CN106080265A - Control system and control method of timely all-wheel drive farmland electro-tricycle - Google Patents

Control system and control method of timely all-wheel drive farmland electro-tricycle Download PDF

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CN106080265A
CN106080265A CN 201610552979 CN201610552979A CN106080265A CN 106080265 A CN106080265 A CN 106080265A CN 201610552979 CN201610552979 CN 201610552979 CN 201610552979 A CN201610552979 A CN 201610552979A CN 106080265 A CN106080265 A CN 106080265A
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wheel
drive
control
value
set
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CN 201610552979
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Chinese (zh)
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艾长胜
武德林
王鲁川
孙选
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山东众和植保机械股份有限公司
济南大学
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LELECTRIC EQUIPMENT OR PROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES, IN GENERAL
    • B60L15/00Methods, circuits, or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles
    • B60L15/20Methods, circuits, or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles for control of the vehicle or its driving motor to achieve a desired performance, e.g. speed, torque, programmed variation of speed
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LELECTRIC EQUIPMENT OR PROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES, IN GENERAL
    • B60L2220/00Electrical machine types; Structures or applications thereof
    • B60L2220/40Electrical machine applications
    • B60L2220/42Electrical machine applications with use of more than one motor
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LELECTRIC EQUIPMENT OR PROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES, IN GENERAL
    • B60L2220/00Electrical machine types; Structures or applications thereof
    • B60L2220/40Electrical machine applications
    • B60L2220/46Wheel motors, i.e. motor connected to only one wheel
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LELECTRIC EQUIPMENT OR PROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES, IN GENERAL
    • B60L2240/00Control parameters of input or output; Target parameters
    • B60L2240/40Drive Train control parameters
    • B60L2240/46Drive Train control parameters related to wheels
    • B60L2240/461Speed
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LELECTRIC EQUIPMENT OR PROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES, IN GENERAL
    • B60L2260/00Operating Modes
    • B60L2260/20Drive modes; Transition between modes
    • B60L2260/28Four wheel or all wheel drive
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/72Electric energy management in electromobility
    • Y02T10/7258Optimisation of vehicle performance
    • Y02T10/7275Desired performance achievement

Abstract

The invention discloses a control system and control method of a timely all-wheel drive farmland electro-tricycle. A control unit judges whether a collected speed signal is within a set deviation range or not; when a deviation ratio reaches a set value, the control unit controls the front wheel of the electro-tricycle to begin to drive to increase power so as to improve a deviation numerical value; when all-wheel drive begins, the deviation numerical value is detected in every set time; when the deviation numerical value is still greater than the set value, judgment is carried out after waiting for the set time again; the control unit automatically gives up front wheel drive when signal processing data is smaller than the set value, i.e., the front wheel and the rear wheels carry out stable output, the electro-tricycle is only subjected to rear wheel drive, in addition, total movement speed is calculated according to the speed of each position, and the dosage of mist spray or fertilization spreading is calculated and executed according to speed. Whether all-wheel drive is carried out or not is automatically selected, power consumption is lowered, affiliated operation efficiency is reasonably distributed, and the use ratio of pesticide and fertilizer is improved.

Description

适时全轮驱动的农田电动三轮车控制系统及控制方法 Timely and all-wheel drive electric tricycle farmland control system and control method

技术领域 FIELD

[00011本发明涉及自动化控制领域,尤其涉及一种适时全轮驱动的农田电动三轮车控制系统及控制方法。 [00011 invention relates to the field of automatic control, in particular, it relates to all-wheel drive in a timely farmland electric tricycle control system and control method.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 随着世界经济不断发展,科技与环境的都在不断地改变,人们对环保意识的不断提高,其中在交通运输行业发生了重大的转变,丰田、大众、通用、福特等汽车产业的带头企业先后进行生产产业变更重组,淘汰了曾经高油耗的品牌和产品,把节能与新能源汽车作为企业产品,把节能和新能源汽车作为企业产品研发的重中之重。 [0002] As the world economy continues to develop, are constantly changing technology and the environment, people continue to raise awareness of environmental protection, of which the major changes have taken place in the transport sector, Toyota, Volkswagen, General Motors, Ford and other auto industry take the lead in the production of industrial enterprises have carried out restructuring changes, once out of the gas-guzzling brand and products, energy-saving and new energy vehicles as an enterprise product, energy-saving and new energy vehicles as an enterprise product research and development a top priority.

