CN106091972B  A kind of building change detecting method projecting dot density based on moving window  Google Patents
A kind of building change detecting method projecting dot density based on moving window Download PDFInfo
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 CN106091972B CN106091972B CN201610512552.XA CN201610512552A CN106091972B CN 106091972 B CN106091972 B CN 106091972B CN 201610512552 A CN201610512552 A CN 201610512552A CN 106091972 B CN106091972 B CN 106091972B
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 coordinate
 point cloud
 brick
 density
 mortar
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 239000008264 clouds Substances 0.000 claims abstract description 84
 239000011449 bricks Substances 0.000 claims abstract description 55
 239000004570 mortar (masonry) Substances 0.000 claims abstract description 32
 238000004458 analytical methods Methods 0.000 claims abstract description 13
 230000000875 corresponding Effects 0.000 claims abstract description 7
 238000000034 methods Methods 0.000 claims abstract description 5
 239000011159 matrix materials Substances 0.000 claims description 12
 210000001503 Joints Anatomy 0.000 claims description 8
 230000001131 transforming Effects 0.000 claims description 8
 238000006243 chemical reactions Methods 0.000 claims description 3
 238000000513 principal component analysis Methods 0.000 claims description 3
 239000010950 nickel Substances 0.000 claims description 2
 238000000926 separation method Methods 0.000 claims description 2
 239000000284 extracts Substances 0.000 abstract description 2
 241001269238 Data Species 0.000 abstract 2
 280000398338 Seismic companies 0.000 description 4
 238000010586 diagrams Methods 0.000 description 3
 230000000694 effects Effects 0.000 description 3
 239000004575 stone Substances 0.000 description 3
 281000044456 Leica companies 0.000 description 1
 239000004927 clay Substances 0.000 description 1
 229910052570 clay Inorganic materials 0.000 description 1
 238000010276 construction Methods 0.000 description 1
 238000001514 detection method Methods 0.000 description 1
 238000005516 engineering processes Methods 0.000 description 1
 239000004744 fabrics Substances 0.000 description 1
 238000007689 inspection Methods 0.000 description 1
 239000011454 mudbrick Substances 0.000 description 1
 230000035939 shock Effects 0.000 description 1
 239000002002 slurries Substances 0.000 description 1
 239000007787 solids Substances 0.000 description 1
Classifications

 G—PHYSICS
 G01—MEASURING; TESTING
 G01B—MEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
 G01B11/00—Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means
 G01B11/16—Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means for measuring the deformation in a solid, e.g. optical strain gauge
Abstract
Description
Technical field
The present invention designs a kind of building change detecting method, and in particular to a kind of building variation based on moving window Detection method.
Background technology
In city, building is the main place of mankind's activity, and safe condition is related to mankind's daily life and warp Therefore Ji activity is changed detection to building and has a very important significance, the variation based on building is detected and repaiied It is multiple, it is research emphasis in recent years in the industry, in the hair of fabric structure especially by seismic building deformation and damage It opens up in history, masonry structure is often widely used in the foundation structure of building since ancient times, each with brick, stone, masonry and sundried mud brick etc. Kind of block, a kind of assembly made of being built by laying bricks or stones using mortar (mortar, clay slurry etc.) as masonry structure, masonry structure because low cost, Fire resistance, durability and construction are simply widely used, but its masonry strength is relatively low, and shock resistance is poor, therefore, to masonry The research that the building of structure is changed detection has and its important realistic meaning, the existing variation detection based on image Method, according to the level of information processing, can be divided into based on pixel, feature based and based on target variation detection, and for The variation detection of laser radar (Light Detection And Ranging) LiDAR data also gradually starts photogrammetric Studied with computer vision community, and the change detecting method precision based on image is not high enough, target is not clear enough, and easily by The influence of the quality of image, the deformation information of acquisition is also not abundant enough, can not accurately obtain in masonry structure building every piece of brick Deformation information, in addition, the low efficiency for also having seriously affected variation detection of the degree of automation.
Invention content
Goal of the invention：In view of the abovementioned deficiencies in the prior art, it is an object of the present invention to provide a kind of based on moving window projection The building change detecting method of dot density.
