent to after magnetic field intensity signal.
Be fabricated into electric field probe on PCB printed circuit boards by the dimensionally reference type electric-field sensor probe, selection one To circle copper pad as parallel-plate, by the use of middle epoxy resin as insulating materials, the signal processing circuit bag of power frequency electric field Filter circuit, ac-dc converter circuit, amplifying circuit and the A/D converter circuit being sequentially connected are included, filter circuit filters electric field signal In HFS and low frequency part, power frequency component is retained, power frequency component is converted to direct current signal by ac-dc converter circuit, Amplifying circuit and A/D converter circuit is recycled to be amplified circuit and AD conversion.
The three-D magnetic field sensor includes three tunnel Acquisition Circuits, tri- magnetic fields in direction of collection XYZ, the letter of power frequency magnetic field Number process circuit includes being sequentially connected magnetic field reset-set circuit, true effective value converting circuit, amplifying circuit and AD conversion electricity Road, the magnetic field reset-set circuit produces set/reset impulse action in the current strap of three-D magnetic field sensor, high current A strong magnetic field is produced, the magnetic domain of random alignment is rearranged, be corrected on same direction, and turned by real effective Change circuit, amplifying circuit and A/D converter circuit and obtain magnetic field virtual value.
The optical fiber transport channel includes the modulator, CD-ROM driver, light source, photoelectric detector, the amplifier that are sequentially connected And demodulator, input signal injection modulator, signal is entered modulator the modulation treatment of horizontal electrical signal, then by after modulation treatment Signal drive amplification, be converted into signal code, light source is driven with this, electric signal to the conversion of optical signal is completed, then by this Optical signal is coupled in fiber medium;Optical signal detection in receiving terminal, photodetector pair fiber medium, is believed light with this Number conversion is reduced into electric signal, and then the loss in signals transmission is compensated by amplifying circuit again, finally to letter Number output is demodulated, the signals transmission of whole fibre-optic transmission system (FOTS) is completed with this.
The Bluetooth transmission passage uses distributed network, and each mobile terminal is equal in network, and independently enters The decision-making of row packets forwarding.
The Surveillance center includes Central Control Module and database, and Central Control Module shows to the signal for gathering Show, and Monitoring Data packing is transferred to database and stored, the Central Control Module includes single-chip microcomputer, heartbeat dog and answers Position dog, heartbeat dog and reset dog are realized, to optical fiber transport channel, the signal detection of Bluetooth transmission passage, instruction control, working as optical fiber During transmission channel normal work, heartbeat dog detection fiber communication heartbeat, when fiber-optic signal is interrupted, heartbeat dog abnormal alarm, Single-chip microcomputer sends enabled instruction after receiving optical fiber transport channel exceptional instructions to bluetooth communication, and Bluetooth transmission passage input makes With the detection Bluetooth communication heartbeat of heartbeat dog;When optical fiber transport channel is recovered, the work of reset dog releases Bluetooth transmission passage work Make, optical-fiber communication channel is normally run, and the switching at runtime of optical fiber-bluetooth-fiber optic communication pattern is realized since then.
Monitoring method based on said system, including:
Immediately below transmission line of alternation current to be monitored, it is monitored at transmission line of electricity predeterminable range, and record electricity Field, magnetic field, temperature, humidity, air pressure and noise parameter value, are amplified to signal, filter and the conversion of alternating current-direct current signal, conditioned Signal packed, read optical fiber transport channel, the state of Bluetooth transmission passage, when the signal interruption of optical fiber transport channel When, enabled instruction is sent to Bluetooth transmission passage, Bluetooth channels come into operation, and detect Bluetooth communication heartbeat;When Optical Fiber Transmission is logical When road recovers, the work of Bluetooth transmission passage is released, optical-fiber communication channel normally runs, the data of Surveillance center's demodulation packing, Shown.
Further, when noise monitoring is carried out, measuring point is selected in the noise-sensitive of legal station out-of-bounds 1m, more than height 1.2m Place, measuring point is not less than 1m away from metope and other reflectings surface, and away from 1.2~1.5m of floor, microprocessor is using A weighted algorithms to noise Measure and evaluate.
After Monitoring Data is received, in placing data into a Byte array, judge array first character section whether It is 0XFA, if not 0XFA, does not then carry out subsequent operation, if reception first byte is 0XFA, carries out next step flow CRC schools Test;If CRC check is correct, reception data are consistent with monitoring system data, carry out the unpacking of next step data, do not carry out otherwise Subsequent operation, the data of unpacking are updated to information displayed page after splitting, calculating, calibrate, and realize the real time implementation exhibition of data Show.
Beneficial effects of the present invention are:
(1) present invention is fixed support to field test instrument by fixed support;On the other hand, by fixed support (preferably metal), the ground potential of field intensity meter is connected with the earth, it is ensured that the electric field environment that field test instrument is monitored levels off to Stable state, from without being influenceed by ambient humidity, realizing stability monitoring of the power frequency electric field under full humidity range.
(2) electromagnetic environment monitoring system of the invention realize power frequency electric field, power frequency magnetic field, audible noise, environment temperature, The isoparametric integrated monitor of ambient humidity, air pressure, for the association analysis of electromagnetic environment informational influence factor, design verification provide number According to foundation;Ensure that device can carry out continuing to monitor for round-the-clock 24 hours by studying monitoring device continued power technology.
(3) electromagnetic environment real-time monitoring system is higher to network transmission requirement, and quick, the height of data are easy in optical-fibre communications Effect, transmitting.It is transmitted using larger packet, thus FC for video, image and mass data storage and Transmission is highly desirable, is capable of achieving the without hindrance data transmission of real time high-speed.When optical-fibre channel because force majeure factor breaks down Under conditions of, incision is put into operation bluetooth communication automatically, and the data for collecting will be transmitted by bluetooth, it is ensured that electromagnetism Environmental data is reliable, stabilization, in real time monitoring, it is ensured that the integrality of data;
(4) present invention be easy to other network connections, networking flexibility, facilitate while, increased the spirit of field apparatus Activity, mobility, adaptability and anti-interference.Simultaneously for the site environment for being not easy to wiring, it is also possible to directly using blue Tooth communication module is used as main communication apparatus;
(5) bluetooth distributed network of the present invention, can support, the status of each mobile terminal is equality without base station, and The spies such as the decision-making that can be independently forwarded the packet, its networking flexibility, multi-hop, topological structure dynamic change and distributed AC servo system Point is the basis for building bluetooth distributed network.
(6) the electromagnetic environment real-time monitoring system and method for the dual communication passage switching at runtime that the present invention takes, with optical fiber Based on communication port, bluetooth communication channel be cold standby, it is ensured that data transmission high efficiency, rapidity, reliability.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is a kind of multi-parameter collaboration full state electromagnetic environment monitoring system structural representation of wide area of the invention;
Fig. 2 is dimensionally reference type electric-field sensor sonde configuration schematic diagram;
Fig. 3 is electret capacitor microphone electricity transfer principle figure;
Fig. 4 is a reset-set circuit diagram;
Fig. 5 is temperature and humidity measurement circuit diagram;
Fig. 6 is barometric surveying circuit diagram;
Fig. 7 is power module circuitry figure;
Fig. 8 is I position monitoring device power frequency electric field Data Comparison figures;
Fig. 9 is II position monitoring device power frequency electric field Data Comparison figures;
Figure 10 is III position monitoring device power frequency electric field Data Comparison figures;
Figure 11 is power frequency magnetic field measurement comparison diagram;
Figure 12 is electric-field intensity probe equivalent circuit diagram of the invention;
Figure 13 is power frequency electric field amplification circuit diagram of the invention;
Figure 14 is set of the invention, reset pulse to the magnetic efficiency figure of magnetic thin film;
Figure 15 is the measuring circuit schematic diagram of audible noise of the invention;
Figure 16 is structural representation of the invention;
Figure 17 is switching channel principle schematic of the invention;
Figure 18 is Data Stream Processing schematic diagram of the invention;
Figure 19 is the basic composition schematic diagram of fibre-optic transmission system (FOTS) of the invention.
