CN106629715A - System and method for preparing active carbon by biomass - Google Patents

System and method for preparing active carbon by biomass Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106629715A
CN106629715A CN201611120334.8A CN201611120334A CN106629715A CN 106629715 A CN106629715 A CN 106629715A CN 201611120334 A CN201611120334 A CN 201611120334A CN 106629715 A CN106629715 A CN 106629715A
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China
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pyrolysis
gas
oil
water
biomass
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CN201611120334.8A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
吴道洪
吴小飞
巴玉鑫
肖磊
王惠惠
房凯
牛明杰
宋敏洁
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Beijing Shenwu Environmental and Energy Technology Co Ltd
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Beijing Shenwu Environmental and Energy Technology Co Ltd
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Priority to CN201611120334.8A priority Critical patent/CN106629715A/en
Publication of CN106629715A publication Critical patent/CN106629715A/en
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10BDESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF CARBONAGEOUS MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF GAS, COKE, TAR, OR SIMILAR MATERIALS
    • C10B53/00Destructive distillation, specially adapted for particular solid raw materials or solid raw materials in special form

Abstract

The invention relates to a system and a method for preparing active carbon by biomass. The system comprises a pyrolyzing furnace, a combustor, a steam boiler and a fluidized bed, wherein the pyrolyzing furnace is used for pyrolyzing raw material biomass to generate pyrolyzed oil gas and carbon residue; the combustor is used for heating the raw material biomass to pyrolyze the raw material biomass; the steam boiler is used for heating water to obtain steam; and the fluidized bed is used for activating the carbon residue to generate active carbon. According to the system and the method, the existing fluidized bed does not need to be transformed, heat loss is reduced, energy consumption is reduced, the productivity of the pyrolyzing furnace is improved, and reduction, harmless treatment and resource utilization of the materials is realized.

Description

The system and method for preparing activated carbon using biomass
Technical field
The invention belongs to pyrolytic gasification technology produces the technical field scope of activated carbon, specifically, the present invention relates to one The system and method for preparing activated carbon are planted, it is particularly a kind of to be adapted to biomass as raw material, activated carbon is prepared by pyrolytic gasification System and method.
Background technology
Biomass broad sense refers to all of plant, microorganism and the animal with plant, microorganism as food and its production Garbage.Representational biomass such as crops, agricultural waste material, timber, timber waste and animal wastes.Narrow sense refers to The lignocellulose such as straw, trees in agriculture and forestry production process in addition to grain, fruit (abbreviation lignin), processing of farm products The materials such as fowl and animal excrement and garbage during industry leftover bits and pieces, agriculture and forestry organic waste material and Animal husbandry production.
The biomass resource of China enriches very much, and about 6.5 hundred million tons of agricultural stalks are produced every year, adds fuel wood and forestry is useless Gurry etc., 4.6 hundred million tons of standard coals of reduced energy, it is contemplated that will be added to 9.04 hundred million tons to the year two thousand fifty, ton standard more than 600,000,000 Coal.The annual forest consumptive material of China reaches 2.1 billion cubic meters, converts into the energy of 1.2 hundred million tons of standard coals.In addition, National urban thing Material annual production, will be up to 2.1 hundred million tons to the year two thousand twenty annual production more than 1.5 hundred million tons, and the content of organic matter in rubbish is averagely about 40%, in producing 1.5 hundred million tons of " municipal refuse " per year, up to 25,000,000,000 yuan of " Renewable resource " value being dropped.If these resources Without administer directly burn, drain into water body, accumulation will cause the wasting of resources, and air, soil, surface water and groundwater Deng environmental pollution and the deterioration of environment for human survival.
However, the material of carbon containing is at temperatures of some hundreds of degrees celsius through carbonization, reactivation can prepare activated carbon.But mesh Production technology, the production equipment of front activated carbon is also very backward, the production technology ratio of current most domestic coal mass active carbon enterprise Relatively fall behind, mainly produced by single grade coal, product quality is to feed coal by serious.The production capacity of production equipment is general All over less, automaticity is relatively low, is unfavorable for extensive, continuous prodution.Simultaneously as Activated Carbon Production is to ingredient requirement ratio Higher, at present only minority coal can fully meet production requirement.
