CN106645639B - Observation device and method for quantitatively measuring moisture supply amount from sand dune to inter-dune land - Google Patents

Observation device and method for quantitatively measuring moisture supply amount from sand dune to inter-dune land Download PDF

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CN106645639B
CN106645639B CN201611113269.6A CN201611113269A CN106645639B CN 106645639 B CN106645639 B CN 106645639B CN 201611113269 A CN201611113269 A CN 201611113269A CN 106645639 B CN106645639 B CN 106645639B
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soil
water
infiltration
observation
data acquisition
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CN106645639A (en
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阿拉木萨
曹静
杨婷婷
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Institute of Applied Ecology of CAS
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N33/00Investigating or analysing materials by specific methods not covered by groups G01N1/00 - G01N31/00
    • G01N33/24Earth materials
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N15/00Investigating characteristics of particles; Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface-area of porous materials
    • G01N15/08Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface area of porous materials

Abstract

The present invention relates to an observation device and method for measuring the amount of water supplied to a place between peripheral dunes by a sand dune. The device comprises: the soil deep water infiltration observation device consists of a water gathering cylinder, a funnel and a self-metering rain gauge; the observation device for the infiltration of the water in the deep layer and the side surface of the soil consists of an arc-shaped water-blocking plate, a water-collecting cylinder, a funnel and a self-metering rain gauge. The method comprises the following steps: the two devices are buried in soil on the slope of a sand dune, and the vertical infiltration amount of water in the soil and the lateral infiltration amount of water in the soil are collected and output to a data acquisition instrument through a data acquisition line. The device can determine the moisture supply quantity to the inter-dune land in different periods of the non-freezing period of the sand dune soil, provides a test basis for determining the moisture balance process of a sand dune-inter-dune land system, clarifies the quantity and ecological effect of the water collection effect of the sand dune in a sand ecological system, and provides a theoretical basis for establishing continuous and stable sand-fixing vegetation.

Description

Observation device and method for quantitatively measuring moisture supply amount from sand dune to inter-dune land
Technical Field
The invention relates to quantitative observation of a soil moisture migration process in a sand dune area, in particular to an observation device and method for quantitatively measuring moisture supply of a sand dune to a inter-dune area.
Background
The water exchange process between sand dunes and between dunes is a difficult problem for researching the hydrological process of sand lands, and many researchers research and explore through various methods, but have not produced clear research results. Because the communication process of the water between the two is obviously difficult to observe, particularly the observation of the water seepage amount in the deep layer of a sand dune, in the past, on the research method and means of soil water seepage and supply, a ring knife method, a double ring knife method, an evapo-vadose method, a manual rainfall simulation method, a soil column method, a water flux method, a tracing method and the like are mostly adopted, the seepage and supply water amount of rainfall to soil is calculated through mathematical modeling, and a measuring instrument for directly monitoring the soil seepage and supply water amount is lacked. At present, a water flux method which is relatively wide in application and relatively simple and convenient to calculate can accurately calculate the rainfall infiltration replenishment quantity, but needs detailed and relatively large-range soil water potential and soil water content data, is difficult to obtain in practice, and ignores the influence of temperature on soil water movement in calculation, so that the calculation error of the water flux method is caused; the underground lysimeter method can directly measure the supply amount, but the manufacturing cost is high, and the observation research on a plurality of large space scales is difficult to carry out; the isotope tracer method is a better research method for researching groundwater recharge at present, but only indirect estimation can be carried out, and the isotope tracer method is not beneficial to obtaining high-precision results on a small time scale and reflecting the dynamic change process of recharge. The existing research method still has defects of different degrees in accurately estimating leakage replenishment quantity and dynamic change thereof, and mainly relates to the following aspects: the infiltration amount cannot be directly observed, the result is influenced by the environment, the error is large, the equipment cost is high, the result is obtained through indirect derivation, and the like. . Aiming at the problem of a soil moisture infiltration observation method, the prior soil moisture infiltration observation technology is referred, and a sand area soil deep moisture infiltration observation method is provided. The observation technology can directly measure the soil infiltration water quantity (the water quantity which infiltrates into a soil section with a certain depth under the action of gravity in a period of time), the instrument adopts a digital automatic recording mode, can carry out continuous observation, monitors the deep soil water infiltration and supply process in real time by rainfall in the sand, quantitatively analyzes the space-time change rule of the supply water quantity, recognizes the deep infiltration and supply process, and accurately evaluates groundwater supply resources and groundwater dynamic balance.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the defects of the prior art, the invention quantitatively determines the moisture transmission quantity of the sand dune to the inter-dune land and clearly determines the moisture supply quantity of the sand dune to the inter-dune land by arranging the sand dune soil moisture deep infiltration collecting device and the sand dune-inter-dune land soil moisture lateral infiltration collecting device.