Specific embodiment:
The invention will be further described with embodiment below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
Fig. 1 is a kind of multi-parameter collaboration full state electromagnetic environment monitoring system structural representation of wide area of the invention.Such as Fig. 1 institutes The multi-parameter collaboration full state electromagnetic environment monitoring system of wide area for showing, including metal mounting bracket, described metal mounting bracket one end Ground connection, the other end is connected with dimensionally reference type electric-field sensor probe, three-D magnetic field sensor and electret capacitor microphone;
The dimensionally reference type electric-field sensor probe, it is used to that electric field intensity signal will to be detected successively through signal tune Reason circuit and A/D change-over circuits are sent to microcontroller;The three-D magnetic field sensor, it is used to that magnetic field intensity letter will to be detected Number it is converted into voltage signal, then through signal conditioning circuit and A/D change-over circuits is sent to microcontroller successively;The electret electricity Hold microphone, it is used to collecting noise and is converted into voltage signal, then pass through signal conditioning circuit and A/D change-over circuits successively Deliver to microcontroller;The microcontroller is connected with data is activation with receiver module;The multi-parameter cooperates with the full state electromagnetism ring of wide area Border monitoring system also includes power module, and the power module is civil power or battery.
Wherein, in order to improve the degree of accuracy of electric field Monitoring Data during multi-parameter monitoring, metal mounting bracket is devised, Can ensure that multi-parameter electromagnetic environment monitoring system is in a power frequency electric field environment for stabilization, thus substantially reduce environment The influence that humidity is monitored to electric field.
Metal mounting bracket overall height 1.5m, multi-parameter electromagnetic environment monitoring system is installed at top, and according to noise testing Specification and experience, 45 ° of installing pipes obliquely are set in 1.2m positions, for installing noise probe.Bottom integrated equipment case, can be by Power supply communication server flush type is installed, and plays the sun-proof effect of windproof and rain proof.
It is significant to note that, it is necessary to by metal mounting bracket reliable ground when carrying out field deployment.
As shown in Fig. 2 dimensionally reference type electric-field sensor is popped one's head in, it is by three pairs of parallel-plates and an earth electrode group Into, between each pair parallel-plate and an earth electrode by insulating barrier fill connect, in the middle of each pair parallel-plate also by insulating barrier every Open.Because probe is made up of flat board,, using flat ground is confined to, the distortion to distribution of charges on interface is typically for it Little.Pole measures through shielded cable and ammeter connection up and down.It is assumed that the edge effect without electric field, in sensing electrode In charge inducing Q be given by formula 1:
Q=S ε0E (1)
In formula:S --- the area of sensing flat board;E is electric-field intensity;Q=S ε0E is dielectric coefficient.
Differential charge inducing obtains relation:
I=S ω ε0E (2)
In formula:S --- the area of sensing flat board;E is electric-field intensity;Q=S ε0E is dielectric coefficient;ω is power frequency.
Because probe is made up of flat board, it using being confined to flat ground, the distortion to distribution of charges on interface It is typically little.When during probe is for inhomogeneous field, it should be noted that it is the average field-strength on detecting head surface to survey field intensity. Ground reference type field intensity meter can have battery or AC power to power, but require there is reference location position.
Wherein, electret capacitor microphone is made up of two parts:Acoustic-electric change-over circuit and impedance inverter circuit.On microphone Vibrating membrane be a kind of very thin plastic tab, coat layer of metal film using special technique on thin slice, and by one Fixed technology causes there is certain quantity of electric charge on film, and the side referred to as electret dignity for having metal, electret is honorable and electric It is extremely relative, there is the air gap of very little between them, as shown in figure 3, so electret and backplane body forms a capacity plate antenna, Vibrating membrane is caused to shift original position when there is sound to be propagated by air medium, the distance between electric capacity two-plate Change is there occurs, because capacitance size is relevant with distance between polar plate, therefore capacitance size changes, due on electret Electric charge is constant, and according to U=Q/C, voltage changes, and is so achieved that acoustoelectric signal is changed, and then enters FET electricity Realize that impedance is converted in road.
Wherein, noise hurricane globe is additionally provided with outside electret capacitor microphone.In order to ensure the steady of noise probe measurement It is fixed, carry out noise testing after noise hurricane globe is additionally provided with outside electret capacitor microphone.
Three-D magnetic field sensor of the invention is also connected with field reset-set circuit.
When sensor is in too strong magnetic interference, the magnetic domain in magnetoresistive transducer ferromagnetic thin film material occurs at random The state of arrangement, so as to cause its output to be affected, causes sensor the failure of impermanency occur;The change of environment temperature Also output can be made to drift about, and set-reset SET/RESET circuits can eliminate such influence, magnetoresistive transducer is in essence The working condition that degree is high, sensitivity is high.HMC1001 the and HMC1002 chip internals of HONEYWELL companies all carry set/multiple Position current strap, by the I/O interfaces generation set/reset impulse action of single-chip microcomputer STM32 in the current strap of magnetoresistive transducer, High current produces a strong magnetic field, and the magnetic domain of random alignment is rearranged, and is corrected on same direction.Implement electricity As shown in figure 4, three-channel parallel set-reset circuit, cpu chip STM32 produces set-reset signal S/R by controlling I/O port on road, Realize synchronous generation set/reset pulse.
In Fig. 1, the system also includes external digital Temperature and Humidity integrated sensor, and the digital Temperature and Humidity is integrated Sensor is connected with microcontroller.It is the monitoring accuracy of warm and humid degrees of data during raising multi-parameter monitoring, it is specifically configured outer The digital Temperature and Humidity integrated sensor put.The external benefit of digital Temperature and Humidity integrated sensor, one can be to avoid first device Part long-term work heating makes temperature data higher, and two can be to avoid built-in making humidity detection inaccurate.
For example:Humiture integrated sensor can be using the SHT15 of Sensirion companies of Switzerland, and the chip is digital quantity Output, long-time stability low in energy consumption, with brilliance, using IIC communication interfaces, SMD encapsulation, small volume, relative humidity measurement Scope is 0~100%, and up to 0.03%, temperature measurement range -40~123 DEG C, resolution ratio is 0.1 DEG C, operating voltage to resolution ratio: 2.2V~3.6V, being capable of Relative Humidity Measuring, temperature data.According to its databook, DATA pins need to connect 10k Ω pull-up electricity Resistance is connected to power supply DV33, and its connection circuit is as shown in Figure 5.
Humiture integrated sensor can also be using the Temperature Humidity Sensor of other models.
In Fig. 1, the system also includes digital baroceptor, the digital baroceptor and microcontroller phase Even.The present invention also using the pressure information around digital baroceptor detection transmission line of electricity and is sent to microcontroller and carries out Storage.
In a particular embodiment, air pressure acquisition uses the BMP085 baroceptors of BOSCH companies of Germany, and digital quantity is defeated Go out, communicated using iic bus interface serial, BMP085 is a high accuracy super low-power consumption baroceptor, sealed using SMD500 Dress, has the advantages that small size, high precision and stability are superior, is widely used in barometric surveying equipment, and pressure measurement range is 300-1100mbar, operating voltage:1.8V~3.6V, according to its company to the pertinent literature of BMP085, draws to SDA pins, SCL Pin is required for connecing 2.2k Ω~10k Ω pull-up resistors, it is proposed that pull-up resistor takes 4.7k Ω, and its connection circuit is as shown in Figure 6.
Digital baroceptor can also be realized using the baroceptor of other models.
Microcontroller in the present invention can be realized using the single-chip microcomputer of various series.By considering contrast, with Other series monolithics are compared, and can select STM32 processors.
Wherein, STM32 is 32 8-digit microcontrollers based on ARMCortex-M3 kernels, and the Series of MCU is integrated with 7 Channel DMA controller, 2 12 bit A/D converters, 9 communication interfaces (2 I2C interfaces, 3 UART interfaces, 2 SPI interfaces, 1 Individual CAN interface, 1 USB interface) and 80 quick I/O ports.The Series of MCU integrated level is very high, is truly On-chip system, both reduced the power consumption of system, development cost has been saved again.The series monolithic uses 3.3V power supplys, on piece Flash storage may be implemented in System Programming, can not only storage program can also data storage, on piece JTAG artificial circuits provide The emulation of full speed, is not take up other resources.The CPU of this monitoring system is employed in STM32 series monolithics STM32F103VCT6 as lower computer system control chip.The system is main using the Resources on Chip of STM32F103VCT6 Have:UART:Optical fiber or bluetooth communication;SPI0:Baroceptor;SMBus/I2C:Temperature Humidity Sensor;12 AD conversion:Power supply Electric quantity monitoring, 3 tunnel magnetic fields, 3 road electric fields.
