CN106346734A - Extruder and extrusion process and system thereof - Google Patents

Extruder and extrusion process and system thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106346734A
CN106346734A CN201610772869.7A CN201610772869A CN106346734A CN 106346734 A CN106346734 A CN 106346734A CN 201610772869 A CN201610772869 A CN 201610772869A CN 106346734 A CN106346734 A CN 106346734A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
machine barrel
screw
extruder
machine
screw rod
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Granted
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CN201610772869.7A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN106346734B (en
Inventor
黄愔
江建平
潘家芳
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CHINA CHEMICAL GUILIN ENGINEERING Co Ltd
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CHINA CHEMICAL GUILIN ENGINEERING Co Ltd
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Publication of CN106346734A publication Critical patent/CN106346734A/en
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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C48/00Extrusion moulding, i.e. expressing the moulding material through a die or nozzle which imparts the desired form; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C48/25Component parts, details or accessories; Auxiliary operations
    • B29C48/285Feeding the extrusion material to the extruder
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29BPREPARATION OR PRETREATMENT OF THE MATERIAL TO BE SHAPED; MAKING GRANULES OR PREFORMS; RECOVERY OF PLASTICS OR OTHER CONSTITUENTS OF WASTE MATERIAL CONTAINING PLASTICS
    • B29B7/00Mixing; Kneading
    • B29B7/30Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices
    • B29B7/58Component parts, details or accessories; Auxiliary operations
    • B29B7/72Measuring, controlling or regulating
    • B29B7/728Measuring data of the driving system, e.g. torque, speed, power, vibration
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29BPREPARATION OR PRETREATMENT OF THE MATERIAL TO BE SHAPED; MAKING GRANULES OR PREFORMS; RECOVERY OF PLASTICS OR OTHER CONSTITUENTS OF WASTE MATERIAL CONTAINING PLASTICS
    • B29B7/00Mixing; Kneading
    • B29B7/30Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices
    • B29B7/34Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices
    • B29B7/38Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices rotary
    • B29B7/46Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices rotary with more than one shaft
    • B29B7/48Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices rotary with more than one shaft with intermeshing devices, e.g. screws
    • B29B7/484Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices rotary with more than one shaft with intermeshing devices, e.g. screws with two shafts provided with screws, e.g. one screw being shorter than the other
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29BPREPARATION OR PRETREATMENT OF THE MATERIAL TO BE SHAPED; MAKING GRANULES OR PREFORMS; RECOVERY OF PLASTICS OR OTHER CONSTITUENTS OF WASTE MATERIAL CONTAINING PLASTICS
    • B29B7/00Mixing; Kneading
    • B29B7/30Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices
    • B29B7/34Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices
    • B29B7/38Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices rotary
    • B29B7/46Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices rotary with more than one shaft
    • B29B7/48Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices rotary with more than one shaft with intermeshing devices, e.g. screws
    • B29B7/488Parts, e.g. casings, sealings; Accessories, e.g. flow controlling or throttling devices
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29BPREPARATION OR PRETREATMENT OF THE MATERIAL TO BE SHAPED; MAKING GRANULES OR PREFORMS; RECOVERY OF PLASTICS OR OTHER CONSTITUENTS OF WASTE MATERIAL CONTAINING PLASTICS
    • B29B7/00Mixing; Kneading
    • B29B7/30Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices
    • B29B7/34Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices
    • B29B7/38Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices rotary
    • B29B7/46Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices rotary with more than one shaft
    • B29B7/48Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices rotary with more than one shaft with intermeshing devices, e.g. screws
    • B29B7/488Parts, e.g. casings, sealings; Accessories, e.g. flow controlling or throttling devices
    • B29B7/489Screws
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29BPREPARATION OR PRETREATMENT OF THE MATERIAL TO BE SHAPED; MAKING GRANULES OR PREFORMS; RECOVERY OF PLASTICS OR OTHER CONSTITUENTS OF WASTE MATERIAL CONTAINING PLASTICS
    • B29B7/00Mixing; Kneading
    • B29B7/30Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices
    • B29B7/58Component parts, details or accessories; Auxiliary operations
    • B29B7/72Measuring, controlling or regulating
    • B29B7/726Measuring properties of mixture, e.g. temperature or density
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29BPREPARATION OR PRETREATMENT OF THE MATERIAL TO BE SHAPED; MAKING GRANULES OR PREFORMS; RECOVERY OF PLASTICS OR OTHER CONSTITUENTS OF WASTE MATERIAL CONTAINING PLASTICS
    • B29B7/00Mixing; Kneading
    • B29B7/74Mixing; Kneading using other mixers or combinations of mixers, e.g. of dissimilar mixers ; Plant
    • B29B7/7476Systems, i.e. flow charts or diagrams; Plants
    • B29B7/7495Systems, i.e. flow charts or diagrams; Plants for mixing rubber
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C48/00Extrusion moulding, i.e. expressing the moulding material through a die or nozzle which imparts the desired form; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C48/25Component parts, details or accessories; Auxiliary operations
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C48/00Extrusion moulding, i.e. expressing the moulding material through a die or nozzle which imparts the desired form; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C48/25Component parts, details or accessories; Auxiliary operations
    • B29C48/255Flow control means, e.g. valves
    • B29C48/2552Flow control means, e.g. valves provided in the feeding, melting, plasticising or pumping zone, e.g. screw, barrel, gear-pump or ram
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C48/00Extrusion moulding, i.e. expressing the moulding material through a die or nozzle which imparts the desired form; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C48/25Component parts, details or accessories; Auxiliary operations
    • B29C48/36Means for plasticising or homogenising the moulding material or forcing it through the nozzle or die
    • B29C48/375Plasticisers, homogenisers or feeders comprising two or more stages
    • B29C48/385Plasticisers, homogenisers or feeders comprising two or more stages using two or more serially arranged screws in separate barrels
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C48/00Extrusion moulding, i.e. expressing the moulding material through a die or nozzle which imparts the desired form; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C48/25Component parts, details or accessories; Auxiliary operations
    • B29C48/36Means for plasticising or homogenising the moulding material or forcing it through the nozzle or die
    • B29C48/375Plasticisers, homogenisers or feeders comprising two or more stages
    • B29C48/387Plasticisers, homogenisers or feeders comprising two or more stages using a screw extruder and a gear pump
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C48/00Extrusion moulding, i.e. expressing the moulding material through a die or nozzle which imparts the desired form; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C48/25Component parts, details or accessories; Auxiliary operations
    • B29C48/36Means for plasticising or homogenising the moulding material or forcing it through the nozzle or die
    • B29C48/375Plasticisers, homogenisers or feeders comprising two or more stages
    • B29C48/39Plasticisers, homogenisers or feeders comprising two or more stages a first extruder feeding the melt into an intermediate location of a second extruder
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29BPREPARATION OR PRETREATMENT OF THE MATERIAL TO BE SHAPED; MAKING GRANULES OR PREFORMS; RECOVERY OF PLASTICS OR OTHER CONSTITUENTS OF WASTE MATERIAL CONTAINING PLASTICS
    • B29B7/00Mixing; Kneading
    • B29B7/80Component parts, details or accessories; Auxiliary operations
    • B29B7/86Component parts, details or accessories; Auxiliary operations for working at sub- or superatmospheric pressure

Abstract

The invention discloses an extruder which comprises a feeding device, a conveying device and a discharging device, wherein the feeding device comprises a feeding hopper and a mixing chamber; the conveying device at least comprises two cylinder sets; the cylinder sets are arranged in parallel; at least one group of material conveying mechanisms are arranged in each cylinder set; each cylinder set is communicated with the mixing chamber of the feeding device; feedback channels communicated with each other are formed among the cylinder sets; and due to the feedback channels, circulating material flow channels can be formed among the cylinder sets and between each cylinder set and the mixing chamber. According to the invention, processes of feedback and circulation, intermittent cycle and parallel extrusion in the same direction can be formed; and moreover, different continuous material extrusion systems can be formed according to extruders adopted in different processes.

Description

A kind of extruder and its expressing technique and system
Technical field
The present invention relates to the correlative technology field of application Screw Extrusion machining materials, such as rubber, plastics, food, building materials, The material mixing of the industries such as fuel, pulverizing, heating, reaction, molding, especially application screw extruder processing rubber, plastic collar Domain, specially a kind of extruder and its expressing technique and system.