[0003] 电动三轮车产品凭借其节能、实用、环保、便捷、经济的等优越性,在各地区特别是乡镇、农村,以及城乡之间的地区市场迅猛增长,旅游观光车等电动车,也被应用于各个领域,并在我国起着越来越重要的作用,在如今和未来的相当一段时间,人们注重环保、注重节能的理念日益增加,电动三轮车环保、便捷实用的优点日益凸显,在国内市场需求日益高涨。 [0003] electric tricycle products, with its energy-saving, practical, environmentally friendly, convenient, economical and other advantages, especially in the region between the market towns, rural areas, as well as rapid growth in urban and rural regions, tourist vehicles such as electric vehicles, also used in various fields, and plays an increasingly important role in our country, now and in the future for quite some time, people pay attention to environmental protection, energy-conscious concept of increasing electric tricycle environmentally friendly, convenient and practical advantages become increasingly prominent in the country growing market demand.

[0004] 我国机械化技术刚刚起步,尤其是农业电动机械化,地理环境以及国情等多种原因,我国的农田生产管理仍然以人工管理为主,机械化水平非常落后。 [0004] of mechanization technology has just started, especially electric mechanization of agriculture, environment and geographical conditions and other reasons, China's agricultural production and management continue to be the main labor management, mechanization level is very backward. 真正适合中国地貌的农业机器非常少。 Really suitable for China's agricultural machinery topography is very small. 一方面我国农作物种植面积划分行距有限,个人作业的土地较多,中大型农业机械无法进行作业。 On the one hand our limited crop area dividing line spacing, more personal land a job, medium and large agricultural machinery can not work. 市场上的大中型植保机械品种较多、规格也比较全。 Medium-sized plant protection machinery on the market are more varieties, specifications relatively full. 但是真正适应目前农业生产的却很少。 But the real adapt to the current agricultural production are few.

[0005] 但不可否认电动自动化正在从工业进入农业。 [0005] However, it is undeniable electric automation is entering from the agriculture industry. 现在我国田间管理主要以手动喷雾器、手动踏板式和背负式电动喷雾器为主。 China now mainly in field management manual sprayers, hand pedal and electric knapsack sprayer based. 这种喷雾器劳动强度大、劳动效率低、农药利用率低,农作物生长需要多次打药施肥,而且要在雨后马上喷施,并且要求药液尽可能多的喷洒在作物的叶子上。 This nebulizer is labor intensive, low labor efficiency, low utilization of pesticides, crop growth requiring multiple fertilizer fight drugs, but also sprayed immediately after the rain, and requires as much liquid is sprayed on the leaves of crops. 所以,手工喷雾器劳动强度大,喷出的药液不均匀,弥漫性差,增大了药物残留,直接影响农作物粮食品质和产量,从而影响整个产业的发展,根本无法满足粮食、 瓜果产业迅猛发展的需求。 So, hand sprayer labor-intensive, non-uniform spray of liquid, diffuse poor, increased drug residues directly affect the quality and yield of food crops, thus affecting the entire industry, simply can not meet the food, the rapid development of fruit industry It needs.

[0006] 我国是农业大国,技术、经济、文化的现代化进程不断发展,但我国农业大部分还处在小集体甚至个体户生产阶段,在种植、施肥、管理农作物、特别是水田农作物,作业环境艰苦,且效率不高极大地影响着我国生产力的发展。 [0006] Our country is a large agricultural country, the modernization process technology, economy and culture continues to develop, but the majority of China's agriculture is still in the stage production of the self-employed and even small groups, planting, fertilization, crop management, especially paddy crops, tough operating environment , and inefficient greatly influences the development of the productive forces.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0007] 本发明的目的就是为了解决上述问题,提供一种适时全轮驱动的农田电动三轮车控制系统及控制方法,实现农田作业中三轮车根据实际工作参数的实时适时的控制和优化,以克服农田中泥泞的道路等外部环境对行走及附属作业的严重影响,自动选择全轮驱动与否,降低功耗、合理分配附属作业功率,提高药肥利用率。 [0007] The object of the present invention is to solve the above problems, there is provided an electric tricycle farm control system and control method for all-wheel drive in a timely, Implementation of a real-time operation tricycle timely control and optimization according to the actual operating parameters to overcome the farmland serious impact on the muddy roads and other external environment for walking and ancillary operations, all-wheel drive is automatically selected or not, reduce power consumption, a reasonable allocation of power subsidiary operations, improve utilization of insecticide and fertilizer.

