CN106091972B - A kind of building change detecting method projecting dot density based on moving window - Google Patents

A kind of building change detecting method projecting dot density based on moving window Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106091972B
CN106091972B CN201610512552.XA CN201610512552A CN106091972B CN 106091972 B CN106091972 B CN 106091972B CN 201610512552 A CN201610512552 A CN 201610512552A CN 106091972 B CN106091972 B CN 106091972B
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coordinate
point cloud
brick
density
mortar
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CN201610512552.XA
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CN106091972A (en
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沈月千
黄腾
王伟
沈哲辉
高鹏
韩易
李成仁
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河海大学
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B11/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means
    • G01B11/16Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means for measuring the deformation in a solid, e.g. optical strain gauge

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of building change detecting methods projecting dot density based on moving window, including step:Two phase point cloud datas are acquired and are registrated;Dimension Reduction Analysis is carried out to stablizing metope;Survey station point is calculated in the subpoint of plane where fixed metope and establishes structure coordinate system;Two phase point cloud datas are transformed into structure coordinate system;Brick point cloud and mortar point cloud are obtained using K mean value sorting techniques;Mortar point cloud is projected respectively to Z-direction and Y-direction;Define stationary window length LfixWith moving window length Lmove, calculate and change along Z-direction and Y-direction point cloud line density;Horizontal and vertical cut-off rule between brick is sought, four angular coordinates of each brick and each brick center are calculated;It is changed detection using two phases corresponding brick center.The present invention automatically extracts each brick center deformation information of metope, and the degree of automation greatly improves, and initial data is fully excavated, under the premise of accuracy guarantee, it is ensured that the deformation information of each brick of masonry structure building can be obtained effectively.

Description

A kind of building change detecting method projecting dot density based on moving window

Technical field

The present invention designs a kind of building change detecting method, and in particular to a kind of building variation based on moving window Detection method.

Background technology

In city, building is the main place of mankind's activity, and safe condition is related to mankind's daily life and warp Therefore Ji activity is changed detection to building and has a very important significance, the variation based on building is detected and repaiied It is multiple, it is research emphasis in recent years in the industry, in the hair of fabric structure especially by seismic building deformation and damage It opens up in history, masonry structure is often widely used in the foundation structure of building since ancient times, each with brick, stone, masonry and sun-dried mud brick etc. Kind of block, a kind of assembly made of being built by laying bricks or stones using mortar (mortar, clay slurry etc.) as masonry structure, masonry structure because low cost, Fire resistance, durability and construction are simply widely used, but its masonry strength is relatively low, and shock resistance is poor, therefore, to masonry The research that the building of structure is changed detection has and its important realistic meaning, the existing variation detection based on image Method, according to the level of information processing, can be divided into based on pixel, feature based and based on target variation detection, and for The variation detection of laser radar (Light Detection And Ranging) LiDAR data also gradually starts photogrammetric Studied with computer vision community, and the change detecting method precision based on image is not high enough, target is not clear enough, and easily by The influence of the quality of image, the deformation information of acquisition is also not abundant enough, can not accurately obtain in masonry structure building every piece of brick Deformation information, in addition, the low efficiency for also having seriously affected variation detection of the degree of automation.

Invention content

Goal of the invention:In view of the above-mentioned deficiencies in the prior art, it is an object of the present invention to provide a kind of based on moving window projection The building change detecting method of dot density.

Technical solution:A kind of building change detecting method projecting dot density based on moving window of the present invention, including Following steps:

(1) it uses laser scanner system to carry out the scanning of two phases to same building object, obtains building surface point cloud data, M target is set in variation architecture enclosing, wherein the observation of m >=3, laser scanner system is building surface point Three-dimensional coordinate and laser reflection intensity;

(2) target for utilizing step 1) setting, calculates two phase point cloud coordinate transformation parameter Z, is registrated to a cloud;

(3) choose fixed metope point cloud data, Dimension Reduction Analysis carried out to it using principal component analytical method, obtain feature to Measure (vi, i=1,2,3), the projection for calculating survey station point in plane where fixed metope establishes structure as coordinate origin Coordinate system is converted point cloud data to structure coordinate system by survey station coordinate system;

(4) strength information based on point cloud data classifies to the point cloud for changing metope using K mean cluster method, Isolated brick point cloud and mortar point cloud;

(5) point cloud coordinate projection to Z-direction and Y-direction is defined fixed window by the mortar point cloud for utilizing step (4) to obtain Mouth length LfixWith moving window length Lmove, by moving window, calculate separately along Z-direction and the change of Y-direction point cloud line density Change;

(6) changed according to the line density that step (5) obtains, seek horizontal and vertical cut-off rule between each brick respectively, calculated Four angular coordinates of each brick, establish brick model;

(7) each brick point cloud is obtained according to the brick model that step (6) obtains, calculates each brick center;

(8) the two phases corresponding brick central three-dimensional coordinate obtained according to step (7) obtains deformation information.