The technical scheme adopted by the invention for realizing the purpose is as follows: an observation device and method for quantitatively measuring the water supply amount of sand dunes to the inter-dune areas.
An observation device for quantitatively measuring the moisture supply amount of a sand dune to a place between dunes, comprising:
the soil deep water infiltration observation device comprises a water collecting cylinder, a funnel and a self-metering rain gauge; the device is buried in soil of a sand dune slope, is used for collecting the vertical infiltration amount of water in the soil and outputs the water to a data acquisition instrument through a data acquisition line;
the soil deep layer and side surface moisture infiltration observation device comprises an arc-shaped water-blocking plate, a water catchment cylinder, a funnel and a self-metering rain gauge; buried in the soil of the slope of the sand dune and used for collecting the vertical infiltration amount and the lateral infiltration amount of the water in the soil and outputting the water to a data acquisition instrument through a data acquisition line.
The water collecting cylinder is made of metal and is cylindrical, the diameter of the water collecting cylinder is D meters, and the height of the water collecting cylinder is H1The rice, the bottom and funnel top edge seamless welding for block the horizontal loss of moisture in the soil in the section of thick bamboo that catchments.
The funnel is made of metal, the diameter of the funnel is D meters, and the height of the funnel is H2The lowest part of the meter is connected with the self-metering rain gauge and is used for guiding the moisture in the soil inside the meter into the self-metering rain gauge.
The arc-shaped water-blocking plate is made of metal, is in a semi-cylindrical shape, has the diameter of D meters and the height of H meters, is welded at the upper edge of the bottom and the catchment cylinder in a seamless manner, and is used for blocking the lateral loss of water in soil caused by slope when the soil deep layer and the side surface water infiltration observation device are buried in the slope of a sand hill.
The self-metering rain gauge is connected with the data acquisition instrument through a data acquisition line, an opening at the bottom of the self-metering rain gauge is connected with a drainage pipe, and a drainage valve is arranged on the drainage pipe; the water storage device is used for measuring the collected water and receiving a control signal output by the data acquisition instrument to open or close the drain valve for draining or storing water at fixed time.
And a protective sleeve is arranged outside the self-metering rain gauge and used for protecting the self-metering rain gauge from water and freezing.
The D, H1、H2And H is a set parameter value.
An observation method for quantitatively measuring the moisture supply amount of a sand dune to a dune, comprising:
and (3) soil deep infiltration observation:
step 1.1: in autumn of the first year, burying a soil deep layer moisture infiltration observation device at a fixed point on a selected dune slope, wherein the depth is H meters, connecting one end of a data acquisition line with the output end of a self-metering rain gauge of the soil deep layer moisture infiltration observation device, and exposing the other end of the data acquisition line on the surface of the soil;
step 1.2: restoring and filling soil according to the original soil level, filling coarse sand at the position 20 cm above the lowest part of the funnel, and applying water for settling;
step 1.3: observing from the spring of the second year to the end of the soil freezing period, connecting a data acquisition instrument with a data acquisition line exposed on the surface of the soil, setting an observation period to be 12 hours through the data acquisition instrument, acquiring the vertical infiltration amount M of the water in the soil within 12 hours in real time, outputting a control signal to a drain valve of a self-metering rain gauge when the current observation period is finished, draining the water in the self-metering rain gauge, closing the drain valve, and re-observing the vertical infiltration amount M of the water in the soil within 12 hours;
observation of lateral water migration between sand dunes and inter-dune lands:
step 2.1: in autumn of the first year, burying a soil deep layer moisture infiltration observing device in soil below the position adjacent to a boundary in the sand dune-dune interland boundary direction, wherein the depth is H meters, connecting one end of a data acquisition line with the output end of a self-metering rain gauge of the soil deep layer moisture infiltration observing device, and exposing the other end of the data acquisition line on the surface of the soil;
embedding a soil deep layer and side surface moisture infiltration observing device in the soil below the position close to the adjacent boundary in the sand dune-dune interland boundary direction, so that the upper edge of an arc-shaped water blocking plate of the soil deep layer and side surface moisture infiltration observing device is flush with the soil surface, connecting one end of a data acquisition line with the output end of a self-metering rain gauge of the soil deep layer moisture infiltration observing device, and exposing the other end of the data acquisition line on the soil surface;
