CN106464925A - Establishing a streaming presentation of an event - Google Patents

Establishing a streaming presentation of an event Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106464925A
CN106464925A CN201580017033.XA CN201580017033A CN106464925A CN 106464925 A CN106464925 A CN 106464925A CN 201580017033 A CN201580017033 A CN 201580017033A CN 106464925 A CN106464925 A CN 106464925A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
stream
described
client computer
source
data
Prior art date
Application number
CN201580017033.XA
Other languages
Chinese (zh)
Inventor
M.普林斯
O.A.尼亚姆特
E.托马斯
R.范布兰登布格
H.M.施托金
Original Assignee
皇家Kpn公司
荷兰应用自然科学研究组织
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to EP14152981 priority Critical
Priority to EP14152981.8 priority
Application filed by 皇家Kpn公司, 荷兰应用自然科学研究组织 filed Critical 皇家Kpn公司
Priority to PCT/EP2015/051581 priority patent/WO2015113960A1/en
Publication of CN106464925A publication Critical patent/CN106464925A/en

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N21/00Selective content distribution, e.g. interactive television or video on demand [VOD]
    • H04N21/20Servers specifically adapted for the distribution of content, e.g. VOD servers; Operations thereof
    • H04N21/21Server components or server architectures
    • H04N21/218Source of audio or video content, e.g. local disk arrays
    • H04N21/21805Source of audio or video content, e.g. local disk arrays enabling multiple viewpoints, e.g. using a plurality of cameras
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N21/00Selective content distribution, e.g. interactive television or video on demand [VOD]
    • H04N21/20Servers specifically adapted for the distribution of content, e.g. VOD servers; Operations thereof
    • H04N21/21Server components or server architectures
    • H04N21/218Source of audio or video content, e.g. local disk arrays
    • H04N21/2187Live feed
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N21/00Selective content distribution, e.g. interactive television or video on demand [VOD]
    • H04N21/20Servers specifically adapted for the distribution of content, e.g. VOD servers; Operations thereof
    • H04N21/25Management operations performed by the server for facilitating the content distribution or administrating data related to end-users or client devices, e.g. end-user or client device authentication, learning user preferences for recommending movies
    • H04N21/258Client or end-user data management, e.g. managing client capabilities, user preferences or demographics, processing of multiple end-users preferences to derive collaborative data
    • H04N21/25866Management of end-user data
    • H04N21/25891Management of end-user data being end-user preferences
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N21/00Selective content distribution, e.g. interactive television or video on demand [VOD]
    • H04N21/20Servers specifically adapted for the distribution of content, e.g. VOD servers; Operations thereof
    • H04N21/25Management operations performed by the server for facilitating the content distribution or administrating data related to end-users or client devices, e.g. end-user or client device authentication, learning user preferences for recommending movies
    • H04N21/262Content or additional data distribution scheduling, e.g. sending additional data at off-peak times, updating software modules, calculating the carousel transmission frequency, delaying a video stream transmission, generating play-lists
    • H04N21/26258Content or additional data distribution scheduling, e.g. sending additional data at off-peak times, updating software modules, calculating the carousel transmission frequency, delaying a video stream transmission, generating play-lists for generating a list of items to be played back in a given order, e.g. playlist, or scheduling item distribution according to such list
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N21/00Selective content distribution, e.g. interactive television or video on demand [VOD]
    • H04N21/40Client devices specifically adapted for the reception of or interaction with content, e.g. set-top-box [STB]; Operations thereof
    • H04N21/47End-user applications
    • H04N21/482End-user interface for program selection
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N21/00Selective content distribution, e.g. interactive television or video on demand [VOD]
    • H04N21/80Generation or processing of content or additional data by content creator independently of the distribution process; Content per se
    • H04N21/83Generation or processing of protective or descriptive data associated with content; Content structuring
    • H04N21/84Generation or processing of descriptive data, e.g. content descriptors
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N21/00Selective content distribution, e.g. interactive television or video on demand [VOD]
    • H04N21/80Generation or processing of content or additional data by content creator independently of the distribution process; Content per se
    • H04N21/83Generation or processing of protective or descriptive data associated with content; Content structuring
    • H04N21/845Structuring of content, e.g. decomposing content into time segments
    • H04N21/8456Structuring of content, e.g. decomposing content into time segments by decomposing the content in the time domain, e.g. in time segments

Abstract

The invention provides a streaming client with a streaming presentation of an event, with said presentation being obtained by dynamically switching between a plurality of media streams which represent different recordings of the event. For that purpose, source data is obtained from a plurality of stream sources. The source data is constituted by content data and/or metadata of concurrent portions of the plurality of media streams. By applying a quality assessment function to the source data, a quality score is assigned to each one of the concurrent portions. This allows selection data to be generated which enables the streaming client to access a selected one of the concurrent portions of a respective media stream. For example, a segment may be selected which provides a highest quality score. By doing so, it is therefore not required anymore for a consumer to manually switch between different media streams.

Description

The streaming setting up event presents

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind of system and method for providing the streaming of event to present for streaming client computer.This Bright further relate to a kind of streaming client computer using for described system and method, and be related to a kind of be used for described streaming client The inventory of machine.The invention still further relates to a kind of computer program including the instruction for making processor system execute methods described produces Product.

Background technology

Recording equipment (such as, digital camera and mobile phone) is ubiquitous now.Therefore, event (such as, music Meeting, game, party etc.) can be recorded by multiple recording equipments simultaneously, it is derived from multiple records of same event.This multiple note Record can be different in various manners.For example, described record can illustrate event from different observation places.Another example is:Record Type can be different, e.g. videograph, three-dimensional video-frequency record, audio recording etc..Especially, described record can be in terms of quality Different.For example, by for example having the visual angle of limited (unrestricted) or the distance of suitable (improper), described record for event Can be different in terms of content quality.For example, by come from the recording equipment with different technologies ability, with different bit rates coding Also can be different in terms of recording quality Deng, described record.This content quality and recording quality are hereafter simply referred to as " quality ".

Can be able to be obtained by the different records that streaming makes event.In this case, different records can be by multiple matchmakers Body flow table is shown, can access the plurality of Media Stream from accordingly multiple stream sources.The example of Media Stream includes video flowing and (such as, takes a picture The stream of machine record), audio stream (such as, the stream of mike record) and media stream (including different types of Media Stream).Therefore, When using may have access to the plurality of Media Stream streaming client computer when, consumer can manually select for the Media Stream presenting with Just for example switch camera view.

Adversely, between different media flows, manual switching is troublesome, because consumer generally can not easily compare Various flows and therefore easily Media Stream can not be selected according to his/her preference.

Content of the invention

Will be it is advantageous that obtaining such a system or method:In at least one shortcoming solving known While, the streaming providing event for streaming client computer presents.

A first aspect of the present invention provides a kind of system for providing the streaming of event to present for streaming client computer And method, to obtain streaming by dynamically switching between the different multiple Media Streams recording representing event and to present, The plurality of Media Stream can be accessed from accordingly multiple stream sources.

Described system may include:

- input, for obtaining source data from the plurality of stream source, source data by the plurality of Media Stream concurrent part content Data and/or metadata are constituted, and concurrent part represents the concurrent time section of event;

- processing subsystem, is configured to:

I) at least one quality evaluation functions is applied to source data so that quality score is dispatched to each concurrent part, thus builds Found multiple quality scores;And

Ii) produce select data be used for making streaming client computer be able to access that respective media stream concurrent partly in selected Part, the comparison based on the plurality of quality score select described selected part.

Methods described may include:

- obtain source data from the plurality of stream source, source data by the plurality of Media Stream concurrent part content-data and/or Metadata is constituted, and concurrent part represents the concurrent time section of event;

- at least one quality evaluation functions is applied to source data so that quality score is dispatched to each concurrent part, thus build Found multiple quality scores;And

- produce select data be used for making streaming client computer be able to access that respective media stream concurrent partly in selected portion Point, the comparison based on the plurality of quality score selects described selected part.