Therefore, it is necessary to study the production technology of activated carbon, its, life low to ingredient requirement height, productivity ratio is solved The problem of high cost is produced, is especially suitable for preparing activated carbon by raw material of biomass.
The content of the invention
To solve the problems, such as that the production technology of above-mentioned activated carbon, production equipment fall behind, while improving the production effect of activated carbon Rate, reduces production cost, and the present invention provides a kind of suitable with biomass as raw material, the system for preparing activated carbon by pyrolytic gasification And method.
The invention provides the system that a kind of utilization biomass prepare activated carbon, the system includes:
Pyrolysis oven, it includes charging aperture, multiple pyrolysis oil gas vents, solid material outlet, reative cell and is located at the reative cell The rotatable of bottom holds disk, and the pyrolysis oven is used for pyrolysis feed biomass, generates pyrolysis oil gas and carbon residue;
Burner, it is located at the top and/or bottom of the reaction chamber, and the burner has fuel gas inlet, described Burner is used to heat the biomass starting material so as to be pyrolyzed;
Steam boiler, it has water inlet and steam outlet, and the steam boiler is used to heat water, obtains water Steam;
Fluid bed, its have solid material entrance, activator entrance, waste gas outlet and activated carbon outlet, it is described admittedly expect entrance with The solid material outlet connection of the pyrolysis oven, the activator entrance is connected with the steam outlet of the steam boiler, the stream Changing bed is used to activate the carbon residue, generates activated carbon.
Further, the system also includes heater, and it has steam entry and activator outlet, the vapor Entrance is connected with the steam outlet of the steam boiler, and the activator is exported and connected with the entrance of the activator of the fluid bed Connect;
The heater is used to carry out post bake to the vapor.
Further, the heater is storage heater.
Further, the system also includes gs-oil separator, and it has pyrolysis oil gas entrance, pyrolysis gas outlet and pyrolysis Profit export, it is described pyrolysis oil gas entrance be connected with the pyrolysis oil gas vent of the pyrolysis oven, the pyrolysis gas outlet with it is described The fuel gas inlet of burner is connected;
The gs-oil separator is used to separate the pyrolysis oil gas, obtains being pyrolyzed profit and pyrolysis gas, and by heat Vent one's spleen to be passed through in the burner and burnt.
Further, the system also includes oil water separator, and it has pyrolysis oil water inlet and pyrolysis water out, The pyrolysis oil water inlet is connected with the pyrolysis oil water out of the gs-oil separator, described to be pyrolyzed water out and the steam kettle The water inlet of stove is connected;
The oil water separator is used to separate the pyrolysis profit, obtains pyrolysis oil and pyrolysis water, and will pyrolysis Water is passed through the steam boiler;
Further, the system also includes pretreatment unit, and it is connected with the charging aperture of the pyrolysis oven, the pre- place Reason device is used to carry out the biomass starting material broken pretreatment.
The present invention also provides a kind of method that utilization said system prepares activated carbon, and the method has steps of:
Biomass starting material is sent into into the pyrolysis oven, the burner is heated to the biomass starting material, produce combustion Flue gas is burnt, biomass starting material pyrolysis generates pyrolysis oil gas and carbon residue;
Water is heated with the steam boiler, obtains vapor;
The carbon residue and vapor are respectively fed to into the fluid bed, the carbon residue is lived using the vapor Change, generate activated carbon.
Further, methods described is further comprising the steps of:
The vapor is passed through into the heater, the heater carries out post bake, Ran Houzai to the vapor It is passed through the fluid bed.
Further, methods described is further comprising the steps of:
The pyrolysis oil gas is separated with the gs-oil separator, obtains being pyrolyzed profit and pyrolysis gas;
Pyrolysis gas are passed through in the burner and are burnt, the pyrolysis profit is passed through into the oil water separator;
The pyrolysis profit is separated with the oil water separator, obtains pyrolysis oil and pyrolysis water;
Pyrolysis water is passed through into the steam boiler, vapor is obtained;
Additionally, methods described is further comprising the steps of:
Pretreatment is carried out to the biomass starting material, the biomass starting material of lamellar and/or bulk is obtained.