On the basis of ground reference type monitoring method, power supply mode selection just can be with flexible and changeable.Multi-parameter electromagnetic environment Monitoring system has the performance requirement of round-the-clock long time continuous working, therefore does not consider solar powered (unstable by weather or so Calmly), laser powered sensor (technology is immature), and select most reliable storage battery power supply and mains supply to power.
1) storage battery power supply:The provisional measurement task operating time of comprehensive consideration, accumulator capacity is designed as 12 hours More than, while battery is encapsulated by non-metal shell special facture, reduce the influence to Monitoring Data.
2) mains-supplied:To meet round-the-clock detection requirement, it is necessary to introduce 220V civil powers and multi-parameter electromagnetic environment is supervised Examining system is powered for a long time, is found in structured design process, and very big on the influence of electric field Monitoring Data have two modules, and one is Power module, two is wire communication module, it is therefore necessary to is powered using external charger mode, and adds netting twine on circuit boards And communication module, independent power supply communication server is formed, powered when realizing that multi-parameter electromagnetic environment monitoring system is long, battery Charging, Data Over Cable communication function.In addition, in ground reference type monitoring method, earth electrode is also through thus power module circuitry plate Ground connection.
It is significant to note that, to ensure accuracy of measurement, during multi-parameter electromagnetic environment monitoring system use, Must be by external power supply communication server reliable ground.
System power supply power source design design probe is by 12V lithium battery power supplies, and battery turns 12VDC chargers and fills by 220VAC Electricity.Due to main control chip STM32, bluetooth module, baroceptor BMP085, high accuracy number Temperature Humidity Sensor in probe SHT15 etc. uses 3.3V voltages, the AMP04 use differential amplifications of ± 5V of high-precision meter amplifier chip.Therefore needed in probe ± Tri- kinds of power supplies of 5V and 3.3V, in order to provide ± 5V and 3.3V voltages, it is necessary to using DC/DC power transfer modules by lithium battery 12V voltages changed.DC/DC power module WRA1205LT and WRB1203LT, power module are used when the system is designed The input and output isolation voltage of WRA1205LT, WRB1203LT is high, and output voltage stabilization, output ripple noise are small, conversion efficiency Respectively 74%, 70%.Power circuit design as shown in fig. 7, horizontal toggle switch SK-12D07 as probe power switch, 12V lithium batteries supply 12V direct currents by JP1 interfaces to system, respectively through DC/DC modular power sources WRA1205LT, WRB1203LT Voltage conversion obtains ± 5VAV+, AV- and 3.3VDV33.In order to reduce interfering for digital power and analog power, in circuit Digital power DV33 obtains AV33 by the inductance isolation of a 47 μ H during design.In order to whether more preferable decision circuitry has supplied Electricity, it is power supply indicator that LED3 is provided with circuit, and when toggle switch SK-12D07 is opened, LED3 indicator lamps are bright, otherwise LED3 indicator lamps go out.
Further, multi-parameter electromagnetic environment monitoring system of the invention also includes shell, and shell selects high intensity engineering Plastics, it is assembled using back-off mode, and fixed using rubber screw, total interface is in lower end, meets outdoor use requirement.
Further, the microcontroller is connected to server by data is activation and receiver module, the server with Monitor terminal is connected.Multi-parameter electromagnetic environment monitoring system of the invention uses Integration Design, can be to power frequency electric field, power frequency Magnetic field, noise, temperature, the gentle pressure of humidity carry out fixed point real-time monitoring, can as needed dispose multiple subsystem compositions distributed Monitoring network, with data storage and data sharing functionality, can in real time be sent out monitoring information by optical fiber or bluetooth communication module Host computer or server are delivered to, real-time Communication for Power is carried out with main website, it is also possible to meet the various outdoor use conditions such as sleet cold and heat.
Further, the microcontroller is also connected with data memory module.Microcontroller obtain humiture, air pressure, The later stage application that data memory module is stored to ensure measurement data is sent to after electric-field intensity or magnetic field intensity signal. Multi-parameter electromagnetic environment monitoring system is angularly analyzed from microprocessor, power supply, electromagnetic field measurementses, shape requirement, not only to work Frequency electric field, power frequency magnetic field carry out the monitoring of the environmental informations such as real-time monitoring, more integrated noise, temperature, humidity, air pressure, more avoid Staff carries the instrument and equipment of monitoring of environmental information, reduces workload.Multi-parameter electromagnetic environment monitoring system has data Memory module, storage area is big, and Real-time Monitoring Data can be stored incessantly.
A kind of multi-parameter collaboration full state electromagnetic environment monitoring system feature of wide area of the invention is as follows:
(1) microprocessor:Low in energy consumption, superior performance, it is cost-effective;
(2) power:Anti-interference, highly reliable, hommization power supply plan design;
(3) electromagnetic field secondary beam:Three dimensionality measurement, multilevel signal conditioning;
(4) audible noise measuring:High sensitivity;
(5) humiture, barometric surveying:Low-power consumption, stability are strong;
(6) configuration design:Waterproof and dustproof, without magnetic.
A kind of multi-parameter collaboration full state electromagnetic environment monitor method of wide area of the invention, including:
Immediately below transmission line of alternation current to be monitored, power frequency electric field monitoring is carried out at transmission line of electricity predeterminable range, And record environment temperature, humidity, air pressure, noise and electric field value.
Multi-parameter electromagnetic environment monitoring system of the invention is set by China Electric Power Research Institute's power industry electrical equipment The detection of standby quality inspection test center, detection data is shown in Table 1.
Table 1 verifies data
Nominal value (kV/m) Instrument indication value (kV/m) Measured deviation %
1.0 0.951 -4.90
2.0 1.904 -4.80
5.0 4.831 -3.38
10.0 9.530 -4.70
15.0 14.45 -3.69
20.0 19.84 -0.82
By upper table, the multi-parameter electromagnetic environment monitoring system that this project is developed can enter to the power frequency electric field in environment Row accurate measurement, can keep relatively low error in the measurement range of 0~20kV/m.
In order to verify the power frequency electric field of the multi-parameter electromagnetic environment monitoring system of the invention monitoring whether not climate bar Part is restricted, and devises influence experiment of the humidity to power frequency electromagnetic environment measuring instrument measurement result.
Measuring instrument is using the popular Power frequency field strength meter of in the market:Holaday companies of the U.S. use floating type power frequency electric field Monitoring probe HI-3604 is equipped with remote display and multi-parameter electromagnetic environment monitoring system of the invention using ground reference type work Frequency electric field monitoring probe RE3N01 is equipped with wireless display terminal.
The full state electromagnetic environment monitor power frequency electric field measurement confirmatory experiment method of multi-parameter collaboration wide area of the invention, selection Alternating current circuit near the 500kV kV Substations of Feng huangshan Mountain AC extra high voltage proving ground carried out in the case of different humidity Measurement contrast test, and carry out data record.Because there is Structural Transformation in p-wire section, therefore, this section of work of transmission line of electricity Frequency electric field maximum is at 7~8m of transmission line of electricity.
Selection humidity is 51.2%, 72.2%, 85.2%, and 99.7% (rainy day) four times representative test data is entered Row analysis, as shown in table 2 and table 3.
The power frequency electric field vertical component HI3604 measured values of table 2
The power frequency electric field vertical component RE3N01 measured values of table 3
Trend analysis is carried out in the case of different humidity by reference instrument instrument HI3604 and the system of the invention, As shown in Fig. 8 to Fig. 9.
Contrast test, phenomenon is described as follows:
1) under 51.2% humidity condition, instrument HI3604 and instrument RE3N01 power frequency electric field line analysis amount monitor number Value approximately equal;Under 72.2% humidity condition, instrument HI3604 monitoring numerical values are increased slightly, instrument RE3N01 monitoring numerical values It is approximate constant;On the whole, in the case where environmental wet angle value is less than 80%, two kinds of instruments to power frequency electric field monitoring situation more Stabilization.
2) under 85.2% humidity condition, the increase of instrument HI3604 monitoring numerical values is more, when humidity is 99.7%, shows Registration value increases to 4 times or so, and instrument RE3N01 power frequency electric fields monitoring show value is increased slightly, but relatively stable, and in rain In the case of it, smaller error can be still kept.