Another aspect of the present invention provides a kind of computer including for the instruction making processing system execute methods described Program product.

Define embodiment in the dependent claims.

The above is related to multiple stream sources.Each stream source is configurable for the streaming source of the different records of event.Therefore, Stream source can provide the replacement record of same event.Streaming can be live, thus consistent with event itself.

Source data can be obtained from the plurality of stream source.Source data can be made up of content-data, that is, represent video flowing, audio stream Deng a part.Additionally or instead, source data can be made up of the metadata for respective media stream.This metadata can refer to Show the situation of respective record or characterize record.

Source data can be with the concurrent partial association of Media Stream.Here, term " concurrent part " represent with event common when Between section corresponding respective media stream each several part.So, concurrently partly may make up the replacement record for the described time period.Need It is noted that for example, by splitting Media Stream, concurrent part can be clearly present in respective media stream.However, in Media Stream Do not need so in the case of non-segmentation Media Stream can similarly be constituted.Additionally, in the case of segmentation Media Stream, fragment is not required to Equal length to be had and/or synchronization.On the contrary, situations below may be sufficient to:Fragment on event time overlapping and Thus include concurrent part.

Quality evaluation functions can be applied to source data.Operated by such, it is concurrent that quality score can be assigned to each Part, and thus also impliedly it is dispatched to respective media stream and stream source.Therefore, for example can be evaluated each in mass scale Concurrent part, this can allow mass ratio between concurrent part relatively.It should be noted that in this quality evaluation functions can assess Hold quality and/or recording quality, and generally can relate to consider user feedback.It is also to be noted that from signal analysis field This quality evaluation functions known per se.

Additionally, selection data can be produced, data is selected to can be used for selecting one of concurrent part.Determining which to select During individual concurrent part, the plurality of quality score can be used, concurrent part wherein may be selected is assigned first water score Or generally for example it is considered the part of suitable quality score according to criterion.Therefore, data is selected for example to pass through inclusion each as follows Item explicitly or implicitly to indicate most suitable concurrent part:Represent simultaneously including the flow identifier of the stream of concurrent part, mark Send out the fragment identifier of fragment of part and the quality score of stream or fragment association etc..

Above measure provides a kind of agency effectively functioning as between streaming client computer and multiple stream source, and (that is, centre sets Standby) system because the quality of concurrent part of the multiple Media Stream of described system evaluation and produce selection data, select data Streaming client computer is enable to access one of concurrent part of respective media stream based on the more specific of quality score.For example, Selected partly may be assigned first water score.By assessing the matter of the continuously concurrent fragment in this concurrent fragment Amount, selects data to enable streaming client computer continuously to access the fragment of current those Media Streams providing extra fine quality.As This, the streaming that can set up event presents, and streaming assumes the dynamic select of the different piece constituting the plurality of Media Stream.Need It should be noted that although the processing subsystem of application quality assessment is included in stream source or is located at stream source nearby or is included in It is probably beneficial in network, but be not excluded for processing subsystem and be included in streaming client computer or be located at streaming client computer Near.For example, if there is can be used for related streams send to enough bandwidth of streaming client computer, then can be in streaming client Execute quality evaluation functions in machine or near streaming client computer, and following advantage stands good.

Advantage can be:It is no longer necessary to consumer's manual switching between different media flows.Another advantage can be:Described System is well suited for for such situation:The plurality of stream source constitutes one group of independent, not managed stream source.

At this aspect it should be noted that Saini, Mukesh Kumar etc., Proceedings of the 20th ACM international conference on Multimedia. ACM, 2012 entitled " MoViMash: The paper description of Online Mobile Video Mashup " creates " mixing of several video clippings(mashup)”.However, this Different from the present invention, because the framework of description constitutes the automatization of the video editing during post-production, and be therefore not suitable for It is used for streaming situation, purpose is that the streaming providing event for streaming client computer presents in streaming situation.

In an embodiment, streaming client computer can be provided that inventory, and described inventory may include for making streaming client computer It is able to access that the address information in the plurality of stream source, and wherein:

- described system may also include for providing the client interface selecting data to streaming client computer;And

- select data can be produced by processing subsystem to enable streaming client computer to select the plurality of stream source from inventory The stream source to the access of described selected part for the offer.

In the streaming field of Media Stream, it is known for providing inventory for streaming client computer.Inventory can identify difference Media Stream and its address information, you can respective media stream is addressed from stream source.In this embodiment, streaming client computer Can be provided that inventory, described inventory makes streaming client computer be able to access that the plurality of stream source and so access by described stream source The Media Stream providing.By producing selection data with by way of claiming, streaming client computer can be enable to know from inventory Which stream source will not accessed to obtain selected part.The advantage of this embodiment can be:Streaming client computer can Directly access selected stream source.Therefore, described system does not need to carry out the transmission of Media Stream (each several part).Another advantage can To be:Actual selection can be executed by streaming client computer, thus enables streaming client computer consider other (for example, locally) Factor accounts for.Additionally, can be using existing inventory and their transfer mechanism.Therefore, only in addition carry to streaming client computer Selective data may be sufficient to.

In an embodiment, data is selected to may include at least a portion of the plurality of quality score.Therefore, can be to streaming Client computer directly provides quality score.In this embodiment, quality score can be identified by streaming client computer with inventory Respective streams source mated and will be accessed which stream source and it is thus determined that will be accessed which Media Stream to determine.

In an embodiment, processing subsystem can be arranged to:

I) described quality score is formatted as metadata streams;

Ii) address information is included in inventory to make streaming client computer be able to access that metadata streams.

By quality score being formatted as metadata streams and producing inventory and include described address information, quality score Can by with Media Stream itself similar mode that is to say, that in the form of streaming and by provide for stream address information Inventory sending streaming client computer to.The advantage of this embodiment can be:Existing transfer mechanism can be reused, all Transfer mechanism as the transmission for the metadata streams in MPEG-4 Part 14.Here, only new flow identifier may Must be declared to identify the metadata streams including quality score.Therefore, this can avoid the need for for(One or more)Stream The other transfer mechanism of transmission client computer delivery quality score.

In an embodiment, client interface can be arranged to provide to streaming client computer through signaling channel and select number According to.Select data by providing to streaming client computer through signaling channel it is not necessary to depend on the biography for described transmission Send mechanism.Therefore, that is, be used in the standard that streaming is carried out to the plurality of Media Stream be not explicitly provided for transmitting this Select the transfer mechanism of data, select data to be also provided to streaming client computer.For example, when using MPEG dynamic self-adapting During HTTP streaming (DASH), even if MPEG-DASH does not provide suitable transfer mechanism, this signaling channel may be alternatively used for passing Send to be elected and select data.

In an embodiment, inventory can be provided asynchronously to provide selection data with respect to streaming client computer.By with clear Single asynchronously transmission selects data, and its transmission separates in time.

In an embodiment, select data may also include for enable streaming client computer by the plurality of quality score with The related information of the plurality of stream source association.So, can to streaming client computer provide enable described quality score with described The information of multiple stream sources association.This related information can be clear and definite or implicit.The example of the latter can be the plurality of The sequence of quality score, the sequence of the plurality of quality score is mated with the sequence of the address information in the stream source in inventory.

In an embodiment, processing subsystem can be arranged to produce the inventory for streaming client computer, described inventory Including playlist, playlist identifies the plurality of matchmaker continuously accessing for the respective streams source from the plurality of stream source The different piece of body stream, has been based on and has selected data to select at least one of described different piece part.In this embodiment, Described system rather than the selection of streaming client computer execution respective media stream.It is alternative in the plurality of to the transmission of streaming client computer Quality score, for example, pass through continuously to identify the part being assigned suitable quality score, and described system provides and represents selection Playlist.Therefore, streaming client computer can be by accessing, according to playlist, the stream that the plurality of stream source obtains event Transmission presents.