step 2.2: restoring and filling the soil deep layer moisture infiltration observation device and the soil deep layer and side surface moisture infiltration observation devices according to the original soil level, filling coarse sand at the position which is 20 cm above the lowest part of the funnel, and applying water for sedimentation;
step 2.3: observing from the spring of the second year to the end of the soil freezing period, and connecting the data acquisition instrument with the data acquisition lines of the soil deep layer moisture infiltration observation device exposed on the soil surface and the soil deep layer and side surface moisture infiltration observation device; setting an observation period to be 12 hours through a data acquisition instrument; the method comprises the steps of collecting the vertical infiltration amount M of the water in the soil within 12 hours in real time through a soil deep layer water infiltration observation device, and collecting the sum M + R of the vertical infiltration amount and the lateral infiltration amount of the water in the soil within 12 hours in real time through a soil deep layer and lateral surface water infiltration observation device; when the current observation period is finished, outputting a control signal to drain valves of the self-metering rain gauges of the two devices, emptying the water amount in the self-metering rain gauges, closing the drain valves, and re-observing;
step 2.4: detecting that the vertical infiltration amount of the water in the soil within 12 hours is M and the sum of the vertical infiltration amount and the lateral infiltration amount of the water in the soil within 12 hours is M + R by using a data acquisition instrument; the amount of lateral water seepage in the soil within 12 hours is R.
The invention has the following beneficial effects and advantages:
1. the observation device and the observation method can be used for directly observing the infiltration quantity of the deep soil water.
2. The observation result using the observation device and the observation method of the invention is less influenced by the environmental factor.
3. The observation device is economical and practical, low in price and convenient for mass application.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic view showing the measuring process of the device for observing the amount of infiltration water in soil according to the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of the observation device for infiltration of moisture in soil according to the present invention;
FIG. 3(a) is a schematic cross-sectional view of the method for observing and measuring the lateral water seepage in sand dune soil according to the present invention;
FIG. 3(b) is a schematic plan view of the method for observing and measuring the lateral water seepage in sand dune soil according to the present invention.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be described in further detail with reference to the accompanying drawings and examples.
The invention relates to quantitative observation of the soil moisture migration process in a sand dune area, which respectively measures the deep infiltration amount of the soil moisture of the sand dune and the lateral infiltration amount of the sand dune to the inter-dune land, determines the moisture supply amount of the sand dune to the peripheral inter-dune land in an ecological system of the sand dune area, and provides a theoretical basis for the subsequent establishment of continuous and stable artificial sand-fixing vegetation construction.
FIG. 1 is a schematic view showing the measuring process of the device for observing the amount of infiltration water in soil according to the present invention. 3 modules of a soil moisture deep infiltration collecting device, a sand dune-dune interland soil moisture lateral infiltration collecting device and an automatic measuring system for collected water amount of the sand dune area are established.
The observation module for the deep infiltration of the moisture in the soil is mainly carried out by adopting a deep soil interception observation method, and the device is used in the early stage and has a better effect. The observation device is shown in figure 1, the material is made of iron sheet with the thickness of 3mm and is divided into an infiltration water collecting part, a water quantity measuring part and a water discharging part, and the observation device is designed in detail as follows: the funnel-type device is used for collecting infiltration of moisture in soil (the diameter is 100cm, the depth is 70cm), the infiltration is collected into a modified self-metering rain gauge below the funnel-type device, the water volume of the rain gauge is automatically recorded, and the collected moisture is discharged downwards by using the drainage function of the self-metering rain gauge so as to collect the infiltration water volume again for circular measurement. The arrow in the figure is the water flow direction, and after the infiltration water in the soil is collected by a conical container, the infiltration water flows into a measuring device provided with a modified self-metering rain gauge below, after measurement, the infiltration water is discharged into the soil below, and the infiltration amount of the water in the soil within a certain time is measured in a circulating and reciprocating mode.