Background technology
Screw extruder has the characteristics that mixing, dispersion, pulverizing, conveying and the extrusion of serialization, and especially single screw rod is squeezed Go out machine and have the characteristics that structure is simple, low cost, easy care, apply in rubber, plastic applications quite varied.But single screw rod is squeezed Go out machine extremely limited to the shearing of material and pultrusion active force, in the machine barrel of finite length and very short being difficult to by the time Complete the processing request to material.If the length of increase screw rod and machine barrel is although the process time to material can be extended, but It is the processing of long screw rod, ensures that very high glacing flatness and stability have larger difficulty in installation and operation, be also just difficult to Ensure the gap very little of screw rod and machine barrel, gap increases and will substantially reduce the shear strength to material and production capacity, the rocking of screw rod Screw rod also can be accelerated and machine barrel damages, increase the gap of screw rod and machine barrel further, lead to the disabler of extruder.
There are multiple screw rod rotations can improve the processing effect to material in finite length in a machine barrel, for example double Screw extruder, three-screw extruder, planet (going in ring) screw extruder of more multiscrew are in length similar to single screw extrusion machine The working ability to material can be significantly improved in degree and time.Increase screw rod and the diameter of machine barrel can also significantly improve to material Working ability, such as conical double screw extruder can increase the time of staying in machine barrel for the material and the active force being subject to. In order in limited screw rod and barrel length and limited by the time in complete the processing request to material, the structure of screw flight Type has decisive role.Therefore, various types of screw extruders all extremely focus on the research to screw rod itself, improve screw rod Various working abilities, define strengthening shearing, mediate, stretching, conveying various complex configurations and its unit combination.But Some application scenarios, the strong screw rod of function can not solve the problems, such as to be brought with extrusion machining materials, and causes these to ask The principal element of topic is:
1st, all screw extruders can only be extruded forward at present, and the material gone up axially along a screw cannot be mutually mixed in front and back.
2nd, in screw configuration, screw rod and barrel diameter/length one timing, material is subject to active force and effect in extruder Time is restricted by screw speed, head resistance, extrusion flow, radiating condition.This two features make current Screw Extrusion Machine to meet technique and performance requirement, especially will meet processing performance with control time and require to the difficult processing of some materials Materials processing.In this case, can not only strengthen the active force to material and just can complete to material at short notice The processing request of material, but it has to be ensured that certain process time.Taking the processing of rubber for tire as a example, for example:
1., the mixing of white carbon and rubber needs to add silane coupler, silane coupler elder generation and white carbon surface chemistry Reaction, could be sufficiently mixed with rubber after coupling, reach enhancing rubber effect.This process is not dependent on screw rod to material Active force, and depend primarily on temperature and response time, this will ensure that material has certain time of staying in machine barrel.
2., the formula composition of each position rubber of tire is different, and the Mooney viscosity of rubber raw materials has with the place of production, batch difference Change, extrusion capacity changes also with production requirement.These changes all can make the production capacity of extruder and melting effect produce and become Change.And existing screw extruder to the active force of material and is subject to the restriction of screw speed, extrusion flow action time it is impossible to right Screw speed, extrusion flow, the time of staying carry out Independent adjustable.For example, turn it is necessary to improve screw rod to improve mixing intensity Speed, but the shorter residence time of material, extrusion flow is consequently increased;To extend the time of staying it is necessary to reduce screw speed, But screw rod declines to the shearing mixing intensity of material, and extrusion flow also reduces therewith.No matter which kind of situation all can not ensure simultaneously The melting effect of material is stablized with extrusion flow.
3. the material mix homogeneously before and after, can not making.This is because the screw flight of rotation can only make material produce edge Axial movement, enters material in rotary moving forward, the material especially solidss in front and back of pressing the arrangement of entry time order of screw channel Material is difficult to be mutually mixed.If material composition in front and back is variant, the material composition of extrusion would not be uniform.Existing screw rod squeezes Go out the positive displacement direction that the spiral of the screw rod of machine produces both facing to a direction, i.e. material outlet direction, axially along a screw apart The material of position is difficult to be mutually mixed farther out, and therefore, radially the material on each section averagely forms substantially entrance machine Material during cylinder averagely forms, the uniformity to extruded material for the uniformity that batch ingredients when loading hopper enters machine barrel are distributed There is decisive influence.Add process with each component during extrusion machining rubber for tire it is difficult to ensure that entering during machine barrel at present The uniformity of each component distribution, main cause is:
A the physical dimension of (), rubber and other auxiliary agents differs greatly.Because rubber is in malleable solid at normal temperatures, difficult To be broken into the powder of small particle, even if making powdery or fine particle shape in advance, under external force and the effect of itself viscosity flow property Bulk can be again fused into.So larger blob of viscose feeding typically used by extruder, and the auxiliary agent jointly kneading with rubber is in mostly Powder such as white carbon black, white carbon, vulcanizing agent, age resistor etc..When they press formula ratio preliminary mixing in hopper, easily concentrate In the surface and gap of local block rubber, stir difficult to reach in mixing simply, in short time and be uniformly distributed.
B (), phase are different.Some auxiliary agents be in liquid such as aromatic naphtha, coupling agent etc., when they press formula ratio in hopper at the beginning of Can trickle to the congregate of hopper during step mixing, when simple, short, stirring mixing can not possibly reach uniform distribution.
C (), consumption and volume differ greatly.There are the little component of a lot of consumptions such as vulcanizing agent, rush in tire rubber formulations Enter agent, age resistor etc., consumption only has the 1% about of rubber, but tyre performance is had a major impact, when they press formula ratio in material It is difficult to reach uniform distribution when mixing in short time with the rubber of larger particles in bucket.
D (), cold feeding are poor to material premixing effect in loading hopper.The material of multiple different phases will uniformly mix, Have to constantly have new interface to generate under agitation.But current screw extruder processing rubber mainly adopts cold feeding, chill Even if niggerhead have in loading hopper stirring also because of the new boundary of difficult to form, the mixing with powdery, liquid material is difficult to Reach uniform distribution.
E mixing power that in (), loading hopper, material is subject to is less, the direction dimension of power is few and action time is shorter.Material exists More uniform distribution is reached, material has to be acted on by stronger, multi-dimensional direction in wanting the short period in loading hopper mixing Power, and have longer stop to stir incorporation time.But in the loading hopper of current screw extruder, material can only be in screw rod Motion under radial rotating and vertically extrusion direction move, enter screw channel material only can be moved along and enter machine barrel, thing In loading hopper, the time of staying is short and lacks before and after's immixture power for material.
F (), material enter the instability of flow of machine barrel.In loading hopper there is larger space in larger particles solid material, enters The material entering in screw channel comprises air, so that screw channel can not be adequately filled up.Mixing process high temperature causes volatile material to steam Gas also produces bubble.These bubbles and material together move axially along a screw, radial direction between spiral shell rib and machine tube inner wall for the material The effect of shearing mixing will be greatly reduced.These bubbles number and be typically of size of change at random, therefore screw mixing Material radial direction there is also inhomogeneities.
It is uneven that above-mentioned principal element causes before and after loading hopper enters the material composition distribution of machine barrel.Work as material It is not reaching to more uniform distribution in loading hopper, after entering machine barrel, major part will not have an opportunity to mix with the material before and after it again Close, cause the inhomogeneities of each component or time dependent inhomogeneities axially along a screw.Even if the plasticizing of strengthening screw rod With mixed function also can only screw rod axially or radially before and after improve uniformity in very narrow scope it is impossible to long-time in front and back, Strengthen the uniformity of material mixing over long distances.Because screw rod can not knead material in front and back, the material that charging is conflicted internally is in the machine of entrance Priority inhomogeneities during cylinder just determine the priority inhomogeneities of mixing material.Therefore, when in loading hopper, material enters machine barrel Distributing homogeneity be to affect one of most important factor of existing screw extruder extruded material uniformity.
In sum, existing screw extruder as main during continuous mixing extrusion equipment there is the problem that
1st, charging inhomogeneities and in loading hopper, immixture power is little and active force dimension is few, mixing produce new interface Few, incorporation time is short to cause the material skewness entering machine barrel.
2nd, the material entering in machine barrel can not be mutually mixed under screw rod rotation propulsion in front and back.