By the analysis to experimental data, such as drawn a conclusion:
1) environmental wet is received in the measurement using the floating type power frequency electric field monitoring instrument HI3604 of insulating support to power frequency electric field The influence of degree is larger, and when ambient humidity is more than 80%, measured deviation is up to 4 times or so, it is impossible to accurate measurement;
2) present invention uses the ground reference type power frequency electric field measuring probe of metal mounting bracket, as humidity increases from 51.2% 99.7% is added to, monitoring numerical value is increased slightly, amplitude of variation is maintained within 3%, due to doing during the experiment under different humidity, ring Border be worth different, each instrument of the power frequency electric field value of itself putting position cannot identical, different tests when operation electricity The factors such as pressure can all bring measurement error, it can thus be assumed that instrument is in the case of different humidity, measured value stabilization, and in the rainy day In the case of measure, can still keep smaller error.
In order to verify that multi-parameter electromagnetic environment monitoring system measures the accuracy of power frequency magnetic field, to power frequency multi-parameter electromagnetism ring Border monitoring system carries out in-site measurement experiment.Power frequency magnetic field in-site measurement is tested and power frequency electric field in-site measurement experimental technique class Seemingly, by taking RE3N01 and HI3064 as an example, AC extra high voltage Experimental Base 500kV Feng huangshan Mountain, ground point selection Feng huangshan Mountain becomes measuring instrument Power station is carried out below power frequency magnetic field on-the-spot test, choice experiment transmission line of electricity line segment, at distance line 2m, at distance line 4m, Measured to distance line 10m, and carry out data record.
The test data of RE3N01 and HI3064 is recorded as shown in table 4 below and table 5.
The power frequency magnetic field vertical component HI3604 measured values of table 4
The power frequency magnetic field vertical component RE3N01 measured values of table 5
Error comparative analysis is carried out by reference instrument and multi-parameter electromagnetic environment monitoring system of the invention, respectively such as Shown in Figure 11 and Biao 6.
The power frequency magnetic field analysis of measurement errors of table 6
Test position Power frequency magnetic field error (uT) Percentage error
Immediately below circuit -0.015 - 0.56%
At 2m -0.024 - 0.92%
At 4m -0.012 - 0.47%
At 6m -0.008 - 0.35%
At 8m -0.010 - 0.40%
At 10m -0.014 - 0.63%
Contrast test, phenomenon is described as follows:
Arrived at circuit 10m immediately below circuit, the worst error that instrument HI3604 and instrument RE3N01 is measured is maintained at Within 1%, two instrument test data are relatively stable, fluctuate smaller.
By the analysis to experimental data, such as drawn a conclusion:
Multi-parameter electromagnetic environment monitoring system of the invention measures situation with HI36042 power frequencies conventional on the market at the scene Magnetic field measuring instrument is maintained within 1% in experiment line section to the measurement error of power frequency magnetic field, because two instruments itself are present Measurement error, the position put of instrument cannot be identical etc. factor measurement result can all be impacted, therefore the present invention Multi-parameter electromagnetic environment monitoring system to the measured value of power frequency magnetic field stabilization, accuracy is higher, is adaptable to scene various Complicated measuring environment.
When noise monitoring is carried out, measuring point is selected in the noise-sensitive of legal station out-of-bounds 1m, more than height 1.2m, measuring point away from Metope and other reflectings surface are not less than 1m, away from 1.2~1.5m of floor.
In addition, when noise monitoring is carried out, microprocessor is measured and evaluated using A weighted algorithms to noise.A weighteds Algorithm is existing algorithm, will be not repeated herein.
The multi-parameter of the invention collaboration full state electromagnetic environment monitoring system of wide area realize power frequency electric field, power frequency magnetic field, can The isoparametric integrated monitor of noise, environment temperature, ambient humidity, air pressure is listened, is the association point of electromagnetic environment informational influence factor Analysis, design verification provide data foundation;Ensure that device can carry out round-the-clock 24 by studying monitoring device continued power technology Hour continues to monitor.
Round-the-clock electromagnetic environment monitoring system uses Integration Design, can be to power frequency electric field, power frequency magnetic field, noise, temperature The gentle pressure of degree, humidity carries out fixed point real-time monitoring, can as needed dispose multiple subsystem composition distributed monitoring networks, has Data storage and data sharing functionality, can in real time be sent monitoring information to host computer or clothes by optical fiber or bluetooth communication module Business device, carries out real-time Communication for Power, it is also possible to meet the various outdoor use conditions such as sleet cold and heat with main website.
Round-the-clock electromagnetic environment monitoring system is angularly analyzed from microprocessor, power supply, electromagnetic field measurementses, shape requirement, The prison of the environmental informations such as real-time monitoring, more integrated noise, temperature, humidity, air pressure is not only carried out to power frequency electric field, power frequency magnetic field Survey, more avoid staff from carrying the instrument and equipment of monitoring of environmental information, reduce workload.Round-the-clock electromagnetic environment monitoring system With data memory module, storage area is big, and Real-time Monitoring Data can be stored incessantly.
Power frequency electromagnetic environment data monitoring method and monitoring location requirement.
Monitoring point should select physical features it is flat, away from trees and without other power circuits, communication line and program circuit Vacant lot on.
Monitoring instrument probe should be erected at ground (or basing oneself upon plane) 1.5m and highly locate, also dependent on needs at other highly Monitoring, and indicated in Surveillance.
1) overhead transmission line
Cross-section monitoring path should be selected on the cross-sectional direction of wire span center sag extreme lower position;
2) underground power transmission cable
Cross-section monitoring path is with the ground directly over underground power transmission cable wire center as starting point, along perpendicular to circuit side To carrying out, monitoring point spacing is 1m, and order is surveyed at each extension 5m in cable piping lane both sides of the edge.
3) transformer station (switchyard, string mend station)
Monitoring point should be selected without inlet-outlet line or the enclosure wall away from inlet-outlet line (wire floor projection is no less than 20m apart from side) The outer and arrangement at enclosure wall 5m.
4) buildings or structures
In buildings or structures external monitor, the side near project of transmitting and converting electricity in building should be selected, and apart from building not Less than being layouted at 1m.
Monitoring site includes electromagnetic environment sensitive target, transmission line of electricity path and site.
The points distributing method of sensitive target is based on fixed point monitoring;For the transmission line of electricity without electromagnetic environment sensitive target, need Electromagnetic environment present situation is monitored to along, as far as possible along line route uniform stationing, takes into account the representative of administrative area and environmental characteristic Property;Based on the points distributing method of site is monitored with enclosure wall surrounding uniform stationing, such as newly-built site nearby without other electromagnetism facilities, then cloth Point can simplify, and optionally layouted in enclosure wall surrounding or only layouted monitoring at site center.
According to industrial enterprise's sound source, the layout of ambient noise sensitivity building and the area classification adjoined, looked forward in industry Ye Chang circle lays multiple measuring points, and relatively closely and by tested sound source big position is influenceed including away from noise-sensitive structure.
Generally, measuring point selection Factory out-of-bounds 1m, more than height 1.2m, away from any reflecting surface distance not Position less than 1m.
When factory circle have enclosure wall and surrounding have impacted noise-sensitive structure when, measuring point should be selected in factory out-of-bounds 1m, be higher than The position of more than enclosure wall 0.5m.
Signal gathering unit is responsible for gathering environmental information, believes including temperature, humidity, air pressure, electric field, magnetic field and noise etc. Breath.Modulate circuit mainly for analog signal, signal is amplified, is filtered, alternating current-direct current signal conversion etc..Microcontroller is responsible for Collecting and process to collection information, the data that will be collected are transmitted according to communication protocol with data signal.Data is activation It is responsible for communication with receiver module, the data signal of single-chip microcomputer is transferred data to by optical fiber or blue tooth wireless communication module Position machine, completes the transmission work of signal.
The corresponding physical quantity strength signal of transformer station is converted into corresponding voltage letter by electric field, magnetic field, noise transducer Number, then signal conditioning circuit is filtered to voltage signal, exchanges amplification, real effective treatment, two grades of amplifications of direct current, then Feeding A/D module is changed, and the data to measuring are analyzed treatment;Humiture, air pressure are Switzerland's import numeral sensor core Piece, controller is communicated by IIC and is communicatively coupled with sensor, and sending work order makes respective sensor be operated reading Parameter, is stored directly in register after data measured, controller can just directly read chip internal register data from And obtain humiture, pneumatic parameter.The data that controller will be obtained are analyzed and computing in chip internal, then lead to data Cross optical fiber or Bluetooth channels module sends.