Preferably, in (1) two phase scanning process of step, target is fixed.

Preferably, step (2) and three-dimensional coordinate transfer equation described in step (3) are specific as follows:

If matrix A is the point cloud three-dimensional coordinate under A coordinate systems, matrix B is the point cloud three-dimensional coordinate under B coordinate systems, A, B two The three-dimensional coordinate transfer equation of coordinate system is as follows:

(translational movement of Δ x, Δ y and Δ z denotation coordination origins, k are scale factor, and k=0, R are A coordinate systems to B coordinates The spin matrix of system)

Preferably, specific as follows by the calculating of two phase Registration of Measuring Data conversion parameters described in step (2):

Coordinate transformation parameter Z is further write as, Z=[Δ x, Δ y, Δ z, εx, εy, εz, 1] and utilize least square method to sitting It marks conversion parameter Z and carries out parameter Estimation, the valuation that can obtain coordinate transformation parameter Z is:

Z=(ATQ-1A)-1ATQB

In formula, Q is the covariance matrix of m target coordinate measuring error under B coordinate systems, and form is as follows:

Preferably, step (3) is carried converts into structure coordinate system principal component analysis dimensionality reduction and coordinate by survey station coordinate system Origin determine specific method be:

If three-dimensional coordinate { the X of scanning element Xi=(xi,yi, zi) | i=1,2 ..., n }, construct corresponding covariance matrix:

Wherein, For the barycentric coodinates of point set, to Matrix C carry out it is main at Analysis, can acquire three eigenvalue λs1、λ2、λ3It arranges in descending order, obtains λ1≥λ2> λ3> 0, λ3Corresponding feature vector v3, and v3For normal vector, v3For unit vector of the X-axis under survey station coordinate system of structure coordinate system, and the Z axis of structure coordinate system It to be directed toward consistent with survey station coordinate system, Y-axis constitutes right-handed coordinate system perpendicular to determining XOZ planes, calculating survey station point coordinates S (0, 0,0) in the projection S'(x of plane where fixed metopes,ys,zs), as the coordinate origin of structure coordinate system, therefore translate Vector (Δ x, Δ y, Δ z)=(- xs,-ys,-zs), after establishing translation parameters and reference axis rotation parameter, after two phases were registrated Point cloud data rotate to structure coordinate system;

Preferably, step (4) carry the K mean cluster method based on strength information separation metope brick and mortar it is specific Method is:

Using cluster sum of squared errors function E as clustering criteria function, using strength information as categorical attribute, In,xijIt is j-th of sample of the i-th class, miIt is the cluster centre or barycenter of the i-th class, niIt is the i-th class Number of samples, K mean cluster algorithm find k best cluster centres, wherein k=2, by all n samples by iterating This point is assigned to the cluster centre nearest from it so that cluster error sum of squares E is minimum, and process is as follows:

A is randomly assigned k cluster centre mi(i=1,2 ..., k);

B, to each sample xiThe cluster centre nearest from it is found, such is assigned it to;

C recalculates each brand new center:NiIt is the current sample number of the i-th cluster;

D calculates deviation,

E returns to m if E values restraini(i=1,2 ..., k), algorithm terminate, and otherwise return to b;

Preferably, step (5) institute Tilly mortar point cloud calculates point cloud line density variation, tool based on window Mobile Method Body method is as follows:

If the mean breadth of mortar is known quantity Lmortar, define stationary window length LfixWith moving window length Lmove, Three meets following relationship:

Lmortar≈Lwindow+2Lmove

It calculates separately along Z-direction and Y-direction moving window number:

Wherein [] is rounding symbol,

Calculate separately counting out in Z-direction and each window of Y-direction:

nzi(i=1,2 ..., ny),nyi(i=1,2 ..., nz)

Calculate separately the line density of the point along Z-direction and Y-direction:

Density_z=(nz(i-1)+nzi+nz(i+1))/(3Lfix) (i=2,3 ..., (nz-1))

Density_y=(ny(i-1)+nyi+ny(i+1))/(3Lfix) (i=2,3 ..., (ny-1))

For Z-direction and each window of Y-direction, its line density change rate is calculated:

Grad (i, 1)=Density_y (i)-Density_y (i-1)

Grad (i, 2)=Density_y (i+1)-Density_y (i)

Preferably, step (6) is described is changed using line density, calculates horizontal and vertical cut-off rule between each brick, specific Method is as follows:

For the Z-direction or Y-direction of analysis, point cloud line density is apparently higher than non-at the mortar joints being perpendicularly to the direction Seam crossing region, therefore, select in this direction window averag density as threshold value (ntotalFor point Cloud total number), it is residing solid when being more than threshold value when putting cloud density in window, and meeting Grad (i, 1) > 0 and Grad (i, 2) < 0 Determine the range that window is mortar joints, by the point cloud computing mortar joints center line within the scope of mortar joints, then passes through brick Block girth seam center line computation brick four angular coordinates of model, establish brick model.

Advantageous effect:A kind of building change detecting method projecting dot density based on moving window of the present invention, a side On the other hand face high degree of automation takes full advantage of initial data, precision is high, under the premise of accuracy guarantee, it is ensured that brick The deformation information of each brick of stone structure building can be obtained effectively.

Description of the drawings

Fig. 1 is the flow chart of the present invention;

Fig. 2 is the survey station coordinate system schematic diagram of the present invention;

Fig. 3 is the structure coordinate system schematic diagram of the present invention;

Fig. 4 is the brick model schematic of the present invention;

Fig. 5 is a certain metope K mean value classification results that the present invention chooses;

Fig. 6 is that present invention point cloud subpoint line density changes histogram;

Fig. 7 is each brick central point schematic diagram that the present invention extracts;

The brick 3 D deformation information that the positions Fig. 8 present invention obtains.

Specific implementation mode

Technical solution of the present invention is described in detail below, but protection scope of the present invention is not limited to the implementation Example.

As shown in Figure 1, a kind of building change detecting method projecting dot density based on moving window, including following step Suddenly:

(1) it uses laser scanner system to carry out the scanning of two phases to same building object, obtains building surface point cloud data, M target is arranged in fixed area around variation building, under normal circumstances m >=4, it is contemplated that the included automatic peace of laser scanner Flat function, and instrument is horizontality when each measurement, therefore, m >=3, the observation of laser scanner system is to build Build the three-dimensional coordinate and laser reflection intensity of object surface point;

(2) target for utilizing step (1) setting, calculates two phase point cloud coordinate transformation parameter Z, is registrated to a cloud;

(3) choose fixed metope point cloud data, Dimension Reduction Analysis carried out to it using principal component analytical method, obtain feature to Measure (vi, i=1,2,3), the projection for calculating survey station point in plane where fixed metope establishes structure as coordinate origin O Coordinate system is converted point cloud data to structure coordinate system by survey station coordinate system;

(4) strength information based on point cloud data classifies to the point cloud for changing metope using K mean cluster method, Isolated brick point cloud and mortar point cloud;

(5) point cloud coordinate projection to Z-direction and Y-direction is defined fixed window by the mortar point cloud for utilizing step (4) to obtain Mouth length LfixWith moving window length Lmove, by moving window, calculate separately along Z-direction and the change of Y-direction point cloud line density Change;

(6) changed according to the line density that step (5) obtains, seek horizontal and vertical cut-off rule between each brick respectively, calculated Four angular coordinates of each brick, establish brick model;

(7) each brick point cloud is obtained according to the brick model that step (6) obtains, calculates each brick center;

(8) the two phases corresponding brick central three-dimensional coordinate obtained according to step (7) obtains deformation information.

By taking " certain field experiment masonry structure building changes in BEFORE AND AFTER EARTHQUAKE to be detected " as an example, the present invention is further elaborated:

{ 1 } building is scanned using Leica C10 laser scanner systems, instrument is set up in position as shown in Figure 5 Device, 4 targets are laid in stability region other than experimental architecture object, are scanned before and after seismic test respectively, and two phases of acquisition build Object surface laser point cloud data is built, observation includes two classes:Three-dimensional coordinate, laser reflection intensity;

{ 2 } as shown in Fig. 2, centered on survey station, vertical direction is Z axis, and the target being arranged using step { 1 } calculates two Phase point cloud coordinate transformation parameter Z is put before putting cloud coordinate registration to seismic test after seismic test in cloud survey station coordinate system, until This, two phase point clouds are under identical coordinate system, in order to which the later stage carries out deformation analysis;