3rd, mixing intensity, mixing time and extrusion yield both depend on this factor of screw speed, produce keeping extrusion On the premise of amount is stable, mixing intensity or mixing time are unable to independent control, and causing can not be by improving mixing intensity or prolongation Mixing time is improving the mixing uniformity of material.
Therefore existing screw extruder and conventional calendering process are difficult to meet the mixing of high uniformity, dispersion, plasticizing are processed Require.
In order to improve the mixing dispersing uniformity of existing screw extruder, each component physical dimension of raw material should be close, example As using the powder rubber close with fleut, and scattered with microcomponent premixing after add extruder plus Hopper can improve the uniformity of each component of extruded material.But the preparation of powdered rubber, transport, storage is all pretty troublesome, and easily Raise in ambient temperature and have from glutinous in bulk under external pressure, powder is very unstable, especially for natural rubber.In addition, each group The premixing dispersing technology dividing is intermittent technique, can not eliminate the inhomogeneities existing between different mixing batches.
The current each component of rubber for tire that improves mixes dispersing uniformity and meets the most viable and reliable of rubber plasticizing requirement Technique be that refining glue is come using banbury or mill.Such technique is not harsher to the physics of each component and geometry state Require, as long as feeding order and refining glue time meet technological requirement and final material inhomogeneities will not be impacted.But banburying Machine or mill rubber mixing technique are intermittent rubber mixing techniques, and single device does not enable serialization processing request, realize continuous Change the control technique that multiple stage and plurality of devices collaborative work and its complexity are wanted in processing.And with tire yield rapid growth and life The continuous improvement producing efficiency also brings many other problemses.For example, the production capacity of banbury improves constantly, and single batch kneads material Amount is increasing, and it is huge to bring power consumption, and caloric value is big and the time concentrates, the cooling area of unit volume material Decline, material temperature rise is fast, the problem that mixing time shortens;The mixing activated interface of mill is only limited to the phase tangent plane of two cylinders, Production efficiency is very low, and the problem of environment is polluted in unlimited work;Different batches mixing difference and material are repeatedly stored transport and are asked Topic;The problems such as equipment investment and land seizure are larger.
Content of the invention
The patent application that the applicant proposes, mainly solves the problems, such as prior art:
1st, the screw speed of the existing screw extruder of solution, the time of staying, extrusion flow can not be wanted according to material and technique Ask independent regulation problem and the immiscible problem of forward and backward material to a wide range.
2nd, improve each component of material in the loading hopper of existing screw extruder and mix problem of non-uniform before entering machine barrel Enter the problem that has some setbacks of machine barrel with relatively large material.
3rd, improve the homogeneity question that existing screw extruder kneads material.
The 4 existing rubber mixing equipments of solution are unable to continuous mixing and continuously extrude problem, and improve its low production efficiency, consumption Electrical power is big, radiating is bad, temperature rise is fast, mixing batch problem of non-uniform.
5th, reducing energy consumption and water consume.
Can solve the problem that a kind of extruder of above-mentioned technical problem, its technical scheme mainly include feeding device, conveyer device, Drawing mechanism, feeding device is provided with loading hopper and mixing chamber, except that described conveyer device at least includes two machine barrel groups, Arranged in parallel between each machine barrel group, there are more than one group material conveying mechanism, each machine barrel group and feeding device in each machine barrel group Mixing chamber connection, there is between each machine barrel group the feedback channel being interconnected, described feedback channel make between each machine barrel group with And the material flow passage of circulation between each machine barrel group and mixing chamber, can be formed.
Described machine barrel group can be made up of a machine barrel, or is connected in series by several machine barrels.
Described material conveying mechanism includes a screw rod or several screw rod, shearing dispersal unit and/or screw rod and shearing point The combination of throwaway unit;Each screw rod can mutually work in coordination with rotation independently rotated or in the same direction or reversely rotate.
Described material conveying mechanism includes the combination of a screw rod or several screw rod, each screw rod can mutually work in coordination with rotation or Independently rotated or in the same direction or reversely rotate.
Described machine barrel is machine barrel or isodiametric machine barrel, the diameter of screw rod supporting with it and the length of different-diameter Accordingly equal or different.
The end of described screw rod is by being connected with bearing, bearing and machine barrel and/or be connected with frame and be supported.
It is provided with control material flow area size and the mechanism of opening and closing in described feedback channel, for example can be using control The feedback channel valve of material circulation.
Described drawing mechanism is discharging controller, shearing dispersal unit, filter element, constant-current control unit, head mouth One of them or its two or more combination of mould.
A kind of structure of described shearing dispersal unit includes more than one group alternate annulus and disk, the outside of described annulus Edge is connected with machine tube inner wall, and middle looping pit can allow the axle of screw rod and material pass through;The center of circle of described disk and screw rod Axle be connected, the outward flange of disk can allow material pass through, and the gap between each annulus and disk is fixing and/or adjustable Section, for bright finish or is had groove or has fin on the surface of the annulus being contacted with material and/or disk.
Described is the mechanism controlling discharging to circulate cross-sectional sizes and opening and closing for discharging controller, such as discharge valve.
Described filter element is the porous material of network-like structure, only allows to pass through less than the material in aperture.
Described constant-current control unit is smelt gear pump, or is screw pump, or is turbine and worm mechanism.
Described machine head port mould is the runner of material, one of them or their combination of pre-die, the shape of the mouth as one speaks.
Described drawing mechanism at least one or more than two, is arranged at the end of machine barrel or near end and/or machine barrel In any position in outside.
The parallel be set with form of two machine barrel groups has: mutually horizontal be set with, or vertical be set with up and down, or tilted upward row Put.
Described machine barrel inner chamber or smooth or have groove or have the pin stretching into cylinder lumen.
Indoor the including at least of described mixing has two screw rods being connected through mixing chamber bottom, spiral shell therein with Qu Ji mechanism Bar can be mutually ratcheting or non-ratcheting.
Using a kind of feedback and the circulation expressing technique of above-mentioned extruder, its extrusion method is: by material from feeding device Loading hopper put into, material pass through conveyer device feeding device mixing indoor preliminary mix after, deliver into one of them The machine barrel of the conveyer device containing positive extrusion, by adjusting positive displacement constant-current control unit, make a part of material in proportion from The discharging opening of drawing mechanism is discharged, and another part material delivers into containing reversely squeezing by the feedback channel between two machine barrels The machine barrel of the conveyer device going out, returns to the mixing chamber of feeding device, converges with the new material adding from loading hopper, through charging The mixing chamber of device conveys and is mixed in the machine barrel of the conveyer device containing positive extrusion, and so circulation formation is continuously anti- Feedback circulation extrusion.
Using another kind of intermittent cyclic expressing technique of above-mentioned extruder, its extrusion method is: by the discharging of drawing mechanism Mouth is first closed, and material is from the continuous input of loading hopper until full of all machine barrel groups, material is mutually being interconnected by material conveying mechanism Logical machine barrel group, feedback channel and feeding device internal circulation flow, after continuous circulation certain time, the discharging opening of drawing mechanism is beaten Open, material is discharged from discharging opening.
Using another parallel expressing technique in the same direction of above-mentioned extruder, its extrusion method is: material is thrown from loading hopper Enter, be simultaneously in two machine barrel groups by material conveying mechanism, and conveyed to drawing mechanism direction simultaneously, material from Discharging opening is discharged.
The continuous extrusion system of a kind of material being constituted using above-mentioned extruder and its corresponding expressing technique, is by two Or the serial or parallel connection of several extruders, composition timesharing between, multistage charging tinuous production.
Beneficial effects of the present invention (taking the mixing of rubber as a example):
1st, the circulation in two and above machine barrel by part or all of material, can control thing by controlling feedback proportional Mean residence time in machine barrel for the material.
2nd, the rotating speed improving screw rod can increase the interior circulation flow in machine barrel for the material, strengthens screw rod with machine barrel to material Plasticizing dispersion intensity, but the extrusion flow of material under the control of constant-current control unit such as smelt gear pump, can't be increased, As long as the material positive-displacement that the rotating speed of screw rod produces is more than the flow that constant-current control unit is discharged, the rotating speed of screw rod with respect to Output can independent regulation, enhance the adaptability to different mixing requirement and the technique of the material of capacity requirements for the extruder.