The digital quantity signal that Temperature Humidity Sensor and baroceptor will can be collected is sent in single-chip microcomputer, power frequency electric, Transmission or analog signal to the modulate circuit that magnetic field and noise signal acquisition module will directly can be collected carries out signal condition, nurses one's health it It is sent to afterwards on the single-chip microcomputer of Central Control Module (can select C8051F020 single chip microcomputers) and is sampled.Single-chip microcomputer passes through nothing Line or cable data transfer data to host computer by module, and data are updated display by host computer after receiving data.
(1) power frequency electric field measuring method
Power frequency electric field measuring system hardware is adjusted by dimensionally reference type electric-field sensor probe, set-reset circuit, signal Reason circuit and A/D converter circuit composition.
The output of electric-field sensor than larger, by an external capacitor C by the output of power frequency electric field to suitable size, That is the signal conditioning circuit of power frequency electric field is just amplified without as power frequency magnetic field process circuit before filtering, because The hard ware measure system of this power frequency electric field is by dimensionally reference type electric-field sensor probe, filter circuit, RMS conversion electricity Road, amplifying circuit, AD conversion etc..
Current most of power frequency electric field probes by the use of two same materials and size film copper mold as plate material, then Two pieces of copper molds are fixed on the insulating material or are directly anchored to inside device box by seccotine, in air insulation effect Under, complete the design of floating type electric field probe.The probe that this manual mode makes, there may be larger error between its individuality, And fixed copper mold uses glue, due to glue non-refractory, copper mold is likely to result at high temperature and is come off or tip damage, from And influence the using effect of power frequency electric field probe.In order to solve this problem, electric field probe is fabricated into PCB by the present invention On (Printed circuit board) printed circuit board, a pair of circle copper pads are selected as parallel-plate, using middle epoxy Resin is used as insulating materials.
Insulating materials in the middle of pcb board is epoxy resin FR4, and its dielectric constant is 4.2~4.7 times of air, takes 4.5 Times.Pole plate selfcapacity is C ', then by the electric capacity computing formula of plane-parallel capacitor:
In formula:
The dielectric constant of ε --- epoxy resin;
S --- metal parallel plate area;
K --- coefficient;
D --- the distance between parallel-plate.
The circular parallel plate electrode radius of pad composition is r=40mm, then the area S of parallel-plate copper mold
S=π r2=3.14 × 0.022=0.001256m2 (2-10)
Generally taken in engineering:
ε=ε0εr (2-11)
Wherein--- the capacitivity of vacuum, in the unit of international system, its value is 8.854187817*10- 12F/m, εr--- parallel-plate medium relative dielectric constant, 4.5 are taken here.Dimensionally reference type electric-field sensor is visited in the system Head probe parallel plate electrode selfcapacity C ' be
In actually measurement, in addition to the natural capacity C ' between parallel-plate, measurement electricity in parallel is also needed between two pole plates Hold Cm.Access measurement electric capacity CmJust can monitor electric-field intensity by measuring the voltage at electric capacity two ends afterwards.Entirely pop one's head in complete etc. Effect circuit diagram is as shown in figure 12.
In the round-the-clock electromagnetic environment monitoring system of present invention design, from A/D chip in the piece of C8051F020, it is adopted Sample scope is 0~2.43V, and the maximum field intensity of the probe measurement for designing is 20kV/m, it is impossible to direct measurement, it is necessary to reduce Voltage between parallel-plate, then specifies the measurement electric capacity of nanofarad range, its natural capacity for being far longer than probe, therefore can be near As ignore the natural capacity of probe to measurement voltage UmInfluence.
By the experiment of theoretical calculation and reality, 10nF is selected in the external capacitor C of sensor circuit, so work as sensor 1.414V alternating voltages are exported when being placed in the power frequency electric field environment of 20kV.
1) filter circuit
Power frequency electric field needs to filter HFS and low frequency part in electric field signal, and power frequency component is retained, therefore work Frequency electric field needs bandwidth-limited circuit, essentially identical with power frequency magnetic field filter circuit.
2) ac-dc converter circuit
The signal exported by filter circuit is the power frequency alternating signal of 50Hz, it is therefore desirable to be converted into direct current signal, In the circuit, the real effective chip of the use AD736 cores for being ADI companies identical with power frequency magnetic field real effective circuit Piece.
3) amplifying circuit
When 20kV power frequency electric field signals, by defeated after 10nF external capacitor C partial pressures, filter circuit, real effective chip Go out direct current signal size for 1V RMS, to coordinate maximum AD sampled voltage 2.43V on STM32 processor pieces, 1V voltages need to be put Big to 2.43V, multiplication factor is 2.43, amplifying circuit chip and power frequency magnetic field second level circuit phase that this amplifying circuit is used Together, multiplication factor in its circuit is simply changed to 2.43, power frequency electric field amplifying circuit and component parameter design are as shown in figure 13, As power frequency magnetic field circuit signal modulate circuit, the current-limiting resistance and two 1N4147 for having 2k Ω after OPA2277 amplifications are limited Pressure diode.
(2) power frequency magnetic field measuring method
Magnetic field acquisition module circuit theory is as follows:Because there are tri- directions of XYZ in magnetic field, each direction has gather all the way electric Road, takes the circuit citing of X-direction.Power frequency magnetic field measures hardware circuit and is adjusted by three-D magnetic field sensor, set-reset circuit, signal The compositions such as reason circuit and A/D converter circuit.
1) magnetic field reset-set circuit
When sensor is in too strong magnetic interference, the magnetic domain in magnetoresistive transducer ferromagnetic thin film material occurs at random The state of arrangement, so as to cause its output to be affected, causes sensor the failure of impermanency occur;The change of environment temperature Also output can be made to drift about, and set-reset SET/RESET circuits can eliminate such influence, magnetoresistive transducer is in essence The working condition that degree is high, sensitivity is high.HMC1001 the and HMC1002 chip internals of HONEYWELL companies all carry set/multiple Position current strap, by the I/O interfaces generation set/reset impulse action of single-chip microcomputer STM32 in the current strap of magnetoresistive transducer, High current produces a strong magnetic field, and the magnetic domain of random alignment is rearranged, and is corrected on same direction.Implement electricity As shown in figure 4, three-channel parallel set-reset circuit, cpu chip STM32 produces set-reset signal S/R by controlling I/O port on road, Realize synchronous generation set/reset pulse.
Signal conditioning circuit
The signal conditioning circuit of anisotropic magnetoresistive sensor is the highly important link of electromagnetic signal acquisition, modulate circuit Quality directly affect output signal accuracy, signal conditioning circuit is divided into 4 parts.Part I is the first order of magnetic field signal Amplifying circuit, the magnetic field signal that this circuit will be collected is amplified;Part II is bandwidth-limited circuit, act as amplifying The signal crossed is filtered, and the signal of the power frequency section required for filtering out, filter circuit needs conscientiously to design and test design Effect.Part III is signal ac-dc converter circuit, and the AC signal that front stage circuits are exported is converted to direct current letter by this part Number;Part IV is second level amplifying circuit.
When sensor is in too strong magnetic interference, the magnetic domain in magnetoresistive transducer ferromagnetic thin film material occurs at random The state of arrangement, so as to cause its output to be affected, causes sensor the failure of impermanency occur;The change of environment temperature Also output can be made to drift about, and set-reset SET/RESET circuits can eliminate such influence, magnetoresistive transducer is in essence The working condition that degree is high, sensitivity is high.HMC1001 the and HMC1002 chip internals of HONEYWELL companies all carry set/multiple Position current strap, by single-chip microcomputer C8051f020I/O mouthfuls of generation set/reset impulse action in the current strap of magnetoresistive transducer, High current produces a strong magnetic field, and the magnetic domain of random alignment is rearranged, and is corrected on same direction.Implement electricity As shown in figure 14, three-channel parallel set-reset circuit, CPU C8051f020 produce set-reset signal S/ by controlling I/O port on road R, realizes synchronous generation set/reset pulse.