{ 3 } as shown in figure 3, three reference axis are respectively parallel to adjacent three face of the building centered on certain angle point, choosing Fixed metope point cloud data is taken, Dimension Reduction Analysis is carried out using principal component analysis, obtains fixed metope normal vector, i.e. structure coordinate system X-axis unit vector is [0.9348 0.3551 0.0011], and structure coordinate system Z axis unit vector is [0 0 1], therefore Y-axis list Bit vector is [0.3551-0.9348 0], and the subpoint of survey station coordinate system coordinate origin to fixed metope is [8.2766 3.1442 0.0095], according to above-mentioned parameter and transformational relation, point cloud data is converted by survey station coordinate system to structure coordinate system;

{ 4 } as shown in figure 5, according to the strength information of point cloud data, using K mean cluster method respectively to two phase metopes Point cloud is classified, isolated brick point cloud and mortar point cloud;

{ 5 } pass through site inspection and measure, the mean breadth of mortar is 10-12mm between brick, therefore, according to Lmortar≈ Lwindow+2LmoveDefine stationary window length Lfix=0.008m and moving window length Lmove=0.002m is obtained using step { 4 } The mortar point cloud arrived, by moving window, is calculated separately along Z-direction and Y-direction by point cloud coordinate projection to Z-direction and Y-direction Point cloud line density variation, the results are shown in Figure 6;

{ 6 } changed according to the line density that step { 5 } obtains, seek the vertical and horizontal cut-off rule between each brick respectively, and Four angular coordinates for calculating each brick, establish brick model as shown in Figure 4;

{ 7 } it as shown in fig. 7, obtaining each brick point cloud data according to the brick model that step { 6 } obtains, calculates in each brick The heart;

{ 8 } as shown in figure 8, the two phases corresponding brick central three-dimensional coordinate obtained according to step { 7 }, obtains deformation letter Breath.

Claims (7)