In an embodiment, processing subsystem can be arranged to update inventory for new concurrent part.This embodiment Consider:During streaming, possibly cannot produce the inventory for whole Media Stream, because future (that is, will be spread Defeated) the quality of part may remain unknown.Therefore, inventory can be updated over time.

In an embodiment, processing subsystem can be arranged to:Keep institute when producing and selecting data in the following cases State the previous selection of one of multiple Media Streams Media Stream:

The difference of the quality score between the concurrent part of-described previous Media Stream and selected part is less than quality threshold; Or

The length of-concurrent part is less than length threshold.

This embodiment is considered:Even if the concurrent part of another Media Stream has been assigned suitable quality score, also may be used Described another Media Stream can not always be wanted to switch to.That is, the length or selected with previous when concurrent fragment When the difference of the quality of concurrent part of Media Stream is less than respective threshold, the shortcoming of this switching can be more than excellent in terms of quality Point.Therefore, previous selection can be kept.

In an embodiment, the plurality of Media Stream may include one or more segmentation Media Streams, and concurrent part can be extremely Partially it is made up of the concurrent fragment of one or more of segmentation Media Streams.Segmentation Media Stream is made up of continuous fragment.This Planting the fragment clearly defining provides the natural interval degree for dynamically switching between Media Stream.This segmentation Media Stream Example includes those the segmentation Media Streams providing for adaptive bitrate streaming.Following situation may be therefore convenient: On the basis of segment by segment, select to be assigned those fragments of suitable quality score.On the contrary, may not be needed in addition to split One or more of segmentation Media Streams are it is not required that using or defining different interval degree.

In an embodiment, described system can be configured to operations described below and comes as streaming client computer and the plurality of Agency between stream source:

I) the concurrent part of the plurality of Media Stream is received from the plurality of stream source;And

Ii) selected part is sent to streaming client computer.

Therefore, be alternative in streaming client computer transmit select data, described Systematic selection and then to streaming visitor Family machine transmits selected part.The advantage of this embodiment can be:Can provide by Media Stream to streaming client computer Between dynamically switching and the Media Stream that obtains, and streaming client computer need not be carried out or even need not know about and this dynamically cut Change.Additional advantage can be:Do not need to provide to streaming client computer and select data, thus avoid the need for transfer mechanism.

In an embodiment, at least one of the plurality of Media Stream Media Stream can be received according to non-segmentation form, and Processing subsystem can be arranged to split described Media Stream.By splitting described Media Stream, set up between Media Stream The natural interval degree dynamically switching.Following situation is therefore convenient:On the basis of segment by segment, switch between Media Stream To obtain those fragments being assigned suitable quality score.

In an embodiment, based on have among concurrent part first water score selected partly selecting described institute The part selecting.First water score may indicate that the highest fitness in presenting for the streaming being included in event, because Selected part is considered as example providing the consumer with first water by one or more of quality evaluation functions.

Another aspect of the present invention provides a kind of streaming client computer using for described system.Streaming client computer can quilt It is configured to obtain inventory, described inventory is included for making streaming client computer be able to access that the address letter in the plurality of stream source Breath.Streaming client computer may also include:

- input, selects data for receiving from described system;With

- processing subsystem, is configured to:

I) it is based on and selects data, the stream of the access to described selected part for the offer the plurality of stream source is provided from inventory Source;And

Ii) access selected part from described streaming source.

Therefore it provides a kind of streaming client computer, described streaming client computer can be arranged to obtain from described system For example there is the selection data of the form of quality score, and be subsequently based on selection data and execute selection.

Another aspect of the present invention provides a kind of inventory for streaming client computer, and described inventory is included for making to spread Defeated client computer is able to access that the address information of the selection data being produced by described system.Therefore, except other information (such as, pin Address information to the plurality of stream source) outside, inventory is also included for the address information selecting data.Therefore, make acquisition clear Single streaming client computer is able to access that selection data.

In a word, the streaming that the present invention can provide event for streaming client computer presents, and has passed through representing event not Present described in obtaining with dynamically switching between multiple Media Streams of record.For this purpose, source can be obtained from multiple stream sources Data.Source data can be made up of the content-data of the concurrent part of the plurality of Media Stream and/or metadata.By quality is commented Estimate function and be applied to source data, quality score can be assigned to each concurrent part.This allows to produce and selects data, described choosing Select data can make streaming client computer be able to access that respective media stream concurrent partly in selected concurrent part.Example As may be selected to provide the fragment of first water score.Operated by such, be therefore no longer necessary to consumer different media flows it Between manual switching.

It will be understood to those of skill in the art that in the above embodiment of the present invention, implementation and/or aspect two or More can be combined according to being considered as useful any mode.

With the corresponding methods described of modifications and variations of described system of description, computer program, streaming client The modifications and variations of machine and/or inventory can be based on this description by those skilled in the art and execute.

Limit the present invention in the independent claim.Limit beneficial still optional enforcement in the dependent claims Example.

Brief description

According to embodiment described below, these and other aspects of the invention is made apparent from, and will be with reference to following The embodiment of description illustrates these and other aspects of the invention.In the accompanying drawings,

Fig. 1 illustrates the embodiment of the system according to the present invention;

Fig. 2 diagram, by the segmentation Media Stream same record being encoded and being obtained with different bit rates, is achieved in adaptive Bit rate stream is answered to transmit;

Fig. 3 illustrates an aspect of of the present present invention, and wherein it illustrates to constitute the segmentation Media Stream of the different records of same event, and quality obtains Divide each fragment being assigned to segmentation Media Stream;

Fig. 4 illustrates another embodiment of the system according to the present invention, wherein selects data to be formatted as metadata streams, by inciting somebody to action Address information for metadata streams includes in the inventory for streaming client computer, and streaming client computer may have access to metadata Stream;

Fig. 5 illustrates another embodiment of the system according to the present invention, wherein selects data to be provided to streaming through signaling channel Client computer;

Fig. 6 illustrates another embodiment of the system according to the present invention, and wherein said system is passed through to access the plurality of Media Stream simultaneously And the media stream set up from the different piece of described Media Stream come as streaming client computer to streaming client computer and Agency between stream source;

Fig. 7 illustrates another embodiment of the system according to the present invention, and wherein said system does not transmit Media Stream itself, but will be clear Single and selection data sends streaming client computer to;

Fig. 8 illustrates the feedback mechanism for enabling the customer to the feedback providing the quality with regard to fragment, thus improves quality and comments Estimate;

Fig. 9 illustrates the method according to the invention;With

Figure 10 illustrates including for making processing system execute the computer program of the instruction of methods described.

It should be noted that the item in different figures with same reference numerals has identical architectural feature and identical work( Energy or identical signal.In the case of the function of explaining this item and/or structure, do not need it heavy in detailed description Multiple explanation.

The list of the reference number in Fig. 1 and 4-7:

More than 020 stream source;

021 first-class source;

022 second source;

031 first fragment server;

032 second fragment server;

040 source data being derived from the plurality of stream source;

041 the first source data being derived from first-class source;

042 the second source data being derived from second source;

043 from the selection of the first source data and the second source data;

More than 080 streaming client computer;

081 first streaming client computer;

The embodiment of 100A-E the system according to the present invention;

120 inputs;

The embodiment of 140A-C processing subsystem;

142 selection data;

160 client interface;

162 with(One or more)The communication of streaming client computer;

164 through signaling channel with(One or more)The communication of streaming client computer;

170 inventories;

The description of the fragment of 172 useable medium streams;

The description of 174 metadata streams;

180 selection data;

300 quality evaluation functions units;

310 quality score data storehouses;

400 (One or more)The transmission of quality score;

The request of 410 pairs of inventory/fragments;

412 fragments/inventory/(One or more)The transmission of quality score;

414 inventories/(One or more)The transmission of quality score;

421 and first fragment server communication;

422 and second fragment server communication;

430 with the communication in quality score data storehouse;

The read/write of 440 inventories;

The fragment request of 451 pairs of the first fragment server;With

The fragment request of 452 pairs of the second fragment server.

