CN106644361B  A kind of simple and easy method measuring transonic wind tunnel test section space flow field symmetry  Google Patents
A kind of simple and easy method measuring transonic wind tunnel test section space flow field symmetry Download PDFInfo
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 CN106644361B CN106644361B CN201610866381.0A CN201610866381A CN106644361B CN 106644361 B CN106644361 B CN 106644361B CN 201610866381 A CN201610866381 A CN 201610866381A CN 106644361 B CN106644361 B CN 106644361B
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Classifications

 G—PHYSICS
 G01—MEASURING; TESTING
 G01M—TESTING STATIC OR DYNAMIC BALANCE OF MACHINES OR STRUCTURES; TESTING OF STRUCTURES OR APPARATUS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
 G01M9/00—Aerodynamic testing; Arrangements in or on wind tunnels
 G01M9/06—Measuring arrangements specially adapted for aerodynamic testing
Abstract
The invention discloses a kind of simple and easy methods for measuring transonic wind tunnel test section space flow field symmetry, have the characteristics that rigidity is big, surveys pressure using cone cylinder model stablize, High Mach number test can be carried, windtunnel angle of attack mechanism is installed on using straight joint and adapter, the ladder manometric test for carrying out the several groups space symmetr angle of attack analyzes local space flow field symmetry by surveying pressure data.When carrying out data processing, the present invention is under space symmetr state of angle of attack, the survey pressure data of (or inside) piezometric surface are handled on the outside of cone cylinder model, it is converted into Mach number and pressurerecovery factor, residual quantity processing is carried out, will pass through the residual quantity evaluation test section local space flow field symmetry quality.The number of starting train number can be effectively reduced using the present invention, experimentation cost is reduced, convenient for test section local space flow field symmetry is used for quickly detecting and is analyzed.
Description
Technical field
The present invention relates to aerodynamic scope, especially experimental aerodynamics field, specially a kind of measurement is across sound
The simple and easy method of fast test chamber local space flow field symmetry.
Background technique
Windtunnel is the principle according to relative motion, makes aircraft subscale test model realization flight simulation using movement air flow
A kind of artificial nest shape ground installation.As the basic test equipment of aircraft development, Flow Field in Wind Tunnel quality is to ensure test
Model obtains the core of precision data, especially in the most sensitive transonic speed fast domain of flight vehicle aerodynamic performance change, flow field
Quality is particularly important, and the slight variation of flow field quality can all cause test model aerodynamic data significantly to change.For this purpose, ensureing
Transonic wind tunnel flow field quality is stable and calibration is to safeguard the basic demand of windtunnel, needs to carry out the stage to transonic wind tunnel flow field
Property measurement and calibration.
In transonic wind tunnel flow field quality, space flow field symmetry is an important indicator, and Typical requirements are windtunnel stream
The symmetry of field is outstanding enough, and the full symmetric interference to modeltest data that more levels off to is also smaller.However, all by windtunnel
More objective condition interference, windtunnel space flow field are extremely difficult to full symmetric ideal standard, and solution is to spatial flow
Field symmetry is debugged and is measured, and the flow field for meeting National Military Standard index is obtained.In model test, pass through spatial flow
Field asymmetry parameter carries out test data amendment, obtains the model aerodynamic parameter for approaching true value.In above procedure, to space flow field
Symmetry measurement can divide into comprehensive space flow field symmetry measurement and local space flow field symmetry is surveyed according to test objective
Amount is comprising the local space flow field of model area is the emphasis of flow field survey.
Traditionally, transonic wind tunnel space flow field symmetry is measured using stagnation pressure cross framed bent, method is to keep watch
Hole test section measured zone is divided into several equidistant sections along axial direction, the pressure measurement in a section is once carried out, then to total
The pressure distribution data in pressure the surveyed section of cross framed bent is handled, and the flow field symmetry ginseng of test chamber different cross section is obtained
Numerical value.Although this method can realize test section along axial whole region or regional area by the variation of measured zone
The measurement of space flow field symmetry, but there is also measurement train number is more, higher cost, state complex the disadvantages of, also, this method is also
In the presence of simulation test model is unable under pitch orientation motion state to the deficiency of local space flow field measurement, it is unfavorable for part
The analysis and processing of the positive and negative dress test data difference of model.In this context, invented it is a kind of using cone cylinder model measurement across
The simple and easy method of velocity of sound windtunnel local space flow field symmetry, the method overcome use stagnation pressure cross framed bent to measure space flow field
The shortcomings that symmetry, can realize the local space flow field symmetry measurement for covering model area along pitch orientation.