3rd, feedback material is continuously mixed with the material adding new in loading hopper, enables the material that different time adds multiple Repeatedly mix, can eliminate because the material component skewness that adds in front and back even because entering in front and back in screw barrel screw channel The unstable material causing of mass flow uneven.
4th, feedback material is delivered to charging aperture in time the extrusion pressure of screw rod, and the head and end of feedback loop system communicates And communicate with air, maintain relatively low pressure in machine barrel under screw rod high-speed rotation, the low-pressure in machine barrel reduce machine barrel, The temperature rise that screw rod abrasion, friction energy loss, frictional heat cause.
5 compare with the single screw extrusion machine of same diameter with existing equal length, and twin screw double machine barrel shortens single spiral shell The length of bar, improve stability during screw rod high-speed rotation and and its compactness with machine barrel, improve mixing behavior and product Energy.
6th, the outlet of machine barrel material is arranged on the side of cylindricality machine barrel makes the two ends of machine barrel inner screw can pass through axle Hold and fix with machine barrel, improve screw rod high-speed rotation stability and and its compactness with machine barrel, improve mixing behavior and Production capacity.
7th, the thermal material of feedback heats and softens to the new cold material adding in loading hopper, in double spiral shells of conveying relatively It is easier to produce new mixed interface under the stirring immixture of the shearing of bar, tearing and rotation, accelerate material in loading hopper Interior mix homogeneously.
8th, in loading hopper mutually in close proximity to twin screw strength formed to material be engaged, enhancing screw rod will be cold, hard , relatively large material be pressed into the ability of screw channel.
9th, the screw rod rotation of feedback extrusion enhances to material cutting, tearing active force in loading hopper, enhances loading hopper The horizontal rotation of interior material and vertical rotary power, extend stop incorporation time in loading hopper for the material, improve material and exist Mixing uniformity in loading hopper.
10th, the preheating of the thermal material through feedback for the new cold burden adding, shorten solid melting time in machine barrel and Length, is equivalent to effective mixing length of the screw rod that improve in machine barrel, improves screw mixing ability, improves material mixing Uniformity.
11st, the thermal material of feedback extrusion heats cold material in loading hopper, and the thermal material being equivalent to high temperature in machine barrel is drawn Go out machine barrel cooling, loading hopper is equivalent to the effect of cooler, both can reduce the temperature of material in machine barrel, and it is right to be reduced or eliminated again The heating of cold burden, adds the reduced pressure in machine barrel, decreases input and the frictional heat of gross energy, the required cooling water of cooling Corresponding reduce, can significantly energy-saving and water-saving.
12 mixing extruders unidirectional with existing screw rod are compared, and feedback material enables the material successively adding to be mutually mixed, Improve the uniformity of material, extend the time of staying of material, meet the processing request with time control.Screw speed Change does not affect on the flow of discharge gate, therefore can change the rotating speed of screw rod according to the characteristic of material and temperature rise situation, full Foot is with dispersion control or with temperature controlled processing request.
13 compare with existing intermittence mixing equipment, material in multiple machine barrels feedback continuously and circulation process with Circulation in one mixing space has a higher similarity, therefore they knead material uniformity difference less, but continuously Mixing reduces the batch inhomogeneities of intermittence mixing presence, under identical production capacity, mixing material required for the unit interval Volume is greatly decreased, and therefore the electrical power needed for equipment greatly reduces, and the heat that the work(heat effect of unit interval mixing produces is big Big minimizing.The machine barrel Material Filling Ratio of screw extruder is high, unit volume material area of dissipation is big, and cooling water cooling effectiveness is high, So that mixing temperature rise is relatively slow, mixing time is extended.
14th, feedback material makes material have the different time of staying in machine barrel, makes the rubber molecule measurer that mixing goes out There is wide distribution, improve the comprehensive mechanical property of machine-shaping property and product.
15th, need to add the multistage calendering process of different component material mixings in different time, can use accordingly many number of units phase With, similar, different parameters model feedback extruder be combined into continuous mixing production line, the device type of production line subtracts Few, flow process is short, compact, takes up an area few, is easy to control.
16th, extruder provided by the present invention, extrudable material is one kind of liquid, powdery and/or solid, shaped structure Above object or its mixture, and it is particularly suitable for the mixing extrusion of the powdery and/or lump material having different-grain diameter.
Brief description
Fig. 1 is a kind of structural representation of embodiment of extruder of the present invention.
For the positive extrusion of a screw rod in Fig. 1 embodiment, another screw rod reversely extrudes flow chart to Fig. 2.
Fig. 3 is twin screw positive extrusion flow chart simultaneously in Fig. 1 embodiment.
Fig. 4 is that in Fig. 1 embodiment, feedback channel is arranged on the schematic diagram in the middle part of main barrel.
Fig. 5 (a) is the horizontally disposed schematic diagram of major and minor machine barrel in Fig. 1 embodiment.
Fig. 5 (b) is in Fig. 1 embodiment, the vertically arranged schematic diagram of major and minor machine barrel.
Fig. 5 (c) is the diagonally disposed a kind of scheme schematic diagram of major and minor machine barrel in Fig. 1 embodiment.
Fig. 5 (d) is the diagonally disposed another kind of scheme schematic diagram of major and minor machine barrel in Fig. 1 embodiment.
Fig. 6 is the working mode figure that major and minor machine barrel is extruded in the same direction in Fig. 1 embodiment.
Fig. 7 is in Fig. 1 embodiment, and feedback channel is closed, the working mode figure that main barrel is individually extruded.
Fig. 8 is in Fig. 1 embodiment, and the discharging opening of main barrel is closed, and feedback channel is opened, and circulates and squeeze in major and minor machine barrel The working mode figure of material.
Fig. 9 is that in Fig. 1 embodiment, feedback channel is opened, and the partial material of main barrel feeds back the mode of operation of slave cylinder Figure.
Figure 10 is the bearing mounting structure figure of sub-screw afterbody in Fig. 1 embodiment.
Figure 11 is the bearing mounting structure figure of major and minor screw rod tail, the wherein discharging opening of main barrel in Fig. 1 embodiment Laterally disposed.
Figure 12 is the working mode figure of major and minor machine barrel in Figure 11.
Figure 13 is that in Fig. 1 embodiment, feedback channel is opened, the laterally disposed working mode figure in slave cylinder of discharging opening.
Figure 14 is the process stream journey figure as continuous mixing and extrusion equipment for the extruder.
Figure 15 (a) is the working mode figure that partial material is fed back by slave cylinder in Fig. 1 embodiment.
Figure 15 (b) is the material feeding schematic diagram of major and minor screw rod in Figure 15 (a).
Figure 16 in Fig. 1 embodiment, the structural representation of mixed cell.
Figure 17 is the material expressing technique flow chart having feedback as continuous mixing and extrusion equipment for the extruder.
Figure 18 is the material expressing technique flow chart as continuous mixing and the feedback-less of extrusion equipment for the extruder.
Figure 19 presses, for Fig. 1 embodiment, the extrusion system schematic diagram that left, center, right arranged in series is constituted.
The extrusion system schematic diagram that Figure 20 presses upper left for Fig. 1 embodiment, upper right arranged in series in parallel, upper and lower is constituted.
Figure 21 is that in Fig. 9 mode of operation, under different r, material is in the feedback proportional x of b point.
Figure 22 be in Figure 21 the new material that is continuously added to of certain moment after i severals feedback cycle and continuously extrusion, in b Extrusion ratio x of pointi.
Figure 23 is the relation of cycle-index i and cumulative distribution rate in Figure 22.
Figure 24 is in Figure 22, and the material of different cycle-indexes or the time of staying is in the distributive law of b point.
Figure 25 is the relation of feedback/extrusion ratio r and mean residence time in Fig. 9 mode of operation.
Figure 26 is the relation of cycle-index i and cumulative distribution rate in Figure 25.
Figure 27 is the relation of cycle-index and mean residence time in Figure 25.
Figure number identifies: 1, support;2nd, motor;3rd, double-output speed reducer;4th, feeding device;4a, loading hopper;4b, mixing Room;5th, main barrel;6th, slave cylinder;7th, driving screw;8th, sub-screw;9th, pin;10th, drawing mechanism;10a, discharge valve;10b, cut Cut dispersal unit;10c, smelt gear pump;10d, machine head port mould;11st, air vent;12nd, feedback channel;12a, feedback channel valve Door;13rd, bearing;14th, extruder.