Specific embodiment

Fig. 1 illustrates the embodiments of the invention with the form of system 100A.Also illustrate that multiple stream sources 020, the plurality of Stream source 020 provides the access to accordingly multiple Media Streams.Fig. 1 illustrates the plurality of stream source 020 of the form of multiple recording equipments, The plurality of recording equipment includes audiovisual sensor.The example of this recording equipment 020 include smart phone, minicam, Professional camera, intelligent watch, intelligent glasses etc..However, this is not to limit, because the plurality of stream source 020 may also include it The device of its type or system, such as streaming server, described streaming server oneself is unable to recording events, but can This record is carried out streaming as Media Stream.Another example is stream damper, and described stream damper buffer media distributes net Media Stream in network.

System 100A includes the input 120 for obtaining source data 040 from the plurality of stream source 020.For this purpose, it is System 100A can be connected to described many through network (being not explicitly shown in Fig. 1) (such as, LAN, wide area network and/or the Internet) Individual stream source 020.Fig. 1 illustrate each the stream source 020 from the plurality of stream source 020 obtain source data 040 (that is, have with The form of the separate data in each the stream source 020 in the plurality of stream source 020).Alternatively, can obtain from the subset in stream source 020 Source data 040, indirectly obtains source data 040 from described stream source 020, or obtains source data 040 from another source.Source data 040 can be made up of the content-data of at least concurrent part of the plurality of Media Stream and/or metadata.For example, based on MPEG- In the case of the Media Stream of 4 Part 14 (MP4), source data can be by following information structure:This information is by the source that records as first number According to track(track)It is embedded in MP4 container.This embedding can relate to:For example, by the respective type statement according to data Coding decoder four character code(fourcc)Come for each dtd--data type definition flow identifier.

System 100A also includes processing subsystem 140A, and processing subsystem 140A can be by hardware, software or hardware and software Combination constitute.This hardware and/or software can be distributed on several functional units.

Processing subsystem 140A can be configured to:System 100A during the operation by least one quality evaluation functions (QAF) it is applied to source data 040.For this purpose, processing subsystem 140A is shown as from input 120 reception source data 040. By one or more of quality evaluation functions are applied to source data 040, it is concurrent that quality score can be assigned to each Part, thus sets up multiple quality scores.Here it is to be noted that it term " assignment " represent each quality score with corresponding Partial association or can be associated with appropriate section, for example, is stored in relation to by the identifier of labelling and described part.Need It is noted that quality evaluation score (QA is also referred to as by the quality score that one or more of quality evaluation functions obtain Score), this aspect of the present invention is explained further with reference to Fig. 2,3 and 8.Additionally, it is not seen in fig. 1, but quality score Can be stored in for example internal or external thesauruss or file by (temporarily).

Processing subsystem 140A is also configured to:Producing in the during the operation of system 100A selects data 142 to be used for making Streaming client computer be able to access that respective media stream concurrent partly in selected part, obtained based on the plurality of quality The comparison dividing selects described selected part.Operated by such, and especially by this part of connected reference, spread The streaming that defeated client computer is provided event presents.It should be noted that this selection data 142 can adopt various forms.Fig. 1 The optional aspect of the present invention is shown, wherein selects data 142 to be provided to streaming client computer itself that is to say, that by being The client interface 160 of system 100A, the exchange through message 162 will select data 142 to be supplied to multiple streaming client computer 080. It should be noted that this aspect of the present invention and the replacement shape selecting data 142 will be explained further with reference to Fig. 4 to 8 Formula and the transmission for streaming client computer.

It should be noted that generally, streaming client computer 080 may include TV, DVB player and recorder, movement (intelligence Can) phone, photographing unit, digital radio equipment, music (MP3) player, PC, laptop computer, tablet PC, intelligence Wrist-watch, intelligent glasses, Set Top Box, media player, automobile hi-fi device, professional audio and video equipment etc..

It is also to be noted that source data 040 may include the content-data of the bitstream data form of respective media stream.This Plant bitstream data and may include audio-visual data, such as encoded video and audio sample.Especially, if Media Stream is segmentation media Stream, then source data 040 can be made up of the bitstream data of respective segments.In order to obtain this bitstream data, system 100A can Subscribe to and spread transfer session by what the plurality of stream source 020 provided.Additionally or instead, source data 040 may include metadata.Unit Data can be produced by recording equipment, and can for example pass through to indicate saturation(saturation), block(occlusion), copped wave (clipping), quiet(silence)Deng and related to one or more audiovisual sensors of recording equipment.Metadata also can be with Other sensors in this device (such as, position sensor (for example, global positioning system (GPS) sensor), gyroscope, plus Velometer etc.) related.Therefore, metadata for example, may indicate that position, direction, shifted laterally etc..Metadata also can for example be passed through to refer to Show timestamp, NTP (NTP) information etc. and related to timing information.It should be noted that metadata can be included In respective media stream, but equally can be provided separately.

Fig. 2 illustrates from the field of adaptive bitrate streaming (and especially, HTTP self adaptation stream transmission (HAS) Subdomains) segmentation Media Stream known per se.Using HAS, can represent and therefore according to quality according to the different of bit rate Different expressions provide audio-visual media stream.For example, record can be encoded with 350 kbit/s to provide low quality (LQ) Media Stream, with 500 kbit/s codings are to provide mean quality (MQ) Media Stream, and encoded with 1500 kbit/s to provide high-quality (HQ) Media Stream.Each Media Stream can be made up of a series of continuous fragments S1-S4, and a series of described continuous fragments S1-S4 are possible can be only On the spot access, transmit and decode.Therefore, the fragment from different media flows can be exchanged and/or be exchanged, and thus make streaming visitor Family machine can be switched between different media flows based on available bandwidth.For example, by stoping or reducing buffering, this can realize no Seam playback, because streaming client computer can temporarily be switched to the Media Stream having lower quality but needing compared with low transmission bandwidth.

Fig. 3 diagram constitutes the segmentation Media Stream of the different records of same event.Described Media Stream be marked as " SRC 1 ", " SRC 2 " and " SRC 3 ", represents described media stream source from various flows source.It should be noted that, figure different from the Media Stream of Fig. 2 3 Media Stream each represents different content, for example different audiovisual records.However, described Media Stream is still through the same thing of expression The different records of part and associated.Have appreciated that:Also the one or more bases adopting in HAS can be used under current situation Present principles, i.e. presented by the streaming that the fragment of different media flows is constituted for setting up, the fragment of different media flows is observer (for example, consumer) provides best experience.In order to quantify best experience, one or more quality evaluation functions can be used. (One or more)This quality evaluation functions can evaluate each concurrent fragment in predefined mass scale.In figure 3, concurrently Fragment is by identical subscript (last) label(Such as S11、S21And S31)Instruction.Mass scale in Fig. 3 uses four kinds not Homogenous quantities score, i.e. " poor ", " not good ", " medium " and " good ".However, being equally contemplated that the mass scale of various other species. For example, mass scale can be at from 0 to 1 scope, and wherein 1 indicates highest possible quality and the 0 minimum possible quality of instruction. Replacement scheme can be scope from 1 (that is, minimum quality) to mean opinion score (MOS) the quality mark of 5 (that is, first waters) Degree.

By one or more of quality evaluation functions are applied to aforementioned source data, can be evaluated each in terms of quality Fragment.This evaluation can evaluate quality related fields of each concurrent fragment, but can be it is also contemplated that several quality related side Face.For example, quality evaluation functions can evaluate content quality (for example, by detect obstruction, the stability of video, voice distinguishable Other property etc.) and recording quality (for example, by determining spatial resolution, frame rate and/or the bit rate of each concurrent fragment). Alternatively, different quality valuation functions can be used, combine their quality score.In the case of evaluating each fragment, energy Enough determine which concurrent fragment provides suitable (for example, highest) quality.In the example of fig. 3, this lead to flow 1 offer concurrent Fragment S11-S31、S12-S32And S14-S34First water and stream 3 offer concurrent fragments S13-S33First water.Therefore, may be used Set up by fragment S11、S12、S32、S34The streaming constituting presents, and described streaming assumes expression and each individual Media Stream SRC 1, SRC 2 compare averagely higher-quality Media Stream with SRC 3.