Signal RMS conversion AC/DC is changed
Need that power frequency alternating signal is converted into be used in direct current signal, this signal processing circuit after bandwidth-limited circuit Used as RMS conversion chip, AD736 is accurate RMS conversion device (True RMS-toDCConverter) to AD736, It is characterized in that sensitivity is good, the degree of accuracy is high, full scale is 200mVRMS, conversion speed is fast, the good (frequency operating range of frequency performance Be 0~460kHz), output impedance is low, input impedance is high by (1012Ω), power range be+2.8V~16.5V, -3.2V~- 16.5V, and maximum power work electric current low in energy consumption is 200mA, external circuit is simple.
Second level signal amplification circuit
Electromagnetic signal through AD736 real effective chips realize AC/DC change after signal very little, rated output is maximum 200mV RMS in this grade of amplifying circuit, it is necessary to the further amplification of direct current signal, use Texas Instruments (TI) company Put precision amplifier OPA2277UA double operational chips, the chip has that variation is small, temperature drift is small, switching rate is fast, steady Fixed reliable, low in energy consumption the advantages of.
(3) audible noise measuring method
The present invention substitutes common condenser microphone using electret capacitor microphone.Electret capacitor microphone be One layer of uniform and thin electret is sprayed on general condenser microphone back pole plate, is allowed to polarize at high temperature and pressure, allowed Electric charge is permanently stored among electret, so that producing an internal electric field between the two poles of the earth of microphone, is used for Replace the electric field as produced by additional polarizing voltage.
The measurement of ambient noise is generally 1.2m highly, it is contemplated that round-the-clock electromagnetic environment monitoring system monitoring height exists 1.5m, both on different height, specifically configured external audible noise module, and install high density hurricane globe additional at probe, Measured with being adapted under windy conditions.
Electret transducer has source class to export and drain electrode two kinds of circuit connectings of output, and what is generally used is all drain electrode output side Formula, the sensor of which only has both threads to draw, and the system is exactly the drain electrode way of output for using, the drain electrode connection sensor Remolding sensitivity source class connection it is high, Noise Circuits design is as shown in figure 15, and electret source class ground connection, drain electrode connects by R21, R11 To VA+, and by electric capacity CP11 export, after output signal by the filter circuit similar with electromagnetic field signal modulate circuit, put Big circuit, true effective value converting circuit are sampled into 12 AD on STM32 pieces.
The present invention using ground the round-the-clock electromagnetic environment monitoring system of reference type, for gather everywhere temperature, humidity, air pressure, The electromagnetic environment information such as electric field, magnetic field and noise, and real-time Communication for Power is carried out with main website by optical fiber or Blue-tooth communication method.
Round-the-clock electromagnetic environment monitoring system uses Integration Design, and signal gathering unit is responsible for gathering environmental information, and The corresponding physical quantity strength signal of transformer station that will be collected is converted into corresponding voltage signal, and feeding A/D module is changed, Then treatment is analyzed to the data for measuring.The data that controller will be obtained are analyzed and computing in chip internal, then Data are sent by optical fiber or bluetooth module.
From above analyzing, it would be desirable to access a measurement electric capacity C at the two ends of sensorm, measure the appearance of electric capacity Value is nf ranks, and measuring electric capacity using 10nf in the present invention carries out the value measurement of test power frequency electric field.Using only stone electricity of 10nf Appearance is parallel to the two ends of probe, can take into account the situation of measurement range and measurement high field and low strengh electric field resolution ratio.
In order to obtain the calibration curve of project of transmitting and converting electricity power frequency electric field real-time intelligent monitoring system, using Lagrange's interpolation Method, draws interpolated polynomial curve.
If polynomial of degree n curve:
PnX () is polynomial of degree n interpolation curve, n+1 is mutually different interpolation point, and it is by n+1 coefficient a0, a1, a2… anDetermine, if curve Pn(X) by n+1 mutually different interpolation point (x in given planei, f (xi)) (i=0,1,2 ..., N), then:
Pn(xi)=f (xi) (2-14)
By (xi, f (xi)) (i=0,1,2 ..., n), substitute into P successivelynX () obtains linear equation:
Calibration value is taken for xi(i=0,1,2 ..., 5), standard value is f (xi), modeled by Matlab and substitute into 6 groups of data Linear equation is solved:
P5(x)=5 × 10-13x5-6.4×10-10x4+2.9×10-7x3
-5.2×10-5x2+0.025x-0.491 (2-16)
According to Lagrangian n interpolation polynomial formula error:
Electromagnetic environment monitor data are built based on enterprise-level relevant database, with the growth of data volume, influence data The principal element of search efficiency is full table scan.The problem low in order to evade efficiency data query that full table scan brings, this hair When bright monitor database is designed, the data volume of individual table and Field Count need to be controlled.
(1) data partition
For monitor database data storage size it is big the characteristics of, Monitoring Data first according to round-the-clock electromagnetic environment monitor system ID points of table of system, then temporally range partition, in this, as the primitive rule of data storage, table name structure is " the round-the-clock electricity of T_ Magnetic environment monitoring system ID_ monitors season in time S ".
Data partition design facilitates background system application module to use parallel work-flow to monitor database, with abundant adjusting data Storehouse computing resource, accelerates data retrieval and processing speed.Additionally, data partition design also mitigates the access pressure of database table Power, by that according to data are accessed in time and season, single token can be recorded number and be limited within a hundred or so ten thousand grades, prevents because of Monitoring Data The problem that database access performance drastically declines caused by expansion occurs.
(2) Monitoring Data inquiry service
Monitoring Data inquiry service core function mainly includes:
1) |input paramete treatment
When data history inquiry is monitored, six parameters can be transmitted to the search algorithm of Monitoring Data inquiry service, Including stratification classification, level ID, inquiry starting and ending time, the page number and number of pages.
After Monitoring Data inquiry service receives |input paramete, the type according to level goes to determine the hierarchy of objectivies, Ran Hougen The specific node in the hierarchy of objectivies is determined according to level ID.According to the node for determining, by way of infinite recursion in database Obtain all round-the-clock electromagnetic environment monitoring systems for belonging to this node.
Meanwhile, Monitoring Data inquiry service can carry out season to the time interval represented by the starting and ending time of inquiry Change is processed, and the season that time interval is divided into by representing in multiple seasons is gathered.
After round-the-clock electromagnetic environment monitoring system set and season set is obtained, Monitoring Data inquiry service is comprehensive by both Round-the-clock electromagnetic environment monitoring system-season set is combined into, this set will be used by the parameter that finally enters as algorithm.
2) number of data set is obtained
In order to realize monitoring the two-page separation function of the inquiry of historical data, Monitoring Data inquiry service is it needs to be determined that target database The number of data of table, is used to determine the database table that needs are extracted during paging.
The wasting of resources for causing frequently is connected with database in order to save, request-response time is reduced, using in database End is programmed to the function of realizing obtaining number of data.By writing corresponding storing process, incoming round-the-clock electromagnetism is only needed Environmental monitoring system data-season set, database will be supervised according to the algorithm of storing process by round-the-clock electromagnetic environment The number of data of the corresponding table of parameters of examining system data-season set is counted, after collecting to statistics, Can return to the set of the number of data of required each tables of data.
3) data page algorithm
In data page algorithm, the data bit that Monitoring Data inquiry service can be required to look up according to the page number and number of pages determination Put, then closed according to data table data bar manifold, by a series of mathematical algorithm, it is determined which table is required data be present in In, target data is finally taken out from these object tables of database.
Data buffer storage
In order to improve the efficiency of real time data interaction, data buffer storage is set up, it is all round-the-clock under centrally stored net provincial company The newest monitoring information of electromagnetic environment monitoring system.Data buffer storage uses round-the-clock electromagnetism using the design of data dictionary The ID of environmental monitoring system, the value of data dictionary is standard monitoring base class.The management work of data buffer storage is by data buffer service It is responsible for carrying out, concurrent and multi-thread access is ensured using file lock.
When being added in data buffer storage and updating round-the-clock electromagnetic environment monitoring system information, specific monitoring class is first passed through Incasement operation is crossed, when system accesses real-time monitoring information, the ID according to data dictionary determines the corresponding monitoring class of monitoring information, so Afterwards by operation of devaning, monitoring base class is reduced to corresponding specific monitoring class.