Specific embodiment
Illustrated embodiment is described further to technical scheme below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
A kind of extruder of the present invention, including feeding device 4, conveyer device, drawing mechanism 10, driving means, chiller And control device, described feeding device 4 includes loading hopper 4a and mixing chamber 4b, and described conveyer device at least includes two machine barrels Group, two machine barrel groups are arranged in parallel, have more than one group material conveying mechanism, each machine barrel group and feeding device 4 in each machine barrel group Mixing chamber 4b connection, its main feature is that have the feedback channel 12 being interconnected between each machine barrel group, and described feedback is logical Road 12 makes to be formed the material flow passage of circulation between each machine barrel group and between each machine barrel group and mixing chamber 4b so that one Material in machine barrel group partly or entirely can flow into another machine barrel group, and finally make part or all of material from mixing chamber 4b has returned to mixing chamber 4b after flowing through each machine barrel again, mixes with the new material adding, and is formed and continuously feeds back or circulate;Should System simplest form is two machine barrels and its annular flow system of internal screw composition, and the screw rod of two inside machine barrels passes through and mixes Close room 4b bottom and be connected with driving machine device, two screw rods can be mutually ratcheting or non-ratcheting;Described driving means include motor 2 He The double-output speed reducer 3 being driven by motor 2, at least one output shaft of described double-output speed reducer 3 has forward and reverse Rotating function, as shown in figure 1, technological process is as shown in Figures 2 and 3.
Further description is, has two parallel machine barrels (as in Fig. 15,6), and two machine barrels at least two mutually interconnect Logical passage (as 4b in Fig. 1,12), two machine barrels have or at least one feeding device of one of machine barrel (as 4 in Fig. 1) At least one drawing mechanism (as 10 in Fig. 1), drawing mechanism 10 can be control flow unit (as 10a in Fig. 1, 10c), the permutation and combination of shear-mixed unit (10b in Fig. 1) and machine head port mould (as 10d in Fig. 1).In each machine barrel respectively at least One group of material conveying mechanism is had for example, at least to have a screw rod (as in Fig. 17,8), the screw rod in two machine barrels can share a set of drive The power of dynamic device and speed governing, it is possibility to have each independent power and speed adjusting gear;Screw rod in two machine barrels can be independent Or mutually collaborative rotation, in the same direction or reversely rotate the material in machine barrel can be extruded in the same direction or relatively extrude.Two machines The internal diameter of cylinder and screw diameter therein can identical or one larger another is less.The generally thing of two machine barrels When stream amount is different, the internal diameter of two machine barrels and screw diameter therein are larger, and another is less, adjust control to facilitate System.It is referred to as main barrel (in Fig. 1 5) being relatively large in diameter machine barrel, the conveying mechanism in main barrel 5 is referred to as main barrel conveying mechanism (such as Driving screw 7 in Fig. 1), it is slave cylinder (in Fig. 1 6) less for diameter machine barrel, it is defeated that the conveying mechanism in slave cylinder 6 is referred to as slave cylinder Send mechanism's (sub-screw 8 as in Fig. 1).Driving screw 7 only positive extruded material forward, and sub-screw 8 can rotate forward or backwards, Can be to drawing mechanism 10 or to feeding device 4 direction extruded material.One of them of two connected entrances of two machine barrels is in two machines The end of cylinder communicates and merges into a mouth with the mixing chamber (4b in Fig. 1) in feeding device 4.The cloth of another connected entrance Put, when two barrel length are close, the two ends of two machine barrels position apart from each other can be arranged in (as the feedback channel in Fig. 1 12);When two barrel length differ larger, the longer middle part of machine barrel (as main barrel 5) can be arranged in shorter machine barrel (such as Slave cylinder 6) relative end position (as shown in Figure 4).The axis relative position of two parallel machine barrels can level (such as be schemed 5a), vertical (as Fig. 5 b) up and down, tilted upward arrangement (as Fig. 5 c and 5d).
Described chiller is water-cooled, one of them or their combination of air-cooled or oil cooling, chiller at least provided with On the device of one of feeding device, machine barrel group, conveyer device, drawing mechanism.
Described control device includes driving means, feeding device, conveyer device, feedback channel, drawing mechanism, cooling system Control method and mechanism.
This extruder can have four kinds of mode of operations:
(1), when two screw rods are extruded in the same direction, be equivalent to a large-scale screw extruder that length is longer, production capacity is larger (as shown in Figure 6).
(2), when the Screw Extrusion in only one of which machine barrel (as main barrel 5), another machine barrel inner screw quits work simultaneously (implemented by feedback channel valve 12a) during the feedback channel 12 closing two machine barrels, can become that length is shorter, production capacity relatively Small screw extruder (as shown in Figure 7).
(3), when closing discharge gate, do not extrude to outside machine barrel, during discharge, the screw rod of main barrel 5 is positive, slave cylinder 6 inner screw Reversely extrude, the material that main barrel 5 is extruded all is fed back into the loading hopper 4a of main barrel 5, and whole materials are in two machine barrels Circulation, can become a kind of intermittence mixing equipment (as shown in Figure 8).
(4) when the positive extrusion of the screw rod of such as main barrel 5, slave cylinder 6 inner screw is reversely extruded, the part thing in main barrel Material feeds back to the loading hopper 4a of main barrel 5, and machine barrel discharged by another part material, can become a kind of continuous mixing and extrusion equipment (as shown in Figure 9).
Above-mentioned (1), (2) and (3) three kinds of mode of operation principles are it will be apparent that following explanation pattern (4) can solve The method that existing screw extruder has topmost three problems as continuous mixing extrusion equipment.
1., improve different time add have different dispersing uniformities material be mutually mixed degree.Obviously, feed back Extrusion makes different time add being mutually mixed of material with different uniformities to be possibly realized.Extruded by control and feed back thing The ratio of material, the rotating speed of control screw rod control feedback flow, make different time add the material with different uniformities through number Mix before and after ten times, so that uniformity is improved.Figure 14 is the process stream journey figure of pattern (4), v1(m3/ s) it is current constant control list Unit discharges the space velocity of material, is also the space velocity of charging, and the output production capacity being needed by production determines, generally definite value; v2(m3/ s) it is the space velocity that sub-screw 8 feedback is extruded;(v1+v2) it is the positive space velocity extruded of driving screw 7;Feedback/squeeze Go out to compare r=v2/v1.v2It is to require to be together decided on by the rotating speed of two screw rods according to the dispersion of material, plasticizing.Material under different r B point feedback proportional x=r/ (1+r) as shown in the coordinate diagram of Figure 21.
The new material that certain moment is continuously added to, after i several feedback cycle and continuous extrusion, extrudes ratio x in b pointi As shown in the coordinate diagram of Figure 22, Figure 23.
The material of different cycle-indexes or the time of staying b point distributive law as shown in the coordinate diagram of Figure 24.
2., under discharge gate has a constant current unit to control, improve the rotating speed of screw rod, the flow of increase is fed back to charging Bucket 4a, without the stability of impact extrusion discharge.So mixing intensity can change independent of extrusion production capacity.Simple is divided Dissipate mixing, shorten mixing time by improving mixing intensity, or reduce mixing intensity by extending the time of staying.For having Learn the dispersion mixing of reaction, chemical reaction needs the regular hour, material can be increased in machine by improving extrusion/feedback proportional r Mean residence time (as shown in the coordinate diagram of Figure 25, Figure 26, Figure 27) in cylinder.
Wherein taFor material in Figure 14 from the time of a → b → c → d → a, but part extrusion production capacity can be lost.