Streaming can be set up based on the system producing selection data to present.This selection data and be directed to streaming client computer Transmission can adopt various forms, and will with reference to Fig. 4 to 8 be explained further this selection data and be directed to streaming client The transmission of machine.

Fig. 4 illustrates the embodiment of the system according to the present invention 100B, wherein selects data to be formatted as metadata streams.? Here, and in following accompanying drawing, client interface is not explicitly shown, and is changed to illustrate produced by processing subsystem 140B And the figure of the data that the plurality of streaming client computer 080 can obtain through client interface represents.

In the fig. 4 embodiment,(One or more)Streaming client computer 080 is provided inventory 170, and inventory 170 includes For making(One or more)Streaming client computer is able to access that the address information 172 in the plurality of stream source 020.This inventory 170 can inventory based on known type.For example, in the situation based on the media flow transmission of MPEG-DASH, inventory can based on by The media presentation description (MPD) of MPEG-DASH definition, it can describe the fragment of useable medium stream and can access described fragment from it Respective streams source 020 address.This address can adopt any suitable form, including but not limited to uniform resource locator (URL) address.For example, MPD can identify in the following way(One or more)Metadata streams are (here, in order to succinct former Cause, has been omitted from the AdaptationSet information for audio frequency):

<?xml version="1 .0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<MPD

xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"

xmlns="urn:mpeg:DASH:schema:MPD:XXXX"

xsi:schemaLocation="urn:mpeg:dash:schema:mpd:2011 DASH-MPD.xsd"

<BaseURL>http://cdn1. example. com/</BaseURL>

<BaseURL>http://cdn2. example. com/</BaseURL>

<Period>

<!-- Video ->

<AdaptationSet

id="video"

mimeType="video/mp4"

codecs="avc1.4D401F"

frameRate="30000/1001"

segmentAlignment="true"

startWithSAP="1">

<BaseURL>video/</BaseURL>

<SegmentTemplate timescale="90000" media="$Bandwidth$/$Time$.mp4v">

<SegmentTimeline>

<S t="0" d="180180" r="432"/>

</SegmentTimeline>

</SegmentTemplate>

<Representation id="v0" width="320" height="240" bandwidth="250000"/>

<Representation id="v1" width="640" height="480" bandwidth="500000"/>

<Representation id="v2" width="960" height="720" bandwidth="1000000"/>

</AdaptationSet>

<!— AdaptationSet for selection data — >

<AdaptationSet id="quality_scores" codecs="wxyz"/>

<BaseURL>video_quality/</BaseURL>

<SegmentTemplate timescale="90000" media="$id$/$Time$.mp4m">

<SegmentTimeline>

<S t="0" d="180180" r="432"/>

</SegmentTimeline>

</SegmentTemplate>

<Representation id="quality_scores_v0" bandwidth="1000"

dependencyld="v0"/>

Representation id="quality_scores_v1" bandwidth="1000"

dependencyld="v1"/>

Representation id="quality_scores_v2" bandwidth="1000"

dependencyld="v2"/>

</AdaptationSet>

</Period>

</MPD>.

This inventory 170 can from the exchange for example through message 162 for system 100B to(One or more)Streaming client computer There is provided, and may include useable medium stream fragment described above 172.According to the present invention, processing subsystem 140B can use Inventory 170 is making(One or more)Streaming client computer may have access to and selects data, thus makes(One or more)Streaming Client computer can identify from inventory 170 provides the stream source of appropriate mass stream source.This selection data can adopt one or more The form of quality score.Quality score can be formatted as metadata streams by processing subsystem 140B, and produces inventory 170 to wrap Include the description 174 of metadata streams.This description 174 may include address information (for example, URL address), thus makes streaming client Machine can access metadata streams through this address.

Fig. 5 illustrates another embodiment of the system according to the present invention 100C, wherein selects data 142 straight through signaling channel Connect and be supplied to(One or more)Streaming client computer.Signaling channel is by impliedly(That is, by with to(One or more)Spread Defeated client computer provides the exchange of the separate other message 164 of the exchange of the message 162 of inventory 170)Illustrate in Figure 5.Need It is noted that selecting data 142 can asynchronously be provided, that is, and ambiguously with to(One or more)Streaming client computer carries Synchronous for inventory 170.

As signaling channel, so-called streaming control channel can be used, as institute in such as WO 2013/098317 A1 State.Here, describe one kind for realizing the segmentation from transmission node (that is, streaming source) at least one streaming client computer The method that the network of the streaming of content initiates to control.The method includes:There is provided channel establishment information for streaming client computer, and And the channel establishment information of described offer is provided sets up at least between described client computer and control channel server capability One streaming control channel.Therefore, streaming client computer can receive at least one inventory literary composition through described streaming control channel Part new information, described inventory file new information may include inventory file or the inventory file position for positioning inventory file Information.It will be understood that, the streaming control channel described in it and the mode to streaming client computer offer inventory information can quilts Advantageously serve to current situation, that is, from system 100C to(One or more)Streaming client computer provides this information.Therefore, it is System 100C may include the control channel server capability as described in WO 2013/098317 A1, and(One or more)Stream Transmission client computer can be communicated with the control channel server capability of system 100C through streaming control channel.

Generally, this signaling channel can be used for(One or more)Streaming Client notification is used for the clear of streaming List and/or the availability of quality score.Alternately or additionally in described notice, signaling channel may be alternatively used for sending (renewal) clearly List, (renewal) quality score and/or control information.

It should be noted that in the embodiment illustrating in figures 4 and 5,(One or more)Streaming client computer 080 is responsible for Select suitable fragment and subsequently fetch suitable fragment from stream source 020 based on selecting data.So, for suitable fragment Transfer mechanism follow (that is, conceptually similar to) current HAS scheme, wherein(One or more)Streaming client computer oneself Determine fetched which fragment based on the bandwidth information in MPD.

With further reference to Figure 4 and 5 it should be noted that inventory 170 can be multistage inventory, that is, by the son of staging hierarchy Inventory is constituted.Therefore, the description 172 of fragment can be provided in the different sub- inventory of the description 174 from metadata streams.Can be through separately Channel transmit this seed inventory.For example, the sub- inventory of the description 174 of metadata streams can be included through signaling channel transmission.

Fig. 6 illustrates another embodiment of the system according to the present invention 100D, and wherein this system is passed through to receive the plurality of matchmaker Body stream and by from have suitable quality score fragment set up media stream to be used as to spread to streaming client computer Agency between defeated client computer 081 and multiple stream source 020.In this illustration, the source obtaining from the plurality of streaming source 020 Data 040 includes the fragment of Media Stream itself.For this purpose, system 100D can be subscribed to and be provided by the plurality of stream source 020 Spread transfer session.System 100D can on fragment server 031 (that is, through data communication 421) temporarily stored fragments.Additionally, One or more quality evaluation functions can be applied to source data 040 so that quality score is dispatched to respective media stream by system 100D Each concurrent fragment.Fig. 6 illustrates(One or more)Quality evaluation functions are by unit (that is, the quality evaluation functions list separating Unit 300, referred to as QAF unit) realize.But although being separately illustrated, but QAF unit can be of system 100D Point.As the result providing source data 040 to QAF unit 300, quality score 400 can be obtained.System 100D can be in quality score (that is, through data communication 430) (temporarily) storage quality score in data base 310.System 100D may also access inventory 170, clearly Single 170 can be the source list obtaining from the plurality of streaming source 020 or by one or more of quality evaluation letters Number is applied to (renewal) inventory producing after source data 040.Although it should be noted that inventory 170 is illustrated in system The outside of 100D, but inventory 170 can be stored in internal storage device or the memorizer of system 100D.