Summary of the invention
In order to overcome the disadvantages mentioned above of the prior art, the invention proposes a kind of measurement transonic wind tunnel test section spatial flows
The simple and easy method of field symmetry carries out the measurement of transonic wind tunnel test section local space flow field symmetry for using existing method
When, a kind of measurement transonic wind tunnel examination cannot be provided along the problem of pitch orientation measurement, the higher, state complex of experimentation cost etc.
Test a section simple and easy method for local space flow field symmetry.The present invention can obtain local space on the basis of accurate, reliable as early as possible
Flow field symmetry is as a result, impact analysis in favor of local space flow field symmetry to test result, before having preferable application
Scape.
The technical solution adopted by the present invention to solve the technical problems is: a kind of measurement transonic wind tunnel test section spatial flow
The simple and easy method of field symmetry, includes the following steps:
The first step installs windtunnel angle of attack mechanism on test section siding, installs cone cylinder model on windtunnel angle of attack mechanism；
Second step carries out space symmetr calibration of angle of attack to cone cylinder model；
Third step carries out ladder manometric test under test Mach number, acquires test chamber incoming flow stagnation pressure P_{0}With it is each right
Claim the pressure value P of each piezometric surface pressure tap of cone cylinder model under state of angle of attack_{i}；
4th step calculates the pressure that cone cylinder model under each group space symmetr state of angle of attack judges the effective pressure tap of piezometric surface
Recovery coefficient P_{i}/P_{0}With Mach number M_{i}；
5th step draws the P that cone cylinder model under each group space symmetr state of angle of attack judges the effective pressure tap of piezometric surface_{i}/P_{0}
The pressurerecovery factor distribution curve and M that value changes with cone cylinder slenderness ratio X/D_{i}Value is with cone cylinder slenderness ratio X/D variation
Mach Number Distribution curve；
6th step calculates under space symmetr state of angle of attack, and cone cylinder model is judged the effective pressure tap of piezometric surface and met in difference
P when angle_{i}/P_{0}And M_{i}Average value [P/P_{0}]_{jav}[M]_{jav}, then calculate residual quantity Δ [P/P_{0}]_{av}With Δ [M]_{av}, to obtain
Measure the test section local space flow field asymmetry parameter value of cone cylinder model measurement in space symmetr angle.
Compared with prior art, the positive effect of the present invention is: the present invention is using cone cylinder model to local space flow field
It is a kind of effective ways easy to accomplish that symmetry, which measures, can satisfy the positive and negative dress test data difference investigation of model, examination
Test a section needs for local space flow field detection.Main thought of the invention is as follows:, survey pressure big with rigidity using cone cylinder model
Stablize, the characteristics of High Mach number test can be carried, is installed on windtunnel angle of attack mechanism using straight joint and adapter, carries out several groups
The ladder manometric test of the space symmetr angle of attack analyzes local space flow field symmetry by surveying pressure data.Carrying out data processing
When, the present invention is under space symmetr state of angle of attack, and the survey of (or inside) piezometric surface is pressed at data on the outside of cone cylinder model
Reason is converted into Mach number and pressurerecovery factor, residual quantity processing is carried out, will pass through the residual quantity evaluation test section local space stream
Field symmetry quality.The number of starting train number can be effectively reduced using the present invention, reduces experimentation cost, convenient for test section office
Portion's space flow field symmetry is used for quickly detecting and analyzes.
Detailed description of the invention
Examples of the present invention will be described by way of reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is transonic wind tunnel test section local space flow field symmetry measurement method schematic diagram, in which: 1 is test section
Siding；2 be angle of attack mechanism；3 be straight joint；4 be adapter；5 be cone cylinder model.
Fig. 2 is the effective pressure tap of piezometric surface on the outside of cone cylinder model under space symmetry angle ± 2 ° state in embodiment 1
Pressurerecovery factor distribution curve P/P_{0}~X/D figure.
Fig. 3 is the effective pressure tap of piezometric surface on the outside of cone cylinder model under space symmetry angle ± 2 ° state in embodiment 1
Mach Number Distribution curve M~X/D figure.
Fig. 4 is the effective pressure tap of piezometric surface on the outside of cone cylinder model under space symmetry angle ± 4 ° state in embodiment 1
Pressurerecovery factor distribution curve P/P_{0}~X/D figure.