[0008] 为了实现上述目的,本发明采用如下技术方案: [0008] To achieve the above object, the present invention adopts the following technical solution:

[0009] 适时全轮驱动的农田电动三轮车控制方法,包括, [0009] The method of controlling agricultural tricycle timely all-wheel drive, comprising,

[0010]控制单元根据采集来的速度信号判断是否在设定的偏差范围内,当偏离比例达到设定值时,控制单元控制三轮车前轮开始驱动,增加动力以改善偏离的数值; [0010] The control unit according to the collected speed signal to determines whether the variation range of the set, when the ratio reaches the set value deviates, the control unit controls the tricycle front wheel starts to drive, increasing the power to improve the offset value;

[0011]当进入全轮驱动时,每隔设定的时间检测偏离数值,当偏离数值仍大于设定值时, 将再次等待设定的时间后判断,直到信号处理的数据小于设定值即前后轮稳定输出时,控制单元自动放弃前轮驱动,只对三轮车进行后轮驱动,并且根据各位置速度计算出总体移动速度,根据速度计算并执行喷雾或撒肥的用量。 [0011] When entering the all-wheel drive, every time the detection value deviates from the set, when the value is still greater than the set value deviates from the set again wait time determination, until the data signal processing than the set value i.e. front and rear wheels when the regulated output, the control unit waiver front-wheel drive, rear-wheel drive only the tricycle, and calculates the moving speed according to an overall speed at each position, calculates and executes the spraying or spreading manure according to the amount of speed.

[0012] 对采集来的前轮转向角度设置偏离区间,采集数据在偏离区间内变化时,同时采集三个轮的瞬时速度,折算出当前车轮线速度,两后轮瞬时的平均速度等于前轮的瞬时速度与前轮实际转向角度β的余弦值的乘积,前轮转向角度越大后轮平均速度就越小。 [0012] departing from the interval provided for the front wheel turning angle to the acquisition, data is collected over a misalignment change interval, the instantaneous speed while acquiring three wheels, converted into a current wheel speed, the average speed of the rear wheels is equal to the instantaneous wheel the value of the cosine of the instantaneous speed and the actual front wheel steering angle β, the greater the steering angle of the rear wheel average speed less.

[0013] 偏离区间为,两后轮瞬时的平均速度在前轮向前分速度的二分之一和二分之三之间。 [0013] departing from the interval between one-half and two rear two thirds of the average speed instantaneous velocity component in the front wheel forward.

[0014] 当检测到各轮的速度不在偏离区间时,在间隔设定的一段时间后再次判定防止信号抖动的误差,若还是不在偏离区间内,将会自动的对前轮进行驱动,在等待设定时间后再次判定车轮速度的偏离状态,直到在偏离区间内时只驱动后轮。 [0014] When detecting the speed of each wheel is not departing from the range in the interval is determined period of time set again to prevent the error signal jitter, or if not departing from the range, will automatically drive the front wheel, waiting determining a state offset from the wheel speed again after a set time, until the rear wheel drive only within a range departing.

[0015]在采集来给定的霍尔信号急速上升或者急速下降时,输出速度信号不能立即随霍尔信号变化,设定采集的霍尔信号为目标值,判定当前值与目标值大小,当目标值大时就输出当前的速度加上某额定数值,反之输出当前的速度减去这个额定数值,返回主程序,主程序会自动循环,进入下一次判定、输出,这就完成了控制信号的梯形加速。 [0015] When given to acquisition of the Hall signal rises rapidly or rapid decline, with the output speed signal can not immediately change the Hall signal, setting a target value for the acquisition of the Hall signal, determines the size of the current target value, when the target value is output when a large current speed plus the nominal value, whereas the current output speed minus the nominal value, return to the main program, the main routine will automatically cycle, a determination incoming, outgoing, this completes the control signal trapezoidal acceleration.

[0016] 控制单元检测到任何的刹车信号时,停止一切驱动信号的输出,并点亮刹车灯。 When [0016] the control unit detects any braking signal to stop outputting the drive signal of all, brake lights and lighting.

[0017] 采用所述适时全轮驱动的农田电动三轮车控制方法的控制系统,包括控制单元, 信号采集单元与控制单元的输入端连接,控制单元的输出端连接前轮隔离器和数模转换单元后连接前轮驱动器,前轮驱动器与前轮电机连接,控制单元的输出端还连接后轮隔离器和数模转换单元后连接后轮驱动器,后轮驱动器与后轮电机连接; [0017] The control system of an electric tricycle control method for the timely farmland all-wheel drive, including an input terminal of the control unit, a signal acquisition unit and the control unit is connected to the output terminal of the control unit is connected to a front wheel and a digital-analog converting unit isolator after connecting a front wheel drive, front wheel drive motor and connected to the output terminal of the control unit is also connected to the rear spacer and digital to analog conversion means connected to the rear-wheel drive, rear-wheel drive and rear wheel connected to the motor;

[0018] 所述控制单元还与存储器连接;动力电池的输出经过稳压模块后为系统供电。 [0018] The control unit is further connected to a memory; battery output power after the system power supply voltage regulator.