100D can respond to the request 410 of inventory to from streaming client computer 081, and in streaming visitor When family machine 081 receives inventory, convection pass client computer 081 responds to the subsequent request of fragment, i.e. by by inventory and The fragment transmission 412 asked is to streaming visitor [h1] [h2] [h3] family machine 081.

It should be noted that in the embodiment in fig 6 it may occur however that such situation:For example pass through asynchronous from stream source Ground receives different media flows, and described different media flows are with respect to the timeline misalignment of event.In this case, this system can Simultaneous techniquess between using the stream known per se of the field from media sync, to guarantee the time alignment of the fragment of different media flows, Thus set up the concurrent degree of fragment.If receiving the stream of the clearly segmentation with unequal segment durations, Can perform the received synchronization of fragment or again split, or can receive some time misalignment.It should be noted that be aligned It is perfect for may not be needed, and for example, the frame in the case of audio-visual data is accurate.That is, because Media Stream represents thing The different records of part, so consumer may can allow (for example, being subjected to) time misalignment to a certain degree.This may result in can Can persistent period of presenting of the streaming media longer than the persistent period of the event recording.It should be noted that it is current Self adaptation stream transmission standard (such as, MPEG-DASH) supports temporally aligned fragment and out-of-alignment in time Section.

Fig. 7 illustrates another embodiment of the system according to the present invention, and wherein system 100E does not pass to streaming client computer 081 Send(One or more)The fragment of Media Stream, but to streaming client computer 081 transmission inventory and select data, thus make to spread Defeated client computer 081 can be to respective streams transmission sources request fragments.So, the embodiment of Fig. 7 is conceptually more closely similar to Figure 4 and 5 Embodiment, rather than the embodiment of Fig. 6, wherein said Systematic selection fragment and subsequently sending selected fragment to spreads Defeated client computer.

Fig. 7 illustrates first-class transmission sources 021 and second transmission sources 022, and first-class transmission sources 021 are shown as with first The form of the fragment (and alternatively, the metadata of the first Media Stream) of Media Stream provides first to the first fragment server 031 Source data 041.First fragment server 031 temporarily, at least stores the first source data 041.Additionally, second transmission sources 022 quilt It is shown as with the form of the fragment of the second Media Stream (and alternatively, the metadata of the second Media Stream) to the second fragment server 032 offer the second source data 042.System 100E can access to the first fragment server 031 (that is, through the first data communication 421) First source data 041.In addition, system 100E can access the to the second fragment server 032 (that is, through the second data communication 422) Two source datas 042.Effectively, in this embodiment, the first fragment server 031 and the second fragment server 032 constitute stream Source.

In the case of obtaining the selection to the first source data 041 and the second source data 042, system 100E can will be this Selected source data 043 is supplied to QAF unit 300, and at least one quality evaluation functions can be applied to institute by QAF unit 300 The source data 043 selecting.As a result, quality score 400 can be obtained.System 100E can be in quality score data storehouse 310 (that is, through data communication 430) temporarily stores quality score.System 100E may also access inventory 170.Therefore, make system 100E To from streaming client computer 081, the request 410 of inventory can be responded, i.e. by by inventory and(One or many Individual)Streaming client computer 081 is given in quality score transmission 414.Therefore, enable streaming client computer 081 be based on quality score and Inventory to the first fragment server 031 (that is, through the first fragment request 451) or to the second fragment server 032 (that is, through second Fragment request 452) ask suitable fragment.Operated by such, and especially, by two pieces for continuous fragment Dynamically switch between section server, make streaming client computer 081 be obtained in that the streaming of event presents.

Although not shown in FIG. 7, system 100E also can send inventory to streaming client computer 081, described inventory Include the appropriately selected of fragment from respective streams transmission sources.For example, in the situation of MPEG-DASH, MPD can be using such as Form shown below.Here, described selection is shown by segment table continuous time in mark various flows source.Further, it should be noted that The quality that MPD realizes based on bandwidth still according to fragment selects.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<MPD

xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"

xmlns="urn:mpeg:dash:schema:mpd:2011"

xsi:schemaLocation="urn:mpeg:dash:schema:mpd:2011 DASH-MPD.xsd"

type="static"

>

<!— First period of 30 seconds using media stream of camera 1—>

<Period id="1" duration="PT30S">

<BaseURL>http://camera1.example.com/</BaseURL>

<AdaptationSet

mimeType="video/mp2t"

codecs="avc1.4D401F,mp4a"

frameRate="24000/1001"

segmentAlignment="true"

subsegmentAlignment="true"

bitstreamSwitching="true"

startWithSAP="2"

subsegmentStartsWithSAP="2">

<ContentComponent contentType="video" id="481"/>

<ContentComponent contentType="audio" id="482" lang="en"/>

<ContentComponent contentType="audio" id="483" Iang = "es"/>

<BaseURL>SomeEvent/</BaseURL>

<SegmentTemplate

media="$RepresentationlD$_$Number%05d$.ts"

index="$RepresentationlD$.sidx"

initialization="$RepresentationlD$-init.ts"

bitstreamSwitching="$RepresentationlD$-bssw.ts

"duration="4"/>

<Representation id="1400kbps" bandwidth="1540000" width="960"

height="544"/>

Representation id="2700kbps" bandwidth="2970000" width="1280"

height="720"/>

</AdaptationSet>

</Period>

<!— Following period of 20 seconds using media stream of camera 2 ->

<Period id="1" duration="PT20S">

<BaseURL>http://camera2.example.com/</BaseURL>

<AdaptationSet

mimeType="video/mp2t"

codecs="avc1.4D401F,mp4a"

frameRate="24000/1001"

segmentAlignment="true"

subsegmentAlignment="true"

bitstreamSwitching="true"

startWithSAP="2"

subsegmentStartsWithSAP="2">

<ContentComponent contentType="video" id="481"/>

<ContentComponent contentType="audio" id="482" lang="en"/>

<ContentComponent contentType="audio" id="483" lang="es"/>

<BaseURL>SomeEvent/</BaseURL>

<SegmentTemplate

media="$RepresentationlD$_$Number%05d$.ts"

index="$RepresentationlD$.sidx"

initialization="$RepresentationlD$-init.ts"

bitstreamSwitching="$RepresentationlD$-bssw.ts"

duration="4"/>

<Representation id="1400kbps" bandwidth="1540000" width="960"

height="544"/>

<Representation id="2700kbps" bandwidth="2970000" width="1280"

height="720"/>

</AdaptationSet>

</Period>

</MPD>.

It should be noted that the possible shortcoming including the appropriately selected inventory of fragment can be its size, because when Between section shorter, need statement Period(Time period)Element is more, and therefore, the size of inventory is bigger.

In order to prevent described size from becoming too big, the single time can be stated for each stream source (for example, for each photographing unit) Section, provides other attribute, this other attribute definition will select multiple intervals in stream source during it simultaneously.For example, As the modification to MPEG-DASH standard ,@startInterval and@can be introduced in the following way in Period element DurationInterval attribute:

<Period id="1" startlnterval="PT0S,PT40S"

durationlnterval="PT30S,PT30S"">

<BaseURL>http://camera1.example.com/</BaseURL>

<AdaptationSet

(...)

</AdaptationSet>

</Period>

<Period id="2"

startlnterval="PT30S,PT70S"

durationlnterval="PT10S,PT30S">

<BaseURL>http://camera2.example.com/</BaseURL>

<AdaptationSet

(...)

</AdaptationSet>

</Period>.

It should be noted that in the example of above and below, for the simple reasons,(One or more) Each attribute of AdapationSet is omitted.Modification described above is related to by@startInterval and@ Multiple beginnings and duration value is specified to define multiple time intervals within the time period in durationInterval attribute, by This substantially defines the sub- time period.In addition to representing the different time interval that will select (different) stream sources during it, this Seed time section shares all properties of described time period.