Fig. 5 is the effective pressure tap of piezometric surface on the outside of cone cylinder model under space symmetry angle ± 4 ° state in embodiment 1
Mach Number Distribution curve M~X/D figure.
Specific embodiment
As shown in Figure 1, a kind of simple and easy method for measuring transonic wind tunnel test section space flow field symmetry, including walk as follows
It is rapid:
Windtunnel angle of attack mechanism 2 is mounted on test section siding 1 by the first step, using straight joint 3 and adapter 4 by appearance
The cone cylinder model 5 of smooth, pressure tap aeration and airtightness qualification is installed on windtunnel angle of attack mechanism 2, is carried out to pressure tap
Connection and detection, quality reach criterion of acceptability；
The cone cylinder model is the common apparatus of highspeed wind tunnel flow field survey.
Criterion of acceptability is that the pressure tap normally read counts 98% not less than total pressure tap number, and two or two are not present
It is abnormal that a above adjacent pressure tap surveys number.
Second step carries out space symmetr calibration of angle of attack to cone cylinder model:
The angle of attack is the several groups space symmetr angle ± α for judging test section local space flow field symmetry.
Calibration of angle of attack is bored using the practical angle of attack of dipmeter survey cone cylinder model 5, then by the adjustment handle of angle of attack mechanism 2
The practical angle of attack of type cylinder models is adjusted to the process equivalent with space symmetr angle ± α phase.Dipmeter is also that highspeed wind tunnel is general
Angle measuring instrument.
Third step carries out ladder manometric test under test Mach number, acquires test chamber incoming flow stagnation pressure P_{0}With it is each right
Claim the pressure value P of each piezometric surface pressure tap of cone cylinder model under state of angle of attack_{i}；
4th step calculates the pressure that cone cylinder model under each group space symmetr state of angle of attack judges the effective pressure tap of piezometric surface
Recovery coefficient P_{i}/P_{0}With Mach number M_{i}；
In formula: M_{i}Refer to pressure tap Mach number, i.e., according to each effective pressure tap of cone cylinder model judged on piezometric surface
Survey pressure data calculate Mach number, P_{i}/P_{0}Refer to that the pressurerecovery factor of each effective pressure tap, n refer to that piezometric surface effectively surveys pressure
Point sum；
Judging piezometric surface is that pressure is surveyed in the outside piezometric surface of cone cylinder model or inside under each group space symmetr state of angle of attack
Face, the upper piezometric surface of the lower piezometric surface of specific corresponding positive incidence state and the upper piezometric surface of negative state of angle of attack or positive incidence state
With the lower piezometric surface of negative state of angle of attack.When effective pressure tap is cone cylinder model zero degree angle of attack state, exclude by nose cone and shoulder
After the leading portion pressure tap of interference, whole pressure taps in remaining middle section and back segment.
5th step draws the P that cone cylinder model under each group space symmetr state of angle of attack judges the effective pressure tap of piezometric surface_{i}/P_{0}
The pressurerecovery factor distribution curve P/P that value changes with cone cylinder slenderness ratio X/D_{0}~X/D and M_{i}Value is with cone cylinder slenderness ratio
Mach Number Distribution curve M~X/D of X/D variation, intuitively analyzes local space flow field symmetry will pass through curve；
6th step calculates under space symmetr state of angle of attack, and cone cylinder model is judged the effective pressure tap of piezometric surface and met in difference
P when angle_{i}/P_{0}And M_{i}Average value [P/P_{0}]_{jav}[M]_{jav}, then calculate residual quantity Δ [P/P_{0}]_{av}With Δ [M]_{av}, measured
The test section local space flow field asymmetry parameter value that cone cylinder model measures in space symmetr angle, will pass through the parameter value
Quantitative analysis space flow field symmetry quality.
Δ[P/P_{0}]_{av}=[P/P_{0}]_{1av}[P/P_{0}]_{2av} (4)
Δ[M]_{av}=[M]_{1av}[M]_{2av} (5)
In the formula (2), [P/P_{0}]_{jav}Refer to that the pressure that the effective pressure tap of piezometric surface is judged under the space symmetr angle of attack is extensive
Complex coefficient average value, j represent angle of attack different conditions, and assignment 1 represents positive incidence, and assignment 2 represents the negative angle of attack；In the formula (3),
[M]_{jav}Refer to the Mach number average value that the effective pressure tap of piezometric surface is judged under the space symmetr angle of attack, j meaning and the same formula of assignment
(2)；In the formula (4), Δ [P/P_{0}]_{av}Refer under space symmetr state of angle of attack, judges the pressure of the effective pressure tap of piezometric surface
Recovery coefficient average value residual quantity；In the formula (5), Δ [M]_{av}Refer under space symmetr state of angle of attack, it is effective to judge piezometric surface
The Mach number average value residual quantity of pressure tap.