[0019 ]所述信号采集单元包括前轮转速传感器、后轮左转速传感器、后轮右转速传感器、 转把霍尔传感器、转向编码器、刹车传感器。 [0019] The signal acquisition unit includes a front wheel speed sensor, a left rear wheel speed sensor, a right rear wheel speed sensor, the Hall switch sensor, a steering encoder, a brake sensor.

[0020] 所述信号采集单元连接模数转换模块后连接控制单元的输入端。 The [0020] After the signal acquisition unit connected to analog to digital conversion module connected to the input of the control unit.

[0021] 前轮隔离器和后轮隔离器包括单路π型滤波光耦接口电路,包括端口1+和1-,端口I+和光电親合器的一输入端之间串联电阻R 3,端口I -与光电親合器的另一输入端连接,端口I+和I-之间串联电阻R4和发光二极管D3,所述光电親合器的一输出端同时连接电阻R5的一端和发光二极管D2的负极,电阻R5的另一端同时接电阻R6的一端和电容C1的一端,电阻R6的另一端留有输出端01,同时R6的另一端接电容C2后接地,电容C1的另一端接地;发光二极管D2的负极串接电阻R2后接电源。 [0021] the front and rear isolators isolators series resistance between an input terminal R 3 comprises single π-type filter optocoupler interface circuit, including port 1+ and 1-, I + port and the photo affinity, port, I - connected to the other input terminal of the photoelectric affinity, port, I + and I- series between the resistor R4 and the light emitting diodes D3, an output of the photo affinity is simultaneously connected to one end of a resistor and a light emitting diode D2 R5 is a negative electrode, while the other end of the resistor R5 one end, the other end of the resistor R6 is connected to one end of the resistor R6 and the capacitor C1 the output terminal 01 leaving the other end to the other end of the capacitor C2 is grounded while R6, capacitor C1; light emitting diode D2 is connected to the negative power supply via a resistor R2.

[0022]本发明的有益效果: [0022] Advantageous effects of the invention:

[0023]实现农田作业中三轮车根据实际工作参数的实时适时的控制和优化,以克服农田中泥泞的道路等外部环境对行走及附属作业的严重影响,自动选择全轮驱动与否,降低功耗、合理分配附属作业功率,提高药肥利用率。 [0023] Implementation of a job tricycle timely real-time control and optimization based on actual operating parameters, in order to overcome the severe impact of the external environment farmland muddy roads to travel and ancillary operations, all-wheel drive is automatically selected or not, to reduce power consumption reasonable power distribution subsidiary operations, improve utilization of insecticide and fertilizer.

[0024]适时全轮驱动农田电动三轮车综合自动化、高动力、清洁能源等优点,提高了农业现代化,给农民省力,给国家节省不可再生的资源,同时也降低了农民的实用成本,也将促进我国机械加工业、农业自动化的发展。 [0024] timely and all-wheel drive farmland electric tricycle integrated automation, high power, clean energy, etc., to improve the modernization of agriculture, farmers and effort to the state saving non-renewable resources, but also reduces the utility costs of farmers, but also will promote China's machinery industry, automation of agriculture development.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0025] 图1为本发明所提供的单路π型滤波光耦接口电路设计原理图; [0025] FIG 1 single π-type filter optocoupler interface circuit diagram of the present invention there is provided;

[0026] 图2为本发明所提供的主控单元的基本测控框图; The basic block diagram of Control [0026] FIG. 2 of the present invention, the master unit is provided;

[0027] 图3为本发明所提供的三轮运动分析速度矢量图; [0027] FIG. 3 three moving speed of analysis provided by the vector of the present invention;

[0028] 图4为本发明所提供的三轮车基本的自动控制流程图; [0028] FIG. 4 substantially automatic control flowchart of the present invention there is provided a tricycle;

[0029]图5为本发明所提供的梯形加速程序的控制分析曲线; [0029] FIG. 5 trapezoidal acceleration curve analysis control program provided by the present invention;

[0030]图6为本发明所提供的适时全轮驱动电动三轮车行走功能结构简图。 Timely all-wheel drive traveling electric tricycle functional configuration diagram of [0030] FIG. 6 of the present invention is provided.