Another probability can be:Using SegmentTimeline element, this element enables MPD author to describe The discontinuity of the timeline of the Representation in Period.So, there may be for the statement of each stream source Period and AdaptationSet, and different SegmentTimeline elements can be stated with fixed according to AdaptationSet The time interval of their coverings of justice.

Another possibility is that and use reference element.These are normally used for through xlink (referring to http://www.w3.org/ TR/xlink/) it is linked to remote document so that for example using the AdaptationSet filling MPD included in outside MPD.This The conception of species can be expanded or be reused in order to for example refer in the following way local element:

<Period id="1" start="PT0S" duration="PT30S">

<BaseURL>http://camera1.example.com/</BaseURL>

<AdaptationSet

(...)

</AdaptationSet>

</Period>

<Period id="2" xlink:href="#1" start="PT40S" duration="PT30S">

[here, it will replicate every thing from the Period of id=1]

</Period>.

Another possible shortcoming including the appropriately selected inventory of fragment can be:May need the frequent updating of MPD with Just end-to-end delay is restricted to acceptable level.Here, end-to-end delay is true by the time period being covered by MPD at least in part Fixed, because when MPD covers the content of 1 minute, being presented at least using " live " that the streaming client computer of MPD lags behind event 1 minute.Therefore, by total presentative time of MPD is restricted to acceptable length (for example, 20 seconds or less), end pair can be reduced End postpones.Need frequent MPD to update in order to avoid in the case of covering shorter time section in MPD, can select outside MPD Streaming source, so that MPD writing selects independent of stream source.

For example, as it is known that produce the title of fragment in URL using template mechanism, see, for example, SegmentTemplate unit Element.This conception of species for example can be extended to BaseURL in the following way:

<Period id="1">

<BaseURL>http://camera1.example.com/$AdaptationSetlD$/</BaseURL>

<AdaptationSet id="camera1"

(...)

</AdaptationSet>

<AdaptationSet id="camera2"

(...)

</AdaptationSet>

</Period>.

In this scheme, streaming client computer can receive current recommendation through signaling channel and (for example, provide most suitable matter Amount) AdaptationSetld, so that streaming client computer is switched between Liu Yuan.It is given in void value and spread In the case of defeated client computer, it can begin at arbitrary value.

Another probability can be:One Period element can state all AdaptationSet (that is, for all streams Transmission sources).Streaming client computer can with after through signaling channel receive with regard to selecting the recommendation of which AdaptationSet.

It should be noted that generally, in addition to one or more quality scores, data is selected to may also include for making stream The related information that quality score can be associated by transmission client computer with the plurality of stream source.Additionally, processing subsystem can be configured For:In generation selection data, the quality score between the concurrent part and selected part of described previous Media Stream Difference keeps the previous selection of one of the plurality of Media Stream Media Stream when being less than quality threshold.So, quality score The shortcoming that can be confirmed as no more than being switched to the fragment from different media flows may be increased.Similarly, when concurrent part When length is less than length threshold, described previous selection can be kept.

It should be noted that above example is related to the Media Stream split.However, the present invention can be similarly applied to presumptuously The Media Stream cutting.The Media Stream of the divisible this segmentation of processing subsystem.Alternatively, can be based between different from aforementioned segment by segment Switching at runtime between degree execution Media Stream.For example, can for example pass through image sets (GOP) be spaced start switch stream come Coding decoder level executes switching at runtime, and described GOP interval starts from the frame of video that can independently decode (generally H.264/ It is referred to as l- frame or referred to as every IDR frame) in MPEG-4 AVC.Although it should be noted that Media Stream is divided, can perform this Switching.Therefore, described switching can be executed in concurrent fragment (that is, during concurrent fragment).

Another optional aspect of the present invention is related to following situation:Determine select which fragment when, except the plurality of Quality score it is also contemplated that(One or more)The ingress bandwidth in streaming source(ingress bandwidth).This makes it possible to Select such fragment:Given(One or more)The ingress bandwidth in streaming source, this fragment provides to streaming client computer and closes Suitable quality.Therefore, if various flows transmission sources are shared public network and connected, can be for example by of a relatively high quality be obtained It is dispatched to be streamed to(One or more)The fragment of other streaming client computer is come most preferably using receiving connection Limited capacity.Another advantage can be:This system can use(One or more)The knowledge of the ingress bandwidth in streaming source in case Only select(One or more)The following fragment in streaming source:Described fragment can not be streamed to spread because bandwidth limits Defeated client computer.

Additionally or instead, when select fragment when it is contemplated that(One or more)The available bandwidth of streaming client computer. This optional aspect is based on the recognition:When streaming client computer has limited bandwidth availability and is spread using self adaptation During defeated basis, streaming client computer will be usually switched into expression (for example, the low bandwidth and therefore low having compared with low bit rate Quality image stream).However, this expressing possibility has such low quality so that it may be no longer appropriate for presenting, that is, provide negative Consumer's Experience.In the case of there are multiple replacement records of event, it may is that:Although having identical bit Rate, but different record provides different quality.This is equally applicable to relatively low bit rate, for example, be applied to 500 kbit/s' Video bitrate.Therefore, when the reduction due to available bandwidth has to switch over different media flows, from the difference record of event Fragment is selected to be probably beneficial.For example, first-class source can provide first Media Stream of 500 kbit/s, described first Media Stream Fragment " 10 " be assigned quality score 1 (1 points in 5 points).Additionally, second source also can provide the second of 500 kbit/s Media Stream, the fragment " 10 " of described second Media Stream has been assigned quality score 2 (2 points in 5 points).When may be currently right The streaming client computer that the Media Stream of 1000 kbit/s carries out streaming needs when being switched to lower quality after fragment " 9 ", It may be selected the fragment " 10 " in second source, because this has been assigned the high quality of concurrent fragment " 10 " than the correspondence in first-class source Score.Therefore, generally, can comparison based on the plurality of quality score and streaming to the selection in one of the plurality of stream source Comparison between the bit rate of the available bandwidth of client computer and respective media stream.

It should be noted that being typically chosen the attribute that data may include stream source or recording equipment, such as position data, take To data etc..These attributes may be obtained as the metadata of artesian spring, and can by streaming client computer using with Just for example allow the viewer to enough execute in the case of the streaming client computer being forwarded to observer more than a Media Stream into The personal selection of one step.

It is also to be noted that quality evaluation functions also are included within stream from body.Therefore, stream source can perform quality Assessment, and for example by adding metadata to Media Stream itself, the quality score being obtained is supplied to described system. Therefore, can be(One or more)Stream source rather than execution quality evaluation at described system.

Additionally, stream source can be expressed as follows the source of items:Live stream, on demand stream or the two combination.Therefore, built by described system Vertical streaming presents and may include from the fragment of this live stream and from the fragment that flows on demand.This can allow for example instant Playback.

It is also to be noted that generally, the present invention can be used for setting up N number of difference streaming based on M different media flows Present, described N number of difference streaming present and have for example N number of Media Stream, N number of difference form such as playlists, and wherein N is less than M. The quantity that this may enable to input medium stream reduces.