The beneficial effects of the present invention is:
The system and method for preparing activated carbon of the present invention, without the need for transforming existing fluid bed, can solve The problems such as certainly preparing the line clogging, dust weight, the pyrolysis effect difference that occur in activated carbon leading portion pyrolytic process, and solve heat Solution device with prepare activated-carbon device while when being used in conjunction, high energy consumption, serious heat loss, prepare the inferior problem of activated carbon.
When the present invention is using granule heat carrier, when can solve the problem that pyrolysis the easy coking of particle surface, granule separate it is difficult, The problems such as grain transmits difficult between bed.
The method that the present invention prepares activated carbon using material, reduces inorganic matters in pyrolytic process and takes away amount of heat, reduces Heat loss and reducing energy consumption, and pyrolysis oven production capacity is improved, the abundant pyrolysis of raw material is realized, whole process is simple is easy to operate, can Guarantee the stability for operating.
Present invention achieves the minimizing of material, innoxious and recycling.
The present invention can also effectively reduce the coal-tar middle oil content of pyrolytic carbon, so as to be conducive to subsequent fluidized bed to prepare activated carbon Operation, while can be with the waste heat in efficient recovery system, so as to realize maximally utilizing for waste heat.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the simplified schematic diagram of system of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is the overall schematic of system of the present invention.
Specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with drawings and Examples, the specific embodiment of the present invention is described in more details, so as to energy Enough more fully understand the advantage of the solution of the present invention and its various aspects.However, specific embodiments described below and enforcement Example is only descriptive purpose, rather than limitation of the present invention.
As shown in figure 1, system of the present invention includes pyrolysis oven 100, it includes charging aperture 101, pyrolysis oil gas vent 102nd, solid material outlet 105, while pyrolysis oven 100 also has reative cell and is located at the rotatable of reative cell bottom holds disk, The pyrolysis oven 100 is used to be pyrolyzed biomass, generates pyrolysis oil gas and carbon residue.Pyrolysis oven of the present invention 100 will also have The charging aperture 101 of water seal arrangement, the especially pyrolysis oven 100 has two-stage valve or spiral sealing device.So arranging can So that environment of the pyrolysis oven in anoxybiotic, produces the harmful gass such as bioxin when raw material can be suppressed to be pyrolyzed.
As shown in figure 1, burner 500, it is arranged in pyrolysis oven 100, on the top of described reative cell and/or Bottom, the burner has fuel gas inlet 501, and the burner 500 is used to heat the biomass, makes biomass Pyrolysis.
Burner 500 is internally heated to pyrolysis oven 100 so as to the temperature of biomass pyrolytic is reached, so as to opposite Material is pyrolyzed, and generates carbon residue.Burner 500 in combustion, can produce substantial amounts of combustion product gases, and biomass pyrolytic When can produce substantial amounts of pyrolysis oil gas.Furthermore it is preferred that by the atmosphere of the atmosphere of the reative cell of pyrolysis oven 100 and burner 500 every From, make the two be independent of each other, carry out under anoxybiotic atmosphere so as to realize that material is pyrolyzed, it is ensured that pyrolysis gas have higher heat Value, while effectively inhibiting the generation of bioxin.
The horizontally spaced distribution in pyrolysis oven 100 of burner 500, and every group of burner 500 can adopt accumulation of heat Formula radial canal, can independent control operation, so arrange and be advantageous in that and can pass through to adjust be passed through the combustion gas of heat accumulation type radiant tube Flow realizing the accurate temperature controlling to pyrolytic process, and heat accumulation type radiant tube can by two ends realize quick commutation and Heat storage type combustion, it is ensured that the uniformity in temperature field in pyrolysis oven 100, such that it is able to significantly improve material pyrolysis efficiency, together When it is more traditional use gas heat carrier or solid thermal carriers to compare as the pyrolytic reaction device of pyrolysis thermal source, the heat of the present invention Solution stove 100 need not arrange preheating unit and carrier separative element, can greatly simplify pyrolysis and priming reaction technological process, from And significantly reduce the fault rate of device.