For the system network area scope it is wide, network layer type is more the characteristics of, it is necessary to many objects of multi-environment Combined communication technology studied, to optimize data circulation efficiency, realize distributed networking.For the purpose of the present invention, it is required to grind The communication technology studied carefully is including the remote wire transmission communication between different operating station, between state collecting device and reception device Near radio transmission communication.Therefore, Wireless/wired blended data communication transmission mode is studied.
As shown in figure 16, the principle of the system is that input signal is injected into Transmission system first, and modulator carries out signal The modulation treatment of electric signal, then by the signal drive amplification after modulation treatment, is converted into signal code, and light source is driven with this (usually laser (LD) or light emitting diode (LED)), completes electric signal to the conversion of optical signal, then by this optical signal It is coupled in fiber medium;Optical signal detection in receiving terminal, photodetector pair fiber medium, is changed optical signal with this Electric signal is reduced into, then the loss in signals transmission is compensated by amplifying circuit again, finally signal is carried out Demodulation output, the signals transmission of whole fibre-optic transmission system (FOTS) is completed with this.
The input of conventional optic module is RS-232 interface, and TX, RX of the UART of single-chip microcomputer is Transistor-Transistor Logic level, therefore The level conversion of rs-232 standard serial ports is completed using chip MAX232.
Bluetooth system has two kinds of shapes using a kind of flexible networking mode without base station, the topological structure of its network structure Formula:Piconet (piconet) and distributed network (Scatternet).Bluetooth distributed network is MANET (ad hoc Networks a kind of special case).Its maximum feature can be to support that the status of each mobile terminal is equality without base station, and The spies such as the decision-making that can be independently forwarded the packet, its networking flexibility, multi-hop, topological structure dynamic change and distributed AC servo system Point is the basis for building bluetooth distributed network.
The electromagnetic environment real-time monitoring system of the dual communication passage switching at runtime taken based on above feature, the present invention and side Method, based on optical-fiber communication channel, bluetooth communication channel is as cold standby, it is ensured that high efficiency, rapidity, the reliability of data transmission Property.This method by define the application layer of ethernet communication agreement and bluetooth communication agreement carry out the definition of priority and treatment, The technologies such as priority conversion adapt to the various requirement of field control.When Central Control Module having power frequency electric field analog signal The virtual value of valid value and power frequency magnetic field analog signal carries out analog-to-digital conversion and generates corresponding power frequency electric field data signal and work respectively To fiber optic telecommunications module, fiber optic telecommunications module is by power frequency electric field data signal and power frequency magnetic field numeral for frequency magnetic field digital data transmission Signal analyzes display device by Optical Fiber Transmission to distal end;After fiber optic telecommunications module or the optical fiber break down, center control Molding block controls electronic control switch, optic module is disconnected, and connect bluetooth communication, and bluetooth communication is by power frequency electric Display device is analyzed in field data signal and the logical distal end that is transferred to of power frequency magnetic field data signal.The method is easy to connect with other networks Connect, networking flexibility, facilitate while, increased flexibility, mobility, adaptability and the anti-interference of field apparatus.Together When, for the site environment for being not easy to wiring, it is also possible to directly use bluetooth communication module as main communication apparatus.
The full state electromagnetic environment monitor Database Systems of wide area of each dual communication passage switching at runtime are prevented by non magnetic waterproof Sensing support is fixed, and power module is connected to sensor power, the information output interface of sensor with signal transacting input interface, The signal processing circuit of power frequency electric field is made up of set-reset circuit, signal conditioning circuit, A/D converter circuit, the letter of power frequency magnetic field Number process circuit is made up of filter circuit, true effective value converting circuit, amplifying circuit, A/D converter circuit, and signal transacting output connects Mouth is connected with Central Control Module input, and Central Control Module output communicates with optical fiber bidirectional and bluetooth bi-directional communication modules connect Connect;
Each all-weather electromagnetic environment monitoring system is by power module to optical fiber bidirectional communication and bluetooth bi-directional communication modules Power supply, display systems side data communication module input interface is connected with terminal side data communication module output interface, display systems Side data communication module output interface is connected with data process&analysis module, and data process&analysis module is opened up in real time with data Show that module is connected.
Step 1:Power module includes DC/DC electricity in the all-weather electromagnetic environment monitoring system of dual communication passage switching at runtime Source modular converter, 12V lithium batteries, lithium cell charging plug DC05, precision photoelectric coupler part PC817.Dimensionally reference type is electric Field sensor probe, Central Control Module, optical fiber bidirectional communication module and bluetooth bi-directional communication modules are by 3.3V power voltage supplies, three Operational amplifier, RMS conversion chip in dimension magnetic field sensor, amplifying circuit, set-reset circuit chip, signal are adjusted , by ± 5V power voltage supplies, 3.3V and ± 5V voltages are by 12V lithiums electricity for reason circuit chip, A/D converter circuit chip, filter circuit chip Pond is changed by DC/DC power transfer modules and got, and lithium cell charging plug DC05 realizes charging of the 220V civil powers to lithium battery, Precision photoelectric coupler part PC817 realizes that electric quantity of lithium battery is monitored.The round-the-clock electromagnetic environment prison of dual communication passage switching at runtime Power module in examining system is dimensionally reference type electric-field sensor probe, three-D magnetic field sensor, signal processing unit, in Heart control module, data communication module are powered.
Step 2:Dimensionally reference type electric-field sensor probe and three-D magnetic field sensor are dual communication passage switching at runtime Round-the-clock electromagnetic environment monitoring system key foundation element, realize the collection of simulant signal of power frequency electric field and power frequency magnetic field.
Step 3:After the analog signal that signal processing unit receives power frequency electric field and power frequency magnetic field collection, signal is entered Row amplifies, filters, alternating current-direct current signal is changed etc..
Step 4:Single-chip microcomputer, heartbeat dog and reset dog composition in Central Control Module.Single-chip microcomputer is by signal transacting The conditioned signal of unit is processed and packed, and is sent to electromagnetic environment information intelligent display unit, the data communication module heart Jump signal detection, the instruction control, fiber optic communication of dog and the realization of reset dog to optical fiber bidirectional communication and bluetooth bi-directional communication modules Module and bluetooth communication are connected by switching device.When fiber optic telecommunications module normal work, heartbeat dog detection fiber is led to Confidence is jumped, and when fiber-optic signal is interrupted, heartbeat dog abnormal alarm, single-chip microcomputer leads to after receiving optical-fibre channel exceptional instructions to bluetooth Letter module sends enabled instruction, and Bluetooth channels come into operation, the detection Bluetooth communication heartbeat of heartbeat dog;When optical-fibre channel is recovered, Reset dog works, and releases Bluetooth channels work, and optical-fiber communication channel normally runs, and realizes that " optical fiber-bluetooth-optical fiber " leads to since then The switching at runtime of letter pattern, the mutual switching of optical-fibre channel and Bluetooth channels only needs 5s in whole process.
Step 5:The full state electromagnetic environment number of round-the-clock electromagnetic environment monitoring system and wide area of dual communication passage switching at runtime According to being in communication with each other between the system of storehouse, the data interaction of monitoring system and display unit is realized.
Step 6:Power module in electromagnetic environment information intelligent display unit, is that data communication module is powered.
Step 7:The signal that data communication module will be received is sent to data process&analysis unit, realizes the solution of signal Analysis, dirty data are rejected, verification, for data real-time exhibition unit provides reliable, real-time Monitoring Data.
Step 8:By data real-time exhibition unit, the mobilism displaying of power frequency electric field and power frequency magnetic field data is realized.
It is as shown in figure 18 the principle schematic of dual communication passage switching at runtime, 1 is the complete of dual communication passage switching at runtime Fiber optic telecommunications module in weather electromagnetic environment monitoring system, 2 is bluetooth communication, and 3 is switching device;4th, 5 it is respectively extensively The fiber optic telecommunications module and bluetooth communication of the full state electromagnetic environment Database Systems in domain.
In actual use, fiber optic telecommunications module and bluetooth communication are connected by switching device 3, and 31 is normally closed Contact, 32 is normally opened contact, and in optic module proper communication, 31 close, and 32 disconnect;Occur when fiber optic telecommunications module is detected During failure, fiber optic telecommunications module is cut off in 31 automatic disconnections with the path in whole loop, the 32 automatic substitution fiber optic communication moulds that close Block works, it is ensured that whole system Monitoring Data channels open, maintains self-stabilization operation.