Fig. 8 illustrates another optional aspect of the present invention, and wherein it illustrates for enabling the customer to provide with regard to feeling The feedback of quality feedback mechanism, thus promote quality evaluation functions.Here, (live) spreads the initial inspection person of transfer session Can provide with regard to the implicit of the quality felt or clearly feed back 240.For example, if quality evaluation is not yet performed (in fig. 8 Fragment instruction by dotted line) or if the selection to fragment obtaining from quality evaluation functions is suboptimum, then feed back 240 energy Enough it is used for improving described selection.In the example of fig. 8, by user clearly (for example, by being provided by streaming client computer Evaluation mechanism) or impliedly (for example, different media flows are temporarily asked by user) by fragment S13It is assessed as that there is bad matter Measure and this point to be shown.Therefore, it is possible to make this system recognize fragment S13There is bad quality.This system can be subsequently to one or many Individual replacement fragment (for example, fragment S23) execution quality evaluation, thus this fragment is assessed as " medium ".Alternatively, this system can Select fragment S23And do not execute evaluation.Therefore, transfer session is spread for subsequent, be alternative in fragment S13, this system may be selected piece Section S23So that during the streaming being included in event presents.It will be understood that, this feedback can adopt various other forms, and Can be used in every way.For example, this system can be learnt from described feedback, for example, by changing quality evaluation functions Or the weight between different functions.This system it is also possible to use described feedback and carrys out invalid quality evaluation functions.Another example is:Described Feedback can be used for making described selection personalized.

Fig. 9 illustrates a kind of method for providing the streaming of event to present for streaming client computer.Method 200 can correspond to Operation in the system according to the present invention.However, this is not to limit, because can be for example in different system or according to distributed yet Mode dividually executes method 200.

In the step of entitled " acquisition source data ", method 200 includes obtaining 210 source datas from the plurality of stream source, Source data is made up of the content-data of concurrent part of the plurality of Media Stream and/or metadata, and concurrent part represents event Concurrent time section.In the step of entitled " quality evaluation functions are applied to source data ", method 200 is also included at least one Individual quality evaluation functions application 220 thus sets up multiple quality in source data so that quality score is dispatched to each concurrent part Score.In the step of entitled " produce select data ", method 200 also includes producing 230 selection data and is used for making streaming Client computer be able to access that respective media stream concurrent partly in selected part, the ratio based on the plurality of quality score Relatively select described selected part.

It will be understood that, the method according to the invention can be realized according to the form of computer program, described computer program bag Include for making processor system execute the instruction of methods described.Methods described is also implemented in specialized hardware, or is embodied as Combinations of the above.

Described computer program can be stored on a computer-readable medium in non-transient mode.Described non-transient storage can Including providing a series of machine readable physical markings and/or there is different electrically (for example, magnetic) or optical property or the one of value be Row element.Figure 10 illustrates computer program, and described computer program includes computer-readable medium 260 and is stored in Computer program 250 on computer-readable medium 260.The example of computer program includes storage device, optical storage Device, integrated circuit, server, online software etc..

It should be noted that above-described embodiment explanation present invention, and the unrestricted present invention, and those skilled in the art will Can design many alternate embodiments.

In the claims, any reference markss being placed between bracket are not necessarily to be construed as limiting claim.Dynamic Word " inclusion " and its deformation use be not excluded for element or step except stating in the claims in addition to element or step Presence.Article "a" or "an" before element is not excluded for the presence of multiple this elements.Can be several by including The hardware of the different elements and present invention is realized by the computer suitably programming.Enumerating the device right of several equipment In requirement, several in these equipment can be realized by same item hardware.Only describe in mutually different dependent claims The fact that some measures does not indicate that can not be valuably using the combination of these measures.

Claims (17)

1. a kind of system for providing the streaming of event to present for streaming client computer, has passed through in the difference representing event Between multiple Media Streams of record, dynamically switching presents obtaining streaming, can access the plurality of matchmaker from accordingly multiple stream sources Body stream, and described system includes:
- input, for obtaining source data from the plurality of stream source, source data by the plurality of Media Stream concurrent part content Data and/or metadata are constituted, and concurrent part represents the concurrent time section of event;
- processing subsystem, is arranged to:
I) at least one quality evaluation functions is applied to source data so that quality score is dispatched to each concurrent part, thus builds Found multiple quality scores;And
Ii) produce select data be used for making streaming client computer be able to access that respective media stream concurrent partly in selected Part, the comparison based on the plurality of quality score select described selected part.
2. the system as claimed in claim 1, wherein provides inventory to described streaming client computer, and described inventory is included for making Streaming client computer is able to access that the address information in the plurality of stream source, and wherein
- described system is also included for providing the client interface selecting data to streaming client computer;And
- select data to be produced by processing subsystem to enable streaming client computer to select the plurality of stream source from inventory The stream source of the access to described selected part is provided.
3. system as claimed in claim 2, wherein said selection data includes at least a portion of the plurality of quality score.
4. system as claimed in claim 3, wherein said processing subsystem is arranged to:
I) described quality score is formatted as metadata streams;
Ii) address information is included in inventory to make streaming client computer be able to access that metadata streams.
5. system as claimed in claim 3, wherein said client interface is arranged to through signaling channel to streaming visitor Family machine provides and selects data.
6. the system as any one of claim 3 to 5, wherein said selection data is also included for making streaming visitor The related information that described quality score can be associated by family machine with the plurality of stream source.
7. the system as claimed in claim 1, wherein said processing subsystem is arranged to produce and is used for streaming client computer Inventory, described inventory includes playlist, and described playlist identifies for the respective streams source quilt from the plurality of stream source The different piece of the plurality of Media Stream continuously accessing, selects at least in described different piece based on selection data Individual part.
8. system as claimed in claim 7, wherein said processing subsystem is arranged to update for new concurrent part Inventory.
9. the system as any one of claim 1 to 8, wherein said processing subsystem is arranged to:Following In the case of keep previous selection to one of the plurality of Media Stream Media Stream when producing and selecting data:
The difference of the quality score between the concurrent part of-described previous Media Stream and described selected part is less than quality threshold Value;Or
The length of-concurrent part is less than length threshold.
10. the system as any one of claim 1 to 9, wherein said multiple Media Streams include one or more points Cut Media Stream, and wherein concurrent part is made up of the concurrent fragment of one or more of segmentation Media Streams at least in part.
11. systems as any one of claim 1 to 10, are configured to operations described below and come as streaming Agency between client computer and the plurality of stream source:
I) the concurrent part of the plurality of Media Stream is received from the plurality of stream source;And
Ii) described selected part is sent to streaming client computer.
12. systems as claimed in claim 11, wherein receive at least one of the plurality of Media Stream with non-segmentation form Media Stream, and wherein said processing subsystem is arranged to split described Media Stream.
13. systems as any one of claim 1 to 12, are wherein based on and have first water and obtain among concurrent part Point described selected partly to select described selected part.
A kind of 14. streaming client computer using for the system as any one of claim 1 to 6, wherein said stream Transmission client computer is arranged to obtain inventory, and described inventory is included for making streaming client computer be able to access that the plurality of stream The address information in source, described streaming client computer also includes:
- input, selects data for receiving from described system;With
- processing subsystem, is configured to:
I) it is based on and selects data, the stream of the access to described selected part for the offer the plurality of stream source is provided from inventory Source;And
Ii) access described selected part from described streaming source.
A kind of 15. inventories for streaming client computer, described inventory includes address information, and address information is used for making streaming visitor Family machine is able to access that the selection data being produced by the system as any one of claim 2 to 4.
A kind of 16. methods for providing the streaming of event to present for streaming client computer, have passed through representing event not To obtain streaming with dynamically switching between multiple Media Streams of record to present, can access from accordingly multiple stream sources the plurality of Media Stream, and methods described includes:
- obtain source data from the plurality of stream source, source data by the plurality of Media Stream concurrent part content-data and/or Metadata is constituted, and concurrent part represents the concurrent time section of event;
- at least one quality evaluation functions is applied to source data so that quality score is dispatched to each concurrent part, thus build Found multiple quality scores;And
- produce select data be used for making streaming client computer be able to access that respective media stream concurrent partly in selected portion Point, the comparison based on the plurality of quality score selects described selected part.
A kind of 17. computer programs, including for making processing system execute the instruction of method as claimed in claim 16.
CN201580017033.XA 2014-01-29 2015-01-27 Establishing a streaming presentation of an event CN106464925A (en)

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KR102009124B1 (en) 2019-08-08
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US20190273960A1 (en) 2019-09-05
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