As shown in figure 1, steam boiler 600, it has water inlet 601 and steam outlet 602, the steam boiler 600 For heating to water, vapor is obtained, make steam temperature reach 500 DEG C or so.
It should be noted that because water resource is relatively enriched, and be readily available, so the present invention uses vapor as work Prepare the activator of activated carbon.In addition, by the use of vapor as activator, harmful gass will not be generated, therefore environment is produced Affect less.
Fluid bed 200, it has solid material entrance 202, activator entrance 201, waste gas outlet 203 and activated carbon outlet 204, Admittedly the solid material outlet 105 for expecting entrance 202 and the pyrolysis oven 100 is connected, the activator entrance 201 and the steam kettle The steam outlet 602 of stove 600 is connected, and the fluid bed 200 is used to activate the carbon residue, generates activated carbon.Wherein, Carbon residue in the fluid bed 200 with the reverse haptoreaction of activator, activated carbon is obtained.Activated carbon can be derived from activated carbon outlet 204, The waste gas that activation process is produced is discharged from waste gas outlet 203.
As shown in Fig. 2 the system also includes heater 700, it has steam entry and activator outlet, the water Vapour inlet is connected with the steam outlet 602 of the steam boiler 600, and the activator is exported and the fluid bed 200 Activator entrance 201 connects, and the heater 700 is used to carry out post bake to the vapor, to reach preferably activation Effect.The heater 700 can adopt storage heater, and its operating cost is low, energy saving.
By the post bake to vapor, its activity function on the one hand can be improved, on the other hand carry steam temperature Height to 600-950 DEG C, reaches the activation desired reaction temperature of fluid bed 200, and then raising fluid bed 200 prepares activated carbon preparation Efficiency.
As shown in Fig. 2 system of the present invention also includes gs-oil separator 400, it has pyrolysis oil gas entrance 401, heat Vent one's spleen and export 402 and pyrolysis oil water out 403, the pyrolysis oil gas vent of the pyrolysis oil gas entrance 401 and the pyrolysis oven 100 102 are connected, and the pyrolysis gas outlet 102 is connected with the fuel gas inlet 501 of the burner 500.The gs-oil separator 400 is used In the pyrolysis oil gas is separated, obtain being pyrolyzed profit and pyrolysis gas, and pyrolysis gas are passed through in the burner 500 Row burning.
As shown in Fig. 2 the system also includes oil water separator 800, there is pyrolysis oil water inlet 801 and pyrolysis water to go out for it Mouth 802, the pyrolysis oil water inlet 801 is connected with the pyrolysis oil water out 403 of the gs-oil separator 400, the pyrolysis water Outlet 802 is connected with the water inlet 601 of the steam boiler 600;The oil water separator 800 is used to enter the pyrolysis profit Row is separated, and obtains pyrolysis oil and pyrolysis water, and pyrolysis water is passed through into the steam boiler 600.Oil water separator 600 can also have Pyrolysis oil export, steam boiler 600 can also have pyrolysis oil-in, be connected with pyrolysis oil export.Pyrolysis oil is imported into steam kettle Stove, as steam boiler fuel, to add hot steam to provide energy.
The gs-oil separator 400 plays a part of separation pyrolyzing oil gas with the one side of oil-water separation 800, obtains pyrolysis gas With pyrolysis water, another aspect pyrolysis gas can be used to burn, and be passed into burner 500.Burner 500 utilizes pyrolytic reaction product In pyrolysis gas burnt, recycling energy significantly improves capacity usage ratio.Pyrolysis water both can serve as subsequent step Water is originated, energy saving, is reduced and is wasted, it is also possible to as user's water, recycles.
As shown in Fig. 2 the system also includes pretreatment unit 300, its material outlet 303 and the pyrolysis oven 100 Charging aperture 101 is connected, and the pretreatment unit 300 is used to carry out the biomass broken pretreatment.Pretreatment unit 300 can Including rotary screen 301 and/or disintegrating machine 302 etc., pretreatment is carried out by the raw material to sending into, it is possible to decrease wherein slag in inorganic matters The content of soil, glass and metal etc., so as to reduce pyrolytic process in the inorganic matters heat taken away and quality that carbon residue is provided.