Technical solution：A kind of building change detecting method projecting dot density based on moving window of the present invention, including Following steps：
(1) it uses laser scanner system to carry out the scanning of two phases to same building object, obtains building surface point cloud data, M target is set in variation architecture enclosing, wherein the observation of m >=3, laser scanner system is building surface point Threedimensional coordinate and laser reflection intensity；
(2) target for utilizing step 1) setting, calculates two phase point cloud coordinate transformation parameter Z, is registrated to a cloud；
(3) choose fixed metope point cloud data, Dimension Reduction Analysis carried out to it using principal component analytical method, obtain feature to Measure (v_{i}, i=1,2,3), the projection for calculating survey station point in plane where fixed metope establishes structure as coordinate origin Coordinate system is converted point cloud data to structure coordinate system by survey station coordinate system；
(4) strength information based on point cloud data classifies to the point cloud for changing metope using K mean cluster method, Isolated brick point cloud and mortar point cloud；
(5) point cloud coordinate projection to Zdirection and Ydirection is defined fixed window by the mortar point cloud for utilizing step (4) to obtain Mouth length L_{fix}With moving window length L_{move}, by moving window, calculate separately along Zdirection and the change of Ydirection point cloud line density Change；
(6) changed according to the line density that step (5) obtains, seek horizontal and vertical cutoff rule between each brick respectively, calculated Four angular coordinates of each brick, establish brick model；
(7) each brick point cloud is obtained according to the brick model that step (6) obtains, calculates each brick center；
(8) the two phases corresponding brick central threedimensional coordinate obtained according to step (7) obtains deformation information.
Preferably, in (1) two phase scanning process of step, target is fixed.
Preferably, step (2) and threedimensional coordinate transfer equation described in step (3) are specific as follows：
If matrix A is the point cloud threedimensional coordinate under A coordinate systems, matrix B is the point cloud threedimensional coordinate under B coordinate systems, A, B two The threedimensional coordinate transfer equation of coordinate system is as follows：
(translational movement of Δ x, Δ y and Δ z denotation coordination origins, k are scale factor, and k=0, R are A coordinate systems to B coordinates The spin matrix of system)
Preferably, specific as follows by the calculating of two phase Registration of Measuring Data conversion parameters described in step (2)：
Coordinate transformation parameter Z is further write as, Z=[Δ x, Δ y, Δ z, ε_{x}, ε_{y}, ε_{z}, 1] and utilize least square method to sitting It marks conversion parameter Z and carries out parameter Estimation, the valuation that can obtain coordinate transformation parameter Z is：
Z=(A^{T}Q^{1}A)^{1}A^{T}QB
In formula, Q is the covariance matrix of m target coordinate measuring error under B coordinate systems, and form is as follows：
Preferably, step (3) is carried converts into structure coordinate system principal component analysis dimensionality reduction and coordinate by survey station coordinate system Origin determine specific method be：
If threedimensional coordinate { the X of scanning element X_{i}=(x_{i},y_{i}, z_{i})  i=1,2 ..., n }, construct corresponding covariance matrix：
Wherein, For the barycentric coodinates of point set, to Matrix C carry out it is main at Analysis, can acquire three eigenvalue λs_{1}、λ_{2}、λ_{3}It arranges in descending order, obtains λ_{1}≥λ_{2}＞ λ_{3}＞ 0, λ_{3}Corresponding feature vector v_{3}, and v_{3}For normal vector, v_{3}For unit vector of the Xaxis under survey station coordinate system of structure coordinate system, and the Z axis of structure coordinate system It to be directed toward consistent with survey station coordinate system, Yaxis constitutes righthanded coordinate system perpendicular to determining XOZ planes, calculating survey station point coordinates S (0, 0,0) in the projection S'(x of plane where fixed metope_{s},y_{s},z_{s}), as the coordinate origin of structure coordinate system, therefore translate Vector (Δ x, Δ y, Δ z)=( x_{s},y_{s},z_{s}), after establishing translation parameters and reference axis rotation parameter, after two phases were registrated Point cloud data rotate to structure coordinate system；
Preferably, step (4) carry the K mean cluster method based on strength information separation metope brick and mortar it is specific Method is：
Using cluster sum of squared errors function E as clustering criteria function, using strength information as categorical attribute, In,x_{ij}It is jth of sample of the ith class, m_{i}It is the cluster centre or barycenter of the ith class, n_{i}It is the ith class Number of samples, K mean cluster algorithm find k best cluster centres, wherein k=2, by all n samples by iterating This point is assigned to the cluster centre nearest from it so that cluster error sum of squares E is minimum, and process is as follows：
A is randomly assigned k cluster centre m_{i}(i=1,2 ..., k)；
B, to each sample x_{i}The cluster centre nearest from it is found, such is assigned it to；
C recalculates each brand new center：N_{i}It is the current sample number of the ith cluster；