Embodiment 1:
The present invention uses cone cylinder model, under the difference symmetry angle state of transonic wind tunnel test section local space flow field
Pressure measurement is carried out, is obtained under each space symmetr angle state respectively, (or inside) piezometric surface is effective on the outside of cone cylinder model
The pressure distribution data of pressure tap draws pressurerecovery factor and is distributed P/P_{0}~X/D curve graph and Mach Number Distribution M~X/D are bent
Line chart is calculated using formula, obtains the parameter, Δ [P for measuring local space flow field symmetry_{i}/P_{0}]_{av}With Δ [M]_{av}Data.Specifically
It is realized by following data processing method.
By taking 2.4 meters of transonic wind tunnel cone cylinder model ladder manometric tests as an example, test Mach number 0.7, testing the angle of attack is
0 ° and the space symmetr angle of attack ± 2 °, ± 4 ° are surveyed pressure data by piezometric surface on the outside of cone cylinder model and are obtained in space symmetr angle
Local space flow field symmetry result.After cone cylinder model obtains survey pressure data, draws pressurerecovery factor and be distributed P/P_{0}~X/D
Curve and Mach Number Distribution M~X/D curve are as shown in Figures 2 to 5, carry out data processing using formula (1) to formula (5).By
Cone cylinder model pressure tap Data Processing Method has similitude under each symmetry angle state in space, is met with space symmetr
It is described in detail for piezometric surface pressure tap test data on the outside of the cone cylinder model of angle ± 2 ° state.
Pressurerecovery factor P of the cone cylinder model piezometric surface pressure tap under each state of angle of attack is obtained using formula (1)_{i}/P_{0}
With Mach number M_{i}。
Pressure data and the comparison of noiseless test data are surveyed according to cone cylinder model has been obtained under 0 ° of state of angle of attack, judge cone cylinder
Model piezometric surface is effective pressure tap in the later pressure tap in X/D >=4.
According to having obtained data P_{i}/P_{0}And M_{i}The pressurerecovery factor for drawing piezometric surface on the outside of cone cylinder model is distributed P/P_{0}~
X/D curve graph and Mach Number Distribution M~X/D curve graph, as shown in Figures 2 and 3.
It is average that the effective pressure tap of piezometric surface pressurerecovery factor at+2 ° on the outside of cone cylinder model is calculated using formula (2)
It is worth [P/P_{0}]_{1av}, while pressurerecovery factor average value [P/P when calculating 2 °_{0}]_{2av}。
The effective pressure tap of piezometric surface Mach number average value at+2 ° on the outside of cone cylinder model is calculated using formula (3)
[M]_{1av}, while Mach number average value [M] when calculating 2 °_{2av}。
Using the effective pressure tap of piezometric surface on the outside of formula (4) calculating cone cylinder model under ± 2 ° of space symmetr state of angle of attack
Average pressure recovery coefficient residual quantity Δ [P/P_{0}]_{av}。
Using the effective pressure tap of piezometric surface on the outside of formula (5) calculating cone cylinder model under ± 2 ° of space symmetr state of angle of attack
Average Mach number residual quantity Δ [M]_{av}。
The calculated result of 1 pair of embodiment local space flow field symmetry measurement see the table below shown in 1.
1 calculated result of table
α/°  Δ[P/P_{0}]_{av}  Δ[M]_{av} 
±2°  0.00022  0.00035 
±4°  0.00060  0.00092 
Compared with the existing technology, the present invention realizes the local space flow field symmetry for covering model area along pitch orientation
It measures, the number of starting train number can be effectively reduced in test, reduce experimentation cost, convenient for test section local space flow field pair
Title property is used for quickly detecting and analyzes.