The present invention carries out pretreatment by 300 pairs of biomass of pretreatment unit, obtains the biology of lamellar and/or bulk Matter.Typically biomass can be broken for being less than the lamellar and/or bulk of 30mm, contribute to fully pyrolysis.
Biomass after will be broken send into the pyrolysis oven 100, and 500 pairs of biomass of the burner are heated, Combustion product gases are produced, biomass pyrolytic generates pyrolysis oil gas and carbon residue.Biomass need uniform distribution in pyrolysis oven 100, raw material Thickness is not more than 150mm, and generally the temperature of pyrolysis is 580 DEG C -620 DEG C.
Separated with 400 pairs of pyrolysis oil gas of the gs-oil separator, obtain being pyrolyzed profit and pyrolysis gas;Will pyrolysis Gas is passed through in the burner 500 and is burnt, and the pyrolysis profit is passed through into the oil water separator 800.By pyrolysis oven 100 The atmosphere of reative cell and the gas isolating of burner 500, make the two be independent of each other, so as to realize that material is pyrolyzed under anoxybiotic atmosphere Carry out, it is ensured that pyrolysis gas have higher calorific value.
Separated with 800 pairs of pyrolysis profits of the oil water separator, obtain pyrolysis oil and pyrolysis water.
Pyrolysis water is passed through into the steam boiler 600, vapor is obtained.
Water is heated with the steam boiler 600, obtains vapor.The vapor is passed through into the heater 700,700 pairs of vapor of the heater carry out post bake, and the fluid bed 200 is then passed through again.
The carbon residue and vapor are respectively fed to into the fluid bed 200, fluidized-bed reaction temperature control is on 880 DEG C of left sides The right side, is activated using the vapor to the carbon residue, generates activated carbon.Wherein, carbon residue is in the fluid bed 200 and activator Reverse haptoreaction, is obtained activated carbon.
Embodiment 1
With biomass as raw material, using biomass (Arundo donax) prepare activated carbon system be prepared activated carbon method such as Under:
10 tons of Arundo donaxs are carried out into break process, the following broken materials of particle diameter 30mm are obtained;
Broken Arundo donax is sent into into pyrolysis oven to be pyrolyzed, on drapery panel, thickness of feed layer is material uniform distribution 150mm.Burner is provided with the pyrolysis oven, pyrolysis obtains carbon residue and pyrolysis oil gas, and the pyrolysis carbon residue of generation sends into fluid bed;
Pyrolysis oil gas that pyrolysis is produced and sending in gs-oil separator is separated, and gs-oil separator is so as to being cleaned Pyrolysis gas and pyrolysis profit;
Isolated pyrolysis gas are sent in burner and is burnt, burner adopts heat-storage type burner, can be by often Warm air temperature brings up to 350-400 DEG C, while the flue-gas temperature for producing of burning can be down to 110 DEG C or so;Pyrolysis profit is sent Enter in oil water separator and separated, pyrolysis oil and water are obtained respectively.
Pyrolysis water is sent in steam-boiler device, and vapor is heated, and steam temperature is 500 DEG C or so;Again will Vapor is passed through in heater, and to vapor post bake is carried out, and steam temperature brings up to 600-950 DEG C, is re-fed into fluidisation In bed.
By vapor and carbon residue in the reverse haptoreaction of fluid bed, activated carbon is obtained, fluidized-bed reaction temperature control is 880 DEG C or so;
Process of the present invention can long-term smooth operation, resulting above-mentioned biomass are obtained the product of activity product char Rate and main character are shown in Table 1.
The data result of table 1
It should be noted that each embodiment above by reference to described by accompanying drawing is only to illustrate rather than restriction originally The scope of invention, it will be understood by those within the art that, it is right under the premise without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention Modification or equivalent that the present invention is carried out, all should cover within the scope of the present invention.Additionally, indication unless the context Outward, the word for occurring in the singular includes plural form, and vice versa.In addition, unless stated otherwise, then any embodiment All or part of can with reference to any other embodiment all or part of using.