1. a kind of building change detecting method projecting dot density based on moving window, it is characterised in that:Include the following steps:
1) it uses laser scanner system to carry out the scanning of two phases to same building object, obtains building surface point cloud data, becoming Change architecture enclosing and m target is set, wherein m >=3, the observation of laser scanner system are the three-dimensional of building surface point Coordinate and laser reflection intensity;
2) target for utilizing step 1) setting, calculates two phase point cloud coordinate transformation parameter Z, is registrated to a cloud;
3) fixed metope point cloud data is chosen, Dimension Reduction Analysis is carried out to it using principal component analytical method, obtains feature vector vi,i =1,2,3, the projection for calculating survey station point in plane where fixed metope establishes structure coordinate system as coordinate origin, will Point cloud data is converted by survey station coordinate system to structure coordinate system;
4) strength information based on point cloud data is classified to the point cloud for changing metope using K mean cluster method, is detached To brick point cloud and mortar point cloud;
5) the mortar point cloud for utilizing step 4) to obtain, might as well set the mean breadth of mortar as Lmortar, by point cloud coordinate projection to Z Direction and Y-direction define stationary window length LfixWith moving window length Lmove, meet:Lmortar≈Lwindow+2Lmove;According to The maximum value and minimum value of point cloud midpoint coordinate components Z or Y determine moving window number, by moving window, calculate separately Change along Z-direction and Y-direction point cloud line density;
6) the line density variation of step 5) invocation point cloud, for the Z-direction or Y-direction of analysis, point cloud line density is perpendicular to this Non- seam crossing region is apparently higher than at the mortar joints in direction, therefore, selected window averag density in this direction is as threshold valuentotalFor a cloud total number, it is more than threshold value when putting cloud density in window, and meet Grad (i, 1) When > 0 and Grad (i, 2) < 0, residing stationary window is the range of mortar joints, passes through the point cloud meter within the scope of mortar joints Mortar joints center line is calculated, then by brick girth seam center line computation brick four angular coordinates of model, establishes brick mould Type;
7) each brick point cloud is obtained according to the brick model that step 6) obtains, seeks the geometric center of brick point cloud, obtains each brick Block center;
8) the two phases corresponding brick central three-dimensional coordinate obtained according to step 7) obtains deformation information.
2. the building change detecting method of dot density is projected based on moving window as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that: In two phase of step 1) scanning process, target is fixed.
3. the building change detecting method of dot density is projected based on moving window as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that: Step 2) and three-dimensional coordinate transfer equation described in step 3) are specific as follows:
If matrix A is the point cloud three-dimensional coordinate under A coordinate systems, matrix B is the point cloud three-dimensional coordinate under B coordinate systems, two coordinate of A, B The three-dimensional coordinate transfer equation of system is as follows:
Wherein, the translational movement of Δ x, Δ y and Δ z denotation coordination origins, k are scale factor, and k=0, R are A coordinate systems to B coordinates The spin matrix of system.
4. the building change detecting method of dot density is projected based on moving window as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that: It is specific as follows by the calculating of two phase Registration of Measuring Data conversion parameters described in step 2):
Coordinate transformation parameter Z is further write as, Z=[Δ x, Δ y, Δ z, εx, εy, εz, 1], coordinate is converted with least square method Parameter Z carries out parameter Estimation, and the valuation that can obtain coordinate transformation parameter Z is:
Z=(ATQ-1A)-1ATQB
In formula, Q is the covariance matrix of m target coordinate measuring error under B coordinate systems, and form is as follows:
5. the building change detecting method of dot density is projected based on moving window as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that: Step 3) is carried converts into structure coordinate system the specific side that principal component analysis dimensionality reduction and coordinate origin determine by survey station coordinate system Method is:
If three-dimensional coordinate { the X of scanning element Xi=(xi,yi,zi) | i=1,2 ..., n }, construct corresponding covariance matrix:
Wherein, For the barycentric coodinates of point set, principal component point is carried out to Matrix C Analysis, can acquire three eigenvalue λs1、λ2、λ3It arranges in descending order, obtains λ1≥λ2> λ3> 0, λ3Corresponding feature vector v3, and v3For normal vector, v3For unit vector of the X-axis under survey station coordinate system of structure coordinate system, and the Z axis of structure coordinate system be directed toward with Survey station coordinate system is consistent, and Y-axis constitutes right-handed coordinate system perpendicular to determining XOZ planes, calculates survey station point coordinates S (0,0,0) and exists The projection S'(x of plane where fixed metopes,ys,zs), as the coordinate origin of structure coordinate system, therefore translation vector (Δ x, Δ y, Δ z)=(- xs,-ys,-zs), after establishing translation parameters and reference axis rotation parameter, the point after two phases were registrated Cloud data rotation is to structure coordinate system.
6. the building change detecting method of dot density is projected based on moving window as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that: Step 4) carries the separation metope brick of the K mean cluster method based on strength information and the specific method of mortar is:
Using cluster sum of squared errors function E as clustering criteria function, using strength information as categorical attribute, whereinxijIt is j-th of sample of the i-th class, miBe the i-th class cluster in or barycenter, niIt is the i-th class sample Number, K mean cluster algorithm find k best cluster centres by iterating, wherein k=2, by all n sample points point It is fitted on the cluster centre nearest from it so that cluster error sum of squares E is minimum, and process is as follows:
Step 1 is randomly assigned k cluster centre mi(i=1,2 ..., k);
Step 2, to each sample xiThe cluster centre nearest from it is found, such is assigned it to;
Step 3 recalculates each brand new center:NiIt is the current sample number of the i-th cluster;
Step 4 calculates deviation,
Step 5 returns to m if E values restraini(i=1,2 ..., k), algorithm terminate, and otherwise return to Step2.
7. the building change detecting method of dot density is projected based on moving window as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that: Step 5) institute Tilly mortar point cloud calculates point cloud line density variation based on window Mobile Method, and the specific method is as follows:
It calculates separately along Z-direction and Y-direction moving window number:
Wherein [] is rounding symbol, ymaxAnd yminThe respectively maximum value and minimum value of point cloud midpoint Y coordinate component;zmaxAnd zmin The respectively maximum value and minimum value of point cloud midpoint Z coordinate component;
Calculate separately counting out in Z-direction and each window of Y-direction:
nzi(i=1,2 ..., ny),nyi(i=1,2 ..., nz)
Calculate separately the line density of the point along Z-direction and Y-direction:
Density_z=(nz(i-1)+nzi+nz(i+1))/(3Lfix) (i=2,3 ..., (nz-1))
Density_y=(ny(i-1)+nyi+ny(i+1))/(3Lfix) (i=2,3 ..., (ny-1))
For Z-direction and each window of Y-direction, its line density change rate is calculated:
Grad (i, 1)=Density_y (i)-Density_y (i-1)
Grad (i, 2)=Density_y (i+1)-Density_y (i).
CN201610512552.XA 2016-06-30 2016-06-30 A kind of building change detecting method projecting dot density based on moving window CN106091972B (en)

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CN109684970B (en) * 2018-12-18 2020-08-07 暨南大学 Window length determination method for moving principal component analysis of structural dynamic response
CN110132233A (en) * 2019-04-16 2019-08-16 西安长庆科技工程有限责任公司 Current relief map drawing practice under a kind of CASS environment based on point cloud data
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