Claims (9)
1. a kind of simple and easy method for measuring transonic wind tunnel test section space flow field symmetry, it is characterised in that: including walking as follows
It is rapid:
The first step installs windtunnel angle of attack mechanism on test section siding, installs cone cylinder model on windtunnel angle of attack mechanism；
Second step carries out space symmetr calibration of angle of attack to cone cylinder model；
Third step carries out ladder manometric test under test Mach number, acquires test chamber incoming flow stagnation pressure P_{0}With each symmetrical angle of attack
The pressure value P of each piezometric surface pressure tap of cone cylinder model under state_{i}；
4th step calculates the pressure recovery that cone cylinder model under each group space symmetr state of angle of attack judges the effective pressure tap of piezometric surface
FACTOR P_{i}/P_{0}With Mach number M_{i}；
5th step draws the P that cone cylinder model under each group space symmetr state of angle of attack judges the effective pressure tap of piezometric surface_{i}/P_{0}Value with
Bore the pressurerecovery factor distribution curve and M of cylinder slenderness ratio X/D variation_{i}The Mach that value changes with cone cylinder slenderness ratio X/D
Number distribution curve；
6th step calculates under space symmetr state of angle of attack, and cone cylinder model judges the effective pressure tap of piezometric surface in the different angles of attack
P_{i}/P_{0}And M_{i}Average value [P/P_{0}]_{jav}[M]_{jav}, wherein j represents angle of attack different conditions, and assignment 1 represents positive incidence, assignment
2 represent the negative angle of attack；Then residual quantity Δ [P/P is calculated_{0}]_{av}With Δ [M]_{av}, space symmetr angle inner cone cylinder mould is measured to obtain
The test section local space flow field asymmetry parameter value of type measurement.
2. a kind of simple and easy method for measuring transonic wind tunnel test section space flow field symmetry according to claim 1,
Be characterized in that: the cone cylinder model is mounted on windtunnel angle of attack mechanism by straight joint and adapter.
3. a kind of simple and easy method for measuring transonic wind tunnel test section space flow field symmetry according to claim 1,
Be characterized in that: the pressure tap aeration and airtightness of the cone cylinder model need to meet the pressure tap counting normally read and be not less than
The 98% of total pressure tap number, and there is no more than two adjacent pressure taps to survey number exception.
4. a kind of simple and easy method for measuring transonic wind tunnel test section space flow field symmetry according to claim 1,
Be characterized in that: the method for carrying out space symmetr calibration of angle of attack to cone cylinder model described in second step is: being bored using dipmeter survey
The practical angle of attack of type cylinder models, then make the practical angle of attack of cone cylinder model be equal to space symmetr angle by adjusting windtunnel angle of attack mechanism
Degree.
5. a kind of simple and easy method for measuring transonic wind tunnel test section space flow field symmetry according to claim 1,
It is characterized in that: Mach number M described in the 4th step_{i}Calculation formula it is as follows:
In formula: P_{i}/P_{0}Refer to that the pressurerecovery factor of each effective pressure tap, n refer to the effective pressure tap sum of piezometric surface.
6. a kind of simple and easy method for measuring transonic wind tunnel test section space flow field symmetry according to claim 1,
Be characterized in that: judge piezometric surface described in the 4th step refers to that pressure is surveyed in the outside of the cone cylinder model under each group space symmetr state of angle of attack
Face or inside piezometric surface.
7. a kind of simple and easy method for measuring transonic wind tunnel test section space flow field symmetry according to claim 6,
Be characterized in that: judge piezometric surface includes the lower piezometric surface of positive incidence state and the upper piezometric surface of negative state of angle of attack described in the 4th step,
Or positive incidence state upper piezometric surface and negative state of angle of attack lower piezometric surface.
8. a kind of simple and easy method for measuring transonic wind tunnel test section space flow field symmetry according to claim 1,
Be characterized in that: when effective pressure tap described in the 4th step refers to cone cylinder model zero degree angle of attack state, exclusion is done by nose cone and shoulder
Whole pressure taps in remaining middle section and back segment after the leading portion pressure tap disturbed.
9. a kind of simple and easy method for measuring transonic wind tunnel test section space flow field symmetry according to claim 1,
It is characterized in that: [the P/P_{0}]_{jav}、[M]_{jav}With Δ [P/P_{0}]_{av}、Δ[M]_{av}Calculation formula it is as follows:
Δ[P/P_{0}]_{av}=[P/P_{0}]_{1av}[P/P_{0}]_{2av}
Δ[M]_{av}=[M]_{1av}[M]_{2av}
Wherein: j represents angle of attack different conditions, and assignment 1 represents positive incidence, and assignment 2 represents the negative angle of attack.
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