3., in feeding device 4, two machine barrels are communicated in the bottom of loading hopper 4a, and the external diameter of screw flight increases, screw channel Deepen, the spiral shell rib of two screw rods near but non-contacting state, can between material produce big occlusion and shear force. Continue to be moved rearwards by until screw rod end from the material of heat of feeding back of slave cylinder 6 along the screw channel of sub-screw 8, from sub-screw Deviate from 8 screw channel, be wound, be involved in the screw channel of driving screw 7, move forward, enter main barrel 5.So, in two screw rods Screw channel in be all wound with heat material.Can be heated to soften when the new cold material adding is contacted with screw rod, in material two Extruding between screw rod and between screw rod and charging headwall, shearing, deformation, broken, the new interface of generation under tensile force effect, plus The mixing of fast different component, dispersion.The opposite promotion of two screw rods and rotation make the material above screw rod produce vertically and horizontally Rotation, enhance stirring mixing intensity and the time of staying in hopper of material.When two screw rods rotate to screw channel and spiral shell Groove relative to when, gap between two screw rods is maximum, can be engaged relatively large material and enter screw channel;When rotation is to spiral shell rib and spiral shell rib phase Pair when, gap between two screw rods is minimum, can produce larger shearing force to material;When rotation to spiral shell rib and screw channel relative to when, Smaller piece material can be engaged or material larger in former screw channel is produced with stretching tear effect.Therefore, the material of the heat of feedback and double Screw rod opposite horizontal promotes and rotates upwardly and downwardly, and makes the material mixing uniformity in feeding device 4 improve (as Figure 15 a, Figure 15 b).
4., energy-saving and water-saving and raising efficiency.Material in machine barrel is fed back to the charging aperture of machine barrel so that being connected from discharging opening The two ends of the whole material system for the distribution of commodities of machine barrel composition connecing are communicated and are communicated with air, the raising of screw speed, material flow Quickening will not significantly improve the pressure of machine barrel, therefore, the pressure in machine barrel is relatively low, and frictional force reduces, and abrasion reduces, can depletion Few, temperature rise declines.The thermal material of feedback is to the new cold material adding preheating, it is possible to reduce even without the solid pressure in machine barrel The extra heating to material for the contracting section.The heat energy of input reduces, and needs the heat discharged also to reduce, cooling water accordingly reduces, Temperature rise is slack-off, and mixing time is extended.The new cold material adding mixes in hopper and preheats, and shortens solid cold material and exists Melting time process in machine barrel, is equivalent to and extends the mixing of screw rod, dispersion, the length of fluxing zone, improves the mixed of screw rod Refining efficiency.The material of feedback is mixed with the cold material in hopper, also corresponds to partial material higher for temperature in machine barrel to draw Machine barrel is entered back into, at this moment loading hopper is equivalent to a cooler outside machine barrel and after the cooling of cooling medium directly contact.Strengthening hopper Cooling capacity, on demand control hopper in material enter machine barrel when temperature, with the recirculated cooling water in machine barrel and/or screw rod System works together it is possible to control the temperature rise of material in machine barrel.Except the cold material adding is as cooling medium, can also be Add water-cooled, air-cooled, oil cooling indirect cooling recirculation system above loading hopper, or even it is direct to be directly added into low boiling evaporative medium Cooling reduces the temperature of material in loading hopper.
5. compare with intermittence mixing equipment, material continues to flow through equipment, mixing does not have the intermittent time, in identical production capacity Under the conditions of, in the unit interval, the material volume of equipment mixing will reduce, and the mixer power of needs will reduce, the heat of generation Amount will reduce.Therefore, equipment needs the power reduction of configuration, adds that the material between screw rod and machine barrel is contacted tightly with barrel wall Close, filling rate is high, and the air of heat insulating function is less, and preferably, temperature rise speed is slow, can extend mixing time for cooling radiating condition.
Feed back the flow of material, accurately control and extrude flow and raising row to discharge gate to loading hopper 4a to accurately control Material mouth extrusion pressure, discharge gate needs a device controlling flow and pressure, can control row using smelt gear pump 10c Material mouth flow and pressure (as shown in Figure 1).
From the continuous dispersion mixing fed back of the present invention and extrusion workflow (as shown in Fig. 2 and Figure 14) it is seen then that difficult Exempt from material (1/ (the 1+r)) only process≤t of some new additionaTime is just extruded discharge gate.In order to reduce this part The impact of the time of staying short material, takes following measures:
1st, before discharge gate and after feedback channel 12, increase by one filter element, make undispersed thicker material not by Extrude and flow into process of feedback.
2nd, increase the dispersion mixing unit 10b of one group of Strong shear in discharge gate, accelerate to improve the dispersion of extruded material.Example As installed one group before driving screw 7 top, discharge gate by annulus (being equivalent to the machine barrel having internal coiling being crushed) and disk The shearing dispersal unit (as shown in Fig. 1, Figure 16) of (being equivalent to the screw rod being crushed) alternate composition.The outward flange of annulus and machine barrel It is connected, middle looping pit passes through by the axle of screw rod and material;The center of circle of disk is connected with the axle of screw rod, rounded edge Material can be allowed to pass through.High shear strength can be produced when annulus and disk rotate against.Permissible on the surface of annulus and disk There is the spiral of projection it is also possible to there is the spiral of projection on the surface of just one, positive displacement can be produced to discharge gate direction Conveying.Gap scalable between annulus and disk, annulus/disk group number can increase or decrease.Ejection so can be controlled The length by distance of material and time.
3rd, improving r makes this partial material less in the ratio discharging material.
In order to improve mixing ability and the production capacity of extruder of the present invention, improve feedback/extrusion ratio r, need to reduce spiral shell rib and The gap of machine barrel, the rotating speed of raising screw rod.This requires to improve screw rod rotation radial stability.Bearing 13 is passed through at the two ends of screw rod It is fixed on machine barrel to improve the radial stability of rotation.When the two ends of screw rod have bearing 13 and machine barrel fixing, originally existed The extrusion discharge gate of one end of machine barrel is necessary for being arranged in cylindricality machine barrel lateral location.Can be by the two of one or two screw rod End is fixed by bearing 13 and machine barrel, as shown in Figure 10 and Figure 11.The discharge gate of material can on main barrel 5 it is also possible to Be arranged on the position of slave cylinder 6, so can increase mean residence time in machine barrel for the extruded material (as Figure 11, Figure 12, Shown in Figure 13).
Extruder of the present invention temporarily can also not allow material discharge, by material from mixing chamber by cutting out discharging opening 4b, through main barrel 5, feedback channel 12, slave cylinder 6, whole materials is returned to mixing chamber 4b, so continuously circulation one timing Between after discharge from discharging opening again, thus realizing step mixing dispersion processing to batch, its technological process such as Figure 17 Shown.
Extruder of the present invention can also be by the positive conveyance such as driving screw 7 within main barrel 5 and slave cylinder 6 With the equidirectional extrusion of sub-screw 8, material is clamp-oned two machine barrels from mixing chamber 4b simultaneously, material is discharged from drawing mechanism 10, Thus realizing improving extruder production capacity under less internal diameter machine barrel and relatively small screw draw ratio, technological process is as shown in figure 18.
In order to further illustrate extruder of the present invention problem to be solved, further illustrate such below by way of example and squeeze Go out working method and the application of machine.
1: three section of series connection continuous mixing technique (as Figure 19) of example, i.e. a form of extrusion system.
Rubber compounding to be kneaded such as table 1, finished composition production capacity 2100kg/h.
This three sections series connection continuous mixing technique be the 1st section by whole natural rubbers, whole white carbons, 1/3rd White carbon black, whole zinc oxide, whole stearic acid mixing 75s become masterbatch,
At the section, remaining 2/3rds white carbon black, other components and masterbatch 1 mixing 70s are become masterbatch, the 3rd Masterbatch is become finished composition with whole sulfurs, whole accelerator mixing 90s by section.Continuous mixing charging process is as follows.
1st section mixing: the raw material being continuously added in left side extruder 14: natural rubber 333.3g/s, white carbon black 46.7g/s, White carbon 50g/s, zinc oxide 20.4g/s, stearic acid 6.6g/s.Mixing material mean residence time 75s, controls 155 DEG C of temperature Below.Smelt gear pump 10c continuously extrudes masterbatch and is conveyed to the 2nd section of extruder 14 through the cooling of certain distance and time (middle), extrusion flow is 1614kg/h (448.3g/s ≈ 0.374l/s).Screw rod ginseng in 14 two machine barrels of left side extruder Number is all: spiro rod length 1650mm, screw diameter 240mm, 35 ° of lead angle, average screw channel depth 25mm, spiral shell rib width 25mm, spiral shell Stricture of vagina bar number 3.Screw speed 50r/m, than r=11, single loop time 7.5s, in machine barrel, material volume is about for extrusion capacity feedback quantity 33.7l, power of motor 250kw.