D calculates deviation,
E returns to m if E values restrain_{i}(i=1,2 ..., k), algorithm terminate, and otherwise return to b；
Preferably, step (5) institute Tilly mortar point cloud calculates point cloud line density variation, tool based on window Mobile Method Body method is as follows：
If the mean breadth of mortar is known quantity L_{mortar}, define stationary window length L_{fix}With moving window length L_{move}, Three meets following relationship：
L_{mortar}≈L_{window}+2L_{move}
It calculates separately along Zdirection and Ydirection moving window number：
Wherein [] is rounding symbol,
Calculate separately counting out in Zdirection and each window of Ydirection：
n_{zi}(i=1,2 ..., n_{y}),n_{yi}(i=1,2 ..., n_{z})
Calculate separately the line density of the point along Zdirection and Ydirection：
Density_z=(n_{z(i1)}+n_{zi}+n_{z(i+1)})/(3L_{fix}) (i=2,3 ..., (n_{z}1))
Density_y=(n_{y(i1)}+n_{yi}+n_{y(i+1)})/(3L_{fix}) (i=2,3 ..., (n_{y}1))
For Zdirection and each window of Ydirection, its line density change rate is calculated：
Grad (i, 1)=Density_y (i)Density_y (i1)
Grad (i, 2)=Density_y (i+1)Density_y (i)
Preferably, step (6) is described is changed using line density, calculates horizontal and vertical cutoff rule between each brick, specific Method is as follows：
For the Zdirection or Ydirection of analysis, point cloud line density is apparently higher than nonat the mortar joints being perpendicularly to the direction Seam crossing region, therefore, select in this direction window averag density as threshold value (n_{total}For point Cloud total number), it is residing solid when being more than threshold value when putting cloud density in window, and meeting Grad (i, 1) ＞ 0 and Grad (i, 2) ＜ 0 Determine the range that window is mortar joints, by the point cloud computing mortar joints center line within the scope of mortar joints, then passes through brick Block girth seam center line computation brick four angular coordinates of model, establish brick model.
Advantageous effect：A kind of building change detecting method projecting dot density based on moving window of the present invention, a side On the other hand face high degree of automation takes full advantage of initial data, precision is high, under the premise of accuracy guarantee, it is ensured that brick The deformation information of each brick of stone structure building can be obtained effectively.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the flow chart of the present invention；
Fig. 2 is the survey station coordinate system schematic diagram of the present invention；
Fig. 3 is the structure coordinate system schematic diagram of the present invention；
Fig. 4 is the brick model schematic of the present invention；
Fig. 5 is a certain metope K mean value classification results that the present invention chooses；
Fig. 6 is that present invention point cloud subpoint line density changes histogram；
Fig. 7 is each brick central point schematic diagram that the present invention extracts；
The brick 3 D deformation information that the positions Fig. 8 present invention obtains.
Specific implementation mode
Technical solution of the present invention is described in detail below, but protection scope of the present invention is not limited to the implementation Example.
As shown in Figure 1, a kind of building change detecting method projecting dot density based on moving window, including following step Suddenly：
(1) it uses laser scanner system to carry out the scanning of two phases to same building object, obtains building surface point cloud data, M target is arranged in fixed area around variation building, under normal circumstances m >=4, it is contemplated that the included automatic peace of laser scanner Flat function, and instrument is horizontality when each measurement, therefore, m >=3, the observation of laser scanner system is to build Build the threedimensional coordinate and laser reflection intensity of object surface point；
(2) target for utilizing step (1) setting, calculates two phase point cloud coordinate transformation parameter Z, is registrated to a cloud；
(3) choose fixed metope point cloud data, Dimension Reduction Analysis carried out to it using principal component analytical method, obtain feature to Measure (v_{i}, i=1,2,3), the projection for calculating survey station point in plane where fixed metope establishes structure as coordinate origin O Coordinate system is converted point cloud data to structure coordinate system by survey station coordinate system；
(4) strength information based on point cloud data classifies to the point cloud for changing metope using K mean cluster method, Isolated brick point cloud and mortar point cloud；
(5) point cloud coordinate projection to Zdirection and Ydirection is defined fixed window by the mortar point cloud for utilizing step (4) to obtain Mouth length L_{fix}With moving window length L_{move}, by moving window, calculate separately along Zdirection and the change of Ydirection point cloud line density Change；
(6) changed according to the line density that step (5) obtains, seek horizontal and vertical cutoff rule between each brick respectively, calculated Four angular coordinates of each brick, establish brick model；
(7) each brick point cloud is obtained according to the brick model that step (6) obtains, calculates each brick center；
(8) the two phases corresponding brick central threedimensional coordinate obtained according to step (7) obtains deformation information.