It is as shown in figure 19 data communication flow, after Monitoring Data is received, in placing data into a Byte array, Whether the first character section for judging array is 0XFA, if not 0XFA, does not then carry out subsequent operation, if receive first byte being 0XFA, carries out next step flow CRC check;If CRC check is correct, reception data are consistent with monitoring system data, carry out down The unpacking of one step data, subsequent operation is not carried out otherwise;The data of unpacking are updated to information exhibition after splitting, calculating, calibrate Show the page, realize the real time implementation displaying of data.
Although above-mentioned be described with reference to accompanying drawing to specific embodiment of the invention, not to present invention protection model The limitation enclosed, one of ordinary skill in the art should be understood that on the basis of technical scheme those skilled in the art are not Need the various modifications made by paying creative work or deformation still within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. the full state electromagnetic environment monitoring system of a kind of wide area based on multi-parameter synergic monitoring, it is characterized in that:Including multi-parameter inspection Unit and Surveillance center are surveyed, the electromagnetic environment data of detection are transferred to Surveillance center by the multi-parameter detection unit, wherein:
The multi-parameter detection unit includes dimensionally reference type electric-field sensor probe, three-D magnetic field sensor, digital temperature Humidity integrated sensor, digital baroceptor and electret capacitor microphone, the sensor may be contained within fixed support On;
The dimensionally reference type electric-field sensor probe, it is used to that electric field intensity signal will to be detected successively through signal condition electricity Road and A/D change-over circuits are sent to microcontroller;The three-D magnetic field sensor, it is used to that magnetic field intensity signal turn will to be detected Change voltage signal into, then through signal conditioning circuit and A/D change-over circuits be sent to microcontroller successively;The electret capacitor is passed Sound device, it is used to collecting noise and is converted into voltage signal, then is sent to through signal conditioning circuit and A/D change-over circuits successively Microcontroller;The digital Temperature and Humidity integrated sensor is connected with microcontroller, the digital baroceptor and micro-control Device processed is connected, and the microcontroller is connected with data is activation with receiver module;
The multi-parameter detection unit passes through communication module to the electric field, magnetic field, temperature, humidity, air pressure and the noise parameter that detect Surveillance center is transferred to, real-time storage and the display of data is carried out, the communication module is communicated logical based on optical fiber transport channel Road, Bluetooth transmission passage are cold standby passage.
2. the full state electromagnetic environment monitoring system of a kind of wide area based on multi-parameter synergic monitoring as claimed in claim 1, it is special Levying is:The dimensionally reference type electric-field sensor probe, it is made up of three pairs of parallel-plates and an earth electrode, and each pair is parallel Filled by insulating barrier between plate and an earth electrode and connected, also separated by insulating barrier in the middle of each pair parallel-plate.
3. the full state electromagnetic environment monitoring system of a kind of wide area based on multi-parameter synergic monitoring as claimed in claim 1, it is special Levying is:Be fabricated into electric field probe on PCB printed circuit boards by the dimensionally reference type electric-field sensor probe, selects a pair of circles Copper pad as parallel-plate, by the use of middle epoxy resin as insulating materials, the signal processing circuit of power frequency electric field include according to Secondary connected filter circuit, ac-dc converter circuit, amplifying circuit and A/D converter circuit, filter circuit are filtered in electric field signal HFS and low frequency part, power frequency component is retained, and power frequency component is converted to direct current signal, then profit by ac-dc converter circuit Circuit and AD conversion are amplified with amplifying circuit and A/D converter circuit.
4. the full state electromagnetic environment monitoring system of a kind of wide area based on multi-parameter synergic monitoring as claimed in claim 1, it is special Levying is:The three-D magnetic field sensor includes three tunnel Acquisition Circuits, tri- magnetic fields in direction of collection XYZ, the signal of power frequency magnetic field Process circuit includes the magnetic field reset-set circuit, true effective value converting circuit, amplifying circuit and the A/D converter circuit that are sequentially connected, The magnetic field reset-set circuit produces set/reset impulse action in the current strap of three-D magnetic field sensor, and high current is produced A raw strong magnetic field, the magnetic domain of random alignment is rearranged, and is corrected on same direction, and by RMS conversion Circuit, amplifying circuit and A/D converter circuit obtain magnetic field virtual value.
5. the full state electromagnetic environment monitoring system of a kind of wide area based on multi-parameter synergic monitoring as claimed in claim 1, it is special Levying is:The optical fiber transport channel includes that the modulator being sequentially connected, CD-ROM driver, light source, photoelectric detector, amplifier are conciliate Device is adjusted, input signal injects modulator, and signal is entered modulator the modulation treatment of horizontal electrical signal, then by the letter after modulation treatment Number drive amplification, is converted into signal code, and light source is driven with this, completes electric signal to the conversion of optical signal, then by this light letter Number it is coupled in fiber medium;Optical signal detection in receiving terminal, photodetector pair fiber medium, is turned optical signal with this Change and be reduced into electric signal, then the loss in signals transmission is compensated by amplifying circuit again, finally signal is entered Row demodulation output, the signals transmission of whole fibre-optic transmission system (FOTS) is completed with this;Or
The Bluetooth transmission passage uses distributed network, and each mobile terminal is equal in network, and is independently divided The decision-making of group forwarding.
6. the full state electromagnetic environment monitoring system of a kind of wide area based on multi-parameter synergic monitoring as claimed in claim 1, it is special Levying is:The Surveillance center includes Central Control Module and database, and Central Control Module shows to the signal for gathering, and Monitoring Data packing is transferred into database to be stored, the Central Control Module includes single-chip microcomputer, heartbeat dog and reset dog, Heartbeat dog and reset dog are realized to optical fiber transport channel, the signal detection of Bluetooth transmission passage, instruction control, when Optical Fiber Transmission is logical During road normal work, heartbeat dog detection fiber communication heartbeat, when fiber-optic signal is interrupted, heartbeat dog abnormal alarm, single-chip microcomputer Enabled instruction is sent to bluetooth communication after receiving optical fiber transport channel exceptional instructions, Bluetooth transmission passage comes into operation, the heart Jump dog detection Bluetooth communication heartbeat;When optical fiber transport channel is recovered, the work of reset dog releases Bluetooth transmission channels operation, light Fiber communication passage is normally run, and the switching at runtime of optical fiber-bluetooth-fiber optic communication pattern is realized since then.
7. the monitoring method of the system being based on as any one of claim 1-6, it is characterized in that:Including:
Immediately below transmission line of alternation current to be monitored, it is monitored at transmission line of electricity predeterminable range, and records electric field, magnetic Field, temperature, humidity, air pressure and noise parameter value, are amplified to signal, filter and the conversion of alternating current-direct current signal, conditioned letter Number packed, read optical fiber transport channel, the state of Bluetooth transmission passage, when the signal interruption of optical fiber transport channel, to Bluetooth transmission passage sends enabled instruction, and Bluetooth channels come into operation, and detects Bluetooth communication heartbeat;When optical fiber transport channel is recovered When, the work of Bluetooth transmission passage is released, optical-fiber communication channel normally runs, the data of Surveillance center's demodulation packing, is shown Show.
8. monitoring method as claimed in claim 7, it is characterized in that:When noise monitoring is carried out, measuring point is selected in legal station out-of-bounds The noise-sensitive of 1m, more than height 1.2m, measuring point is not less than 1m away from metope and other reflectings surface, away from 1.2~1.5m of floor.
9. monitoring method as claimed in claim 7, it is characterized in that:Microprocessor is measured using A weighted algorithms to noise And evaluation.
10. monitoring method as claimed in claim 7, it is characterized in that:After Monitoring Data is received, one is placed data into In Byte arrays, whether the first character section for judging array is 0XFA, if not 0XFA, does not then carry out subsequent operation, if Reception first byte is 0XFA, carries out next step flow CRC check;If CRC check is correct, data and monitoring system data are received Unanimously, carry out the unpacking of next step data, do not carry out subsequent operation otherwise, the data of unpacking are by splitting, calculating, after calibration more Newly to information displayed page, the real time implementation displaying of data is realized.
CN201710049883.9A 2017-01-23 2017-01-23 The full state electromagnetic environment monitoring system of wide area and method based on multi-parameter synergic monitoring CN106840258A (en)

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CN109612535A (en) * 2019-01-22 2019-04-12 武汉大学 A kind of alternating current-direct current electromagnetic environment monitor terminal
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