2nd section of mixing: be continuously added to masterbatch in middle extruder 14 and add remaining 2/3 white carbon black (white carbon black addition Measure as 93.3g/s)/other components 33.3g/s.Material averagely stops mixing time 80s, controls below 155 DEG C of temperature.Melt tooth Wheel pump 10c continuously extrudes the cooling through certain distance and time for the masterbatch to being conveyed to the 3rd section of extruder 14 (the right), extrudes Flow is 2070kg/h (575g/s ≈ 0.479l/s).Screw Parameters in middle 2 two machine barrels of extruder are all: spiro rod length 1760mm, screw diameter 240mm, 35 ° of lead angle, average screw channel depth 35mm, spiral shell rib width 35mm, screw thread bar number 3.Screw speed 50r/m, extrusion capacity feedback quantity than r=11, single loop time 8s, material volume about 46l, power of motor 280kw in machine barrel.
3rd section of mixing: extruder 14 is continuously added to masterbatch, sulfur 3.3g/s and accelerator 5.0g/s on the right.Mixing Material mean residence time 90s, controls below 100 DEG C of temperature.Smelt gear pump continuously extrudes 2100kg/h (583.3g/s ≈ 0.486l/s).Screw Parameters in 14 two machine barrels of extruder of the right are all: spiro rod length 2000mm, screw diameter 242mm, 35 ° of lead angle, average screw channel depth 35mm, spiral shell rib width 35mm, screw thread bar number 3.Screw speed 50r/m, extrusion capacity feedback quantity ratio R=11, single loop time 9s, material volume about 52.5l, power of motor 300kw in machine barrel.
Power-on operation processing step:
1., first turn on the extruder 14 (left side) of one section of mixing, melt gear 10c closes, by the formula of above-mentioned calculating Amount and charging rate charging.Material is sheared between screw rod and machine barrel, be constantly warming up to the temperature of technological requirement under extrusion friction Degree.After material is full of two machine barrels and forms closed circulation, stop charging, the time to be recycled is more than the mean residence time of this section Afterwards, open smelt gear pump 10c, by calculated flow rate dumping, the cooling through certain time and distance is transported to two-stage nitration extruder 14 (middle), start simultaneously at and are continuously added to new material to one section of extruder 14 (left side).
(2), the smelt gear pump 10c of two-stage nitration extruder 14 (middle) closes, and receives one section of extruder 14 (left side) and supplies glue, And by calculate formula ratio and charging rate continuous charging, when material be full of two machine barrels formed closed circulation after, stop charging and Stop the discharge of one section of extruder 14 (left side), material is sheared between screw rod and machine barrel, constantly rise under extrusion friction simultaneously The warm temperature to technological requirement.After the time of staying to be recycled is more than the mean residence time of this section, open smelt gear pump 10c, By calculated flow rate dumping, recover the confession glue to two-stage nitration extruder 14 (middle) for one section of extruder 14 (left side) simultaneously.Two-stage nitration is extruded The cooling through certain time and distance for the sizing material that machine 14 (middle) is discharged is transported to three sections of extruders 14 (the right), simultaneously by terms of The formula ratio calculated and charging rate are continuously added to new material.
(3), three sections of extruders 14 (the right) open the confession glue receiving two-stage nitration extruder 14 (middle), smelt gear pump 10c Close, by the formula ratio calculating and charging rate continuous charging and the confession glue receiving two-stage nitration extruder 14 (middle) simultaneously, work as thing Material is formed after closed circulation full of two machine barrels, stops charging and stops one section of extruder 14 (left side) and two-stage nitration extruder 14 simultaneously The discharge of (middle).Material is sheared between screw rod and machine barrel, be constantly warming up to the temperature of technological requirement under extrusion friction.Treat After three sections of extruders 14 (the right) interior Matter Transfer time of staying is more than the mean residence time of this section, open smelt gear pump 10c, by the flow calculating to downwind scheme dumping, simultaneously with the formula ratio that calculates and charging rate start to be continuously added to virgin material and with Mono- section of extruder of Shi Huifu 14 (left side) and the discharge of two-stage nitration extruder 14 (middle).When the material of three extruders 14 is formed even After continuous insertion, control each section of temperature and cooling water flow, charging rate, screw speed, gear pump speed, keep each section of association Adjust consistent, form continuous and stable production.
Example 2: three sections of continuous mixing techniques (as Figure 20) of " y " shape, i.e. another form of extrusion system.
Rubber compounding to be kneaded such as table 2, finished composition production capacity 4013kg/h.
Should three sections of continuous mixing techniques of " y " shape be by 1/3rd natural rubber, whole silane couplers with all Precipitated silica knead into masterbatch, by 2/3rds natural rubber, whole white carbon blacks, zinc oxide, stearic acid, crystallite Wax, age resistor knead into masterbatch, then masterbatch, masterbatch, sulfur, accelerator are kneaded into finished composition.Mixing masterbatching The effect of glue is to carry out silanization treatment to precipitated silica surface, makes under high concentration, high temperature, the mixing of long period
Chemical reaction is more abundant, dispersion is more preferable, it is to avoid knead the refining problem that caused together with whole rubber, improves to produce and imitates Rate, also can reduce mixing energy consumption, improve tire combination property.Continuous mixing charging process is as follows.
1st section of mixing: be continuously added to 1/3rd natural rubber 434.3g/s, white carbon in upper left extruder 14 260.6g/s, silane coupler 45.6g/s.Mixing material mean residence time 70s, controls below 160 DEG C of temperature.Melt gear Pump 10c continuously discharges masterbatch with 1297.73kg/h (360.5g/s ≈ 0.316l/s), cold through certain distance and time But it is transported to the extruder 14 of middle lower section.Screw Parameters in upper left 14 two machine barrels of extruder are all: spiro rod length 1290mm, screw diameter 200mm, 35 ° of lead angle, average screw channel depth 32mm, spiral shell rib width 30mm, screw thread bar number 3.Screw speed 50r/m, extrusion capacity feedback quantity than r=11, single loop time 7s, material volume about 26.5l, power of motor 250kw in machine barrel.
2nd section of mixing: be continuously added to 2/3rds natural rubber 434.3g/s, white carbon black in top-right extruder 14 260.6g/s, zinc oxide+stearic acid+microwax 32.6g/s, age resistor 13.03g/s.Mixing material mean residence time 75s, Control below 155 DEG C of temperature.Smelt gear pump 10c discharges masterbatch with 2665.82kg/h (740.5g/s ≈ 0.650l/s), It is transported to the extruder 14 of middle lower section through the cooling of certain distance and time, the Screw Parameters in 14 two machine barrels of this extruder It is all: spiro rod length 1930mm, screw diameter 242mm, 39 ° of lead angle, average screw channel depth 33mm, spiral shell rib width 32mm, screw thread Bar number 3.Screw speed 50r/m, than r=11, single loop time 7.5s, in machine barrel, material volume is about for extrusion capacity feedback quantity 58.5l, power of motor 400kw.
3rd section of mixing: the masterbatch of the 1st section of mixing and the 2nd section of mixing supplies glue to the extruder 14 of middle lower section, simultaneously simultaneously Add sulfur 6.5g/s, accelerator 7.2g/s.Mixing material mean residence time 55s, controls below 100 DEG C of temperature.Melt tooth Wheel pump 10c discharges finished composition with 4012.8kg/h (1108.2g/s ≈ 0.978l/s).In 14 two machine barrels of the extruder of middle lower section Screw Parameters be all: spiro rod length 1630mm, screw diameter 280mm, 39 ° of lead angle, average screw channel depth 36mm, spiral shell rib width 32mm, screw thread bar number 3.Screw speed 50r/m, extrusion capacity feedback quantity is than r=11, single loop time 7.5s, material in machine barrel Volume about 88l, power of motor 520kw.
Power-on operation processing step:
1. the upper left extruder 14 of one section of mixing and the upper right extruder 14 of two-stage mixing, smelt gear pump, are first turned on 10c closes, and formula ratio and charging rate by calculating feed to upper left extruder 14 and upper right extruder 14 respectively.Work as material Formed after closed circulation full of two machine barrels, stop charging.Material is sheared between screw rod and machine barrel, under extrusion friction constantly It is warming up to the temperature of technological requirement.Open after the mean residence time that the Matter Transfer time in two extruders 14 is more than this section Smelt gear pump 10c discharges masterbatch and masterbatch, starts simultaneously to this two extruders 14 continuous charging.Masterbatch and Masterbatch through certain distance and time cooling convey, simultaneously and remain synchronous transport under extruder 14.