By taking " certain field experiment masonry structure building changes in BEFORE AND AFTER EARTHQUAKE to be detected " as an example, the present invention is further elaborated：
{ 1 } building is scanned using Leica C10 laser scanner systems, instrument is set up in position as shown in Figure 5 Device, 4 targets are laid in stability region other than experimental architecture object, are scanned before and after seismic test respectively, and two phases of acquisition build Object surface laser point cloud data is built, observation includes two classes：Threedimensional coordinate, laser reflection intensity；
{ 2 } as shown in Fig. 2, centered on survey station, vertical direction is Z axis, and the target being arranged using step { 1 } calculates two Phase point cloud coordinate transformation parameter Z is put before putting cloud coordinate registration to seismic test after seismic test in cloud survey station coordinate system, until This, two phase point clouds are under identical coordinate system, in order to which the later stage carries out deformation analysis；
{ 3 } as shown in figure 3, three reference axis are respectively parallel to adjacent three face of the building centered on certain angle point, choosing Fixed metope point cloud data is taken, Dimension Reduction Analysis is carried out using principal component analysis, obtains fixed metope normal vector, i.e. structure coordinate system Xaxis unit vector is [0.9348 0.3551 0.0011], and structure coordinate system Z axis unit vector is [0 0 1], therefore Yaxis list Bit vector is [0.35510.9348 0], and the subpoint of survey station coordinate system coordinate origin to fixed metope is [8.2766 3.1442 0.0095], according to abovementioned parameter and transformational relation, point cloud data is converted by survey station coordinate system to structure coordinate system；
{ 4 } as shown in figure 5, according to the strength information of point cloud data, using K mean cluster method respectively to two phase metopes Point cloud is classified, isolated brick point cloud and mortar point cloud；
{ 5 } pass through site inspection and measure, the mean breadth of mortar is 1012mm between brick, therefore, according to L_{mortar}≈ L_{window}+2L_{move}Define stationary window length L_{fix}=0.008m and moving window length L_{move}=0.002m is obtained using step { 4 } The mortar point cloud arrived, by moving window, is calculated separately along Zdirection and Ydirection by point cloud coordinate projection to Zdirection and Ydirection Point cloud line density variation, the results are shown in Figure 6；
{ 6 } changed according to the line density that step { 5 } obtains, seek the vertical and horizontal cutoff rule between each brick respectively, and Four angular coordinates for calculating each brick, establish brick model as shown in Figure 4；
{ 7 } it as shown in fig. 7, obtaining each brick point cloud data according to the brick model that step { 6 } obtains, calculates in each brick The heart；
{ 8 } as shown in figure 8, the two phases corresponding brick central threedimensional coordinate obtained according to step { 7 }, obtains deformation letter Breath.
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CN108416785B (en) *  20180326  20200811  北京进化者机器人科技有限公司  Topology segmentation method and device for closed space 
CN109035206B (en) *  20180628  20201009  中国地震局地震预测研究所  Building damage state detection method 
CN109684970B (en) *  20181218  20200807  暨南大学  Window length determination method for moving principal component analysis of structural dynamic response 
CN110132233A (en) *  20190416  20190816  西安长庆科技工程有限责任公司  Current relief map drawing practice under a kind of CASS environment based on point cloud data 
CN110060338B (en) *  20190425  20201110  重庆大学  Prefabricated part point cloud identification method based on BIM model 
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CN103307999A (en) *  20130614  20130918  河海大学  Threedimensional laser scanning control rack and field operation scanning and point cloud registration method for same 
CN103940356A (en) *  20140227  20140723  山东交通学院  Building overalldeformation monitoring method based on threedimensional laser scanning technology 
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Application publication date: 20161109 Assignee: ANHUI JINHE SOFTWARE Co.,Ltd. Assignor: HOHAI University Contract record no.: X2020980010569 Denomination of invention: Building change detection method based on projection point density of moving window Granted publication date: 20180921 License type: Common License Record date: 20210104 