Claims (10)

1. the system that a kind of utilization biomass prepare activated carbon, it is characterised in that the system includes:
Pyrolysis oven, it includes charging aperture, multiple pyrolysis oil gas vents, solid material outlet, reative cell and is located at the reative cell bottom Rotatable hold disk;
Burner, it is located at the top and/or bottom of the reaction chamber, and the burner has fuel gas inlet;
Steam boiler, it has water inlet and steam outlet;
Fluid bed, it has solid material entrance and activator entrance, described to expect that entrance is connected with the solid material outlet of the pyrolysis oven admittedly, The activator entrance is connected with the steam outlet of the steam boiler.
2. the system as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that the system also includes heater, and it has steam entry Export with activator, the steam entry is connected with the steam outlet of the steam boiler, the activator is exported and institute State the entrance connection of the activator of fluid bed.
3. system as claimed in claim 2, it is characterised in that the heater is storage heater.
4. the system as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that the system also includes gs-oil separator, and it has pyrolysis oil Gas entrance, pyrolysis gas outlet and pyrolysis oil water out, the pyrolysis oil gas vent phase of the pyrolysis oil gas entrance and the pyrolysis oven Even, the pyrolysis gas outlet is connected with the fuel gas inlet of the burner.
5. system as claimed in claim 4, it is characterised in that the system also includes oil water separator, and it has pyrolysis oil Water inlet and pyrolysis water out, the pyrolysis oil water inlet is connected with the pyrolysis oil water out of the gs-oil separator, described Pyrolysis water out is connected with the water inlet of the steam boiler.
6. the system as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that the system also includes pretreatment unit, itself and the pyrolysis The charging aperture of stove is connected.
7. a kind of method for preparing activated carbon with the arbitrary system of claim 1-6, it is characterised in that the method has following Step:
Biomass starting material is sent into into the pyrolysis oven, the burner is heated to the biomass starting material, produce burning cigarette Gas, biomass starting material pyrolysis, generates pyrolysis oil gas and carbon residue;
Water is heated with the steam boiler, obtains vapor;
The carbon residue and vapor are respectively fed to into the fluid bed, the carbon residue is activated using the vapor, it is raw Viability charcoal.
8. method as claimed in claim 7, it is characterised in that methods described is further comprising the steps of:
The vapor is passed through into the heater, the heater carries out post bake, is then passed through again to the vapor The fluid bed.
9. method as claimed in claim 7, it is characterised in that methods described is further comprising the steps of:
The pyrolysis oil gas is separated with the gs-oil separator, obtains being pyrolyzed profit and pyrolysis gas;
Pyrolysis gas are passed through in the burner and are burnt, the pyrolysis profit is passed through into the oil water separator;
The pyrolysis profit is separated with the oil water separator, obtains pyrolysis oil and pyrolysis water;
Pyrolysis water is passed through into the steam boiler, vapor is obtained.
10. method as claimed in claim 7, it is characterised in that methods described is further comprising the steps of:
Pretreatment is carried out to the biomass starting material, the biomass starting material of lamellar and/or bulk is obtained.
CN201611120334.8A 2016-12-08 2016-12-08 System and method for preparing active carbon by biomass Pending CN106629715A (en)

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CN110117011A (en) * 2019-06-10 2019-08-13 新疆鑫力环保科技有限公司 A kind of method that physical method prepares active carbon
CN110980729A (en) * 2019-12-03 2020-04-10 新奥生物质能(天津)有限公司 Activated carbon production system and method
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CN111378509B (en) * 2018-12-28 2021-05-04 中国石油化工股份有限公司 Biomass microwave pyrolysis gasification method and system
CN110117011A (en) * 2019-06-10 2019-08-13 新疆鑫力环保科技有限公司 A kind of method that physical method prepares active carbon
CN110980729A (en) * 2019-12-03 2020-04-10 新奥生物质能(天津)有限公司 Activated carbon production system and method
CN111548176A (en) * 2020-03-27 2020-08-18 安徽紫荆花壁纸股份有限公司 Wall ecological plate material and preparation method thereof

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