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of the observation device for infiltration of moisture in soil according to the present invention. In the figure, A is a soil deep infiltration observation device, and B is an infiltration observation device additionally provided with a lateral water-blocking plate and used for measuring the slope surface infiltration. The module is surveyd to side ooze in sand dune-dune inter-land slope soil, when surveing simultaneously near the perpendicular infiltration of moisture in the soil, utilizes the infiltration observation device who installs the water-blocking board additional, obtains the perpendicular infiltration volume and the side infiltration volume of adjacent district simultaneously, utilizes the difference between two to obtain solitary side infiltration volume in the soil.
The method comprises the following steps: in the early stage of the test, each observation device is embedded into soil of an observation area in advance according to the depth and the position required by the test, the soil is restored and filled according to the original soil level, water is applied to settle and test the water collecting device, the embedding work of the test devices is carried out in autumn in the test design, and the test observation is started in the spring growth season in the next year.
And (3) soil deep infiltration observation: the soil deep water infiltration observation device is arranged on the selected sand dune slope, the buried depth of the device is 2.5m (the root systems of the sand fixation plants are mainly respectively in the soil with the space of more than 2 m), the soil deep water infiltration process and the amount of the soil deep water infiltration process below 2.5m are automatically recorded, the observation time is from spring (3 months) to the soil freezing period (11 months), and the data acquisition instrument is set to observe once every 12 hours.
Observation of lateral water migration between sand dunes and inter-dune lands: FIG. 3(a) is a schematic cross-sectional view of the method for observing and measuring the lateral water seepage in sand dune soil according to the present invention; FIG. 3(b) is a schematic plan view of the method for observing and measuring the lateral water seepage in sand dune soil according to the present invention. Besides deep infiltration, the moisture of the sand dune soil also has a process of lateral migration from the sand dune body to the soil between dunes due to the slope of the sand dune. In order to observe the partial water migration, a soil deep infiltration observation device is combined with a slope transverse water-blocking plate device to obtain the lateral migration quantity of the soil water of 0-2.5m layers of the slope, and the specific method comprises the following steps: in the dune-dune land boundary sand dune direction, bury 2 soil moisture infiltration observation devices respectively in the soil below the position adjacent to the adjacent boundary, namely: the normal deep infiltration device is used for observing the vertical infiltration quantity (M) of soil moisture, the deep infiltration observation device additionally provided with the arc-shaped water-blocking plate is used for obtaining the sum (M + R) of the vertical infiltration quantity and the side infiltration quantity in the soil, and the difference is the side infiltration quantity in the soil. Therefore, the slope water migration quantity in the soil above the underground water level between sand dunes and dunes is obtained, and the measuring time is the same as the infiltration observation.

Claims (2)

1. An observation device for quantitatively measuring a moisture supply amount from a sand dune to a place between dunes, comprising:
the soil deep water infiltration observation device comprises a water collecting cylinder, a funnel and a self-metering rain gauge; the device is buried in soil of a sand dune slope, is used for collecting the vertical infiltration amount of water in the soil and outputs the water to a data acquisition instrument through a data acquisition line;
the soil deep layer and side surface moisture infiltration observation device comprises an arc-shaped water-blocking plate, a water catchment cylinder, a funnel and a self-metering rain gauge; the device is buried in soil of a sand dune slope, is used for collecting the vertical infiltration amount and the lateral infiltration amount of water in the soil and outputting the water to a data acquisition instrument through a data acquisition line;
the water collecting cylinder is made of metal and is cylindrical, the diameter of the water collecting cylinder is D meters, and the height of the water collecting cylinder is H1The bottom of the rice is welded with the upper edge of the funnel in a seamless way and is used for preventing the water in the soil in the water collection cylinder from transversely losing;
the funnel is made of metal, the diameter of the funnel is D meters, and the height of the funnel is H2The lowest part of the meter is connected with the self-metering rain gauge and is used for guiding the moisture in the soil inside the meter to flow into the self-metering rain gauge;
the arc-shaped water-blocking plate is made of metal, is in a semi-cylindrical shape, has the diameter of D meters and the height of H meters, is welded with the upper edge of the water catchment cylinder in a seamless manner at the bottom and is used for blocking the lateral loss of water in soil caused by the slope when the soil deep layer and side surface water infiltration observation device is buried in the slope of the sand hill;
the self-metering rain gauge is connected with the data acquisition instrument through a data acquisition line, an opening at the bottom of the self-metering rain gauge is connected with a drainage pipe, and a drainage valve is arranged on the drainage pipe; the water discharge valve is used for measuring the collected water and receiving a control signal output by the data acquisition instrument to open or close the water discharge valve for water discharge or water storage at fixed time;
and a protective sleeve is arranged outside the self-metering rain gauge and used for protecting the self-metering rain gauge from water and freezing.