The smelt gear pump 10c of the extruder 14 under in 2., closes, and receives the extruder 14 of upper left and the extruder of upper right 14 supply glue, and by the formula ratio calculating and charging rate continuous charging, after material is full of two machine barrels and forms closed circulation, stop Feed and suspend the extruder 14 of upper left and the discharge of the extruder 14 of upper right.Material is sheared between screw rod and machine barrel, squeezes Constantly it is warming up to the temperature of technological requirement under pressure friction.Extruder 14 stay cycle under in treating is more than averagely stopping of this section After staying the time, open smelt gear pump 10c, discharge finished composition by calculated flow rate, new thing is continuously added to the speed calculating simultaneously The discharge of the extruder 14 of the extruder 14 of material material and recovery upper left and upper right.
After the continuous insertion of the whole material of three extruders 14, control each section of temperature and cooling water flow, charging speed Degree, screw speed, gear pump speed, keep each section of harmonious, formation continuous and stable production.
The foregoing is only presently preferred embodiments of the present invention, not in order to limit the present invention, all spirit in the present invention and Within principle, any modification, equivalent substitution and improvement made etc., should be included within the scope of the present invention.

Claims (16)

1. a kind of extruder, including feeding device (4), conveyer device, drawing mechanism (10), described feeding device (4) includes adding Hopper (4a) and mixing chamber (4b) it is characterised in that: described conveyer device at least includes two machine barrel groups, between each machine barrel group Arranged in parallel, there is the mixing chamber (4b) of more than one group material conveying mechanism, each machine barrel group and feeding device (4) in each machine barrel group Connection, there is between each machine barrel group the feedback channel (12) being interconnected, described feedback channel (12) make between each machine barrel group with And the material flow passage of circulation between each machine barrel group and mixing chamber (4b), can be formed.
2. a kind of extruder according to claim 1 it is characterised in that: each machine barrel group is made up of a machine barrel, or by counting Individual machine barrel is connected in series.
3. a kind of extruder according to claim 2 it is characterised in that: described material conveying mechanism include a screw rod or Several screw rods, shearing dispersal unit (10b) and/or screw rod are combined with shearing dispersal unit;Each screw rod can mutually work in coordination with rotation Turn or independently rotated in the same direction or reversely rotate.
4. a kind of extruder according to claim 3 it is characterised in that: described machine barrel is the machine barrel of different-diameter or waits straight The machine barrel in footpath, also corresponding equal or different to the diameter of its supporting screw rod and length.
5. a kind of extruder according to claim 4 it is characterised in that: the end of described screw rod is by with bearing (13) even Connect, bearing (13) and machine barrel and/or be connected with frame and be supported.
6. a kind of extruder according to any one in Claims 1 to 5 it is characterised in that: described feedback channel (12) Inside it is provided with control material flow area size and the discharging controller of opening and closing.
7. a kind of extruder according to any one in claim 2~5 it is characterised in that: described drawing mechanism (10) For discharging controller, shearing dispersal unit (10b), filter element, constant-current control unit, machine head port mould (10d) wherein it One or its two or more combination.
8. a kind of extruder according to claim 7 it is characterised in that:
Described shearing dispersal unit (10b) includes more than one group annulus separately and disk, the outward flange of described annulus and machine Cylinder inwall is connected, and middle looping pit can allow the axle of screw rod and material pass through;The center of circle of described disk is connected with the axle of screw rod Connect fixation, the outward flange of disk can allow material pass through, the gap between each annulus and disk is fixing and/or scalable, The annulus being contacted with material and/or the surface of disk are bright finish or have groove or have fin;
Described discharging controller is the mechanism controlling discharging to circulate cross-sectional sizes and opening and closing;
Described filter element is the porous material of network-like structure, only allows to pass through less than the material in aperture;
Described constant-current control unit is smelt gear pump (10c), or is screw pump, or is turbine and worm mechanism;
Described machine head port mould (10d) is the runner of material, one of them or their combination of pre-die, the shape of the mouth as one speaks.
9. a kind of extruder according to any one in Claims 1 to 5 it is characterised in that: described drawing mechanism (10) At least one or more than two, it is arranged at the end of machine barrel or in any position outside end and/or machine barrel.
10. a kind of extruder according to any one in Claims 1 to 5 it is characterised in that two machine barrel groups parallel Be set with form has: mutually horizontal be set with, or vertical be set with up and down, or tilted upward be set with.
A kind of 11. extruders according to any one in claim 2~5 it is characterised in that: described machine barrel inner chamber or flat Slide or have groove or have the pin (9) stretching into cylinder lumen.
A kind of 12. extruders according to any one in claim 3~5 it is characterised in that: in described mixing chamber (4b) Including at least there being two screw rods being connected through mixing chamber (4b) bottom with Qu Ji mechanism, screw rod therein can mutually ratcheting or Non- ratcheting.
A kind of 13. feedbacks and circulation expressing technique are it is characterised in that employ squeezing described in any one in claim 1~12 Go out machine, its extrusion method is: the loading hopper (4a) from feeding device (4) for the material is put into, material passes through conveyer device in charging After preliminary mixing in the mixing chamber (4b) of device (4), deliver into the machine barrel of one of conveyer device containing positive extrusion, By adjusting positive displacement constant-current control unit, a part of material is made to discharge from the discharging opening of drawing mechanism (10) in proportion, another The feedback channel (12) that partial material is passed through between two machine barrels delivers into the machine barrel of the conveyer device containing reverse extrusion, returns Return to the mixing chamber (4b) of feeding device (4), converge with the new material adding from loading hopper (4a), through feeding device (4) Mixing chamber (4b) conveys and is mixed in the machine barrel of the conveyer device containing positive extrusion, and so circulation forms continuous feedback Circulation extrusion.
A kind of 14. intermittent cyclic expressing techniques are it is characterised in that employ the extrusion described in any one in claim 1~12 Machine, its extrusion method is: the discharging opening of drawing mechanism (10) is first closed, material is from the continuous input of loading hopper (4a) until being full of All machine barrel groups, material passes through material conveying mechanism in the machine barrel group being interconnected, feedback channel (12) and feeding device (4) Circulate, after continuous circulation certain time, the discharging opening of drawing mechanism (10) is opened, and material is discharged from discharging opening.
A kind of 15. parallel expressing techniques in the same direction are it is characterised in that employ any one of any one institute in claim 1~12 The extruder stated, its extrusion method is: material is put into from loading hopper (4a), is simultaneously into two by material conveying mechanism In machine barrel group, and conveyed to drawing mechanism (10) direction, material is discharged from discharging opening simultaneously.
A kind of continuous extrusion system of 16. materials it is characterised in that: employ extruder described in claim 13 or 14 or 15 (14) and its corresponding expressing technique, by the serial or parallel connection of two or several extruders (14), form between timesharing, multistage charging Tinuous production.
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CN108972928A (en) * 2018-08-10 2018-12-11 芜湖市旭辉电工新材料有限责任公司 A kind of PTC exothermic material goes bubble mixing method
CN109016438A (en) * 2018-08-06 2018-12-18 芜湖市旭辉电工新材料有限责任公司 A kind of PTC exothermic material mixed melting extrusion method
CN109096503A (en) * 2018-08-10 2018-12-28 芜湖市旭辉电工新材料有限责任公司 A kind of cable raw material uniformly mixes vacuum crosslinking process
CN109843541A (en) * 2016-10-19 2019-06-04 迪特马尔·格鲁伯 Mixing arrangement in the screw rod cup of double screw extruder
CN109968593A (en) * 2019-02-14 2019-07-05 青岛科技大学 A kind of screw pump stator rubber bushing molding machine and method

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CN109843541A (en) * 2016-10-19 2019-06-04 迪特马尔·格鲁伯 Mixing arrangement in the screw rod cup of double screw extruder
CN109016438A (en) * 2018-08-06 2018-12-18 芜湖市旭辉电工新材料有限责任公司 A kind of PTC exothermic material mixed melting extrusion method
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CN109968593A (en) * 2019-02-14 2019-07-05 青岛科技大学 A kind of screw pump stator rubber bushing molding machine and method

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