2. An observation method using the observation apparatus for quantitatively measuring the moisture supply amount to the inter-dune region according to claim 1, comprising:
and (3) soil deep infiltration observation:
step 1.1: in autumn of the first year, burying a soil deep layer moisture infiltration observation device at a fixed point on a selected dune slope, wherein the depth is H meters, connecting one end of a data acquisition line with the output end of a self-metering rain gauge of the soil deep layer moisture infiltration observation device, and exposing the other end of the data acquisition line on the surface of the soil;
step 1.2: restoring and filling soil according to the original soil level, filling coarse sand at the position 20 cm above the lowest part of the funnel, and applying water for settling;
step 1.3: observing from the spring of the second year to the end of the soil freezing period, connecting a data acquisition instrument with a data acquisition line exposed on the surface of the soil, setting an observation period to be 12 hours through the data acquisition instrument, acquiring the vertical infiltration amount M of the water in the soil within 12 hours in real time, outputting a control signal to a drain valve of a self-metering rain gauge when the current observation period is finished, draining the water in the self-metering rain gauge, closing the drain valve, and re-observing the vertical infiltration amount M of the water in the soil within 12 hours;
observation of lateral water migration between sand dunes and inter-dune lands:
step 2.1: in autumn of the first year, burying a soil deep layer moisture infiltration observing device in soil below the position adjacent to a boundary in the sand dune-dune interland boundary direction, wherein the depth is H meters, connecting one end of a data acquisition line with the output end of a self-metering rain gauge of the soil deep layer moisture infiltration observing device, and exposing the other end of the data acquisition line on the surface of the soil;
embedding a soil deep layer and side surface moisture infiltration observing device in the soil below the position close to the adjacent boundary in the sand dune-dune interland boundary direction, so that the upper edge of an arc-shaped water blocking plate of the soil deep layer and side surface moisture infiltration observing device is flush with the soil surface, connecting one end of a data acquisition line with the output end of a self-metering rain gauge of the soil deep layer moisture infiltration observing device, and exposing the other end of the data acquisition line on the soil surface;
step 2.2: restoring and filling the soil deep layer moisture infiltration observation device and the soil deep layer and side surface moisture infiltration observation devices according to the original soil level, filling coarse sand at the position which is 20 cm above the lowest part of the funnel, and applying water for sedimentation;
step 2.3: observing from the spring of the second year to the end of the soil freezing period, and connecting the data acquisition instrument with the data acquisition lines of the soil deep layer moisture infiltration observation device exposed on the soil surface and the soil deep layer and side surface moisture infiltration observation device; setting an observation period to be 12 hours through a data acquisition instrument; the method comprises the steps of collecting the vertical infiltration amount M of the water in the soil within 12 hours in real time through a soil deep layer water infiltration observation device, and collecting the sum M + R of the vertical infiltration amount and the lateral infiltration amount of the water in the soil within 12 hours in real time through a soil deep layer and lateral surface water infiltration observation device; when the current observation period is finished, outputting a control signal to drain valves of the self-metering rain gauges of the two devices, emptying the water amount in the self-metering rain gauges, closing the drain valves, and re-observing;
step 2.4: detecting that the vertical infiltration amount of the water in the soil within 12 hours is M and the sum of the vertical infiltration amount and the lateral infiltration amount of the water in the soil within 12 hours is M + R by using a data acquisition instrument; the amount of lateral water seepage in the soil within 12 hours is R.
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