[0031]其中,1.霍尔信号,2.输出P丽的占空比。 [0031] wherein a Hall signal, 2. The output P Li duty cycle.

具体实施方式 detailed description

[0032]下面结合附图与实施例对本发明作进一步说明。 The drawings and embodiments of the present invention will be further described [0032] below in conjunction.

[0033]如图2和图6所示,适时全轮驱动的农田电动三轮车控制系统,包括控制单元,信号采集单元与控制单元的输入端连接,控制单元的输出端连接前轮隔离器和数模转换单元后连接前轮驱动器,前轮驱动器与前轮电机连接,控制单元的输出端还连接后轮隔离器和数模转换单元后连接后轮驱动器,后轮驱动器与后轮电机连接;控制单元的输出端还连接撒肥电机驱动和喷药栗电机驱动; [0033] As shown in FIG. 2 and FIG. 6, the electric tricycle farmland timely all-wheel drive control system, comprising a control unit, a signal acquisition unit and an input terminal connected to the control unit, the control unit is connected to the output terminal of the isolator and several front after analog conversion means connected to the front wheel drive, front wheel drive motor and connected to the output terminal of the control unit is also connected to the rear spacer and digital to analog conversion means connected to the rear-wheel drive, rear-wheel drive and rear wheel connected to the motor; control output of the unit is also connected to a motor drive and spraying manure spreaders Li motor drive;

[0034] 所述控制单元还与存储器连接;动力电池的输出经过稳压模块后为系统供电。 [0034] The control unit is further connected to a memory; battery output power after the system power supply voltage regulator.

[0035] 所述信号采集单元包括前轮转速传感器、后轮左转速传感器、后轮右转速传感器、 转把霍尔传感器、转向编码器、刹车传感器。 The [0035] signal collection unit comprises a front wheel speed sensor, a left rear wheel speed sensor, a right rear wheel speed sensor, the Hall switch sensor, a steering encoder, a brake sensor.

[0036] 所述信号采集单元连接模数转换模块后连接控制单元的输入端。 The [0036] After the signal acquisition unit connected to analog to digital conversion module connected to the input of the control unit.

[0037] 如图1所示为单路π型滤波光耦接口电路设计原理图,包括端口1+和1-,端口1+和光电親合器的一输入端之间串联电阻R3,端口I-与光电親合器的另一输入端连接,端口1+ 和I-之间串联电阻R4和发光二极管D3,所述光电親合器的一输出端同时连接电阻R5的一端和发光二极管D2的负极,电阻R5的另一端同时接电阻R6的一端和电容C1的一端,电阻R6的另一端留有输出端01,同时R6的另一端接电容C2后接地,电容C1的另一端接地;发光二极管D2的负极串接电阻R2后接电源。 [0037] As shown in FIG. 1 is a π-type filter single optocoupler interface circuit diagram, comprising a series resistor R3 connected between an input port and 1 1+, 1+ and the photo affinity port, port, I - connected to the other input terminal of the photo's affinity, between 1+ and I- series resistor R4 and a light emitting port diodes D3, an output of the photo affinity is simultaneously connected to one end of a resistor and a light emitting diode D2 R5 is a negative electrode, while the other end of the resistor R5 one end, the other end of the resistor R6 is connected to one end of the resistor R6 and the capacitor C1 the output terminal 01 leaving the other end to the other end of the capacitor C2 is grounded while R6, capacitor C1; light emitting diode D2 is connected to the negative power supply via a resistor R2.

[0038] 当前直流无刷电机驱动器速度信号多采用模拟信号给定(模拟信号具有连续直观且容易实现等优点),而控制单元自己只有两个DAC(数模转换输出),对于多信号模拟电路控制就需要其他形式输出并转化为模拟信号,而最常见的是利用控制单元输出较多的PWM 信号。 [0038] DC current brushless motor driver velocity signal given multiple analog signals (analog signal having a continuous intuitive and easy to implement, etc.), and the control unit himself only two DAC (digital to analog converter output), an analog circuit for multiple signal other forms of output control is required and converted into an analog signal, and the most common is the use of more control unit outputs a PWM signal. ΠΜ信号是一种具有固定周期(T)不定占空比(τ)的数字信号。 ΠΜ signal is a variable duty cycle ([tau]) of the digital signal has a fixed period (T). 如果HVM信号的占空比随时间变化,通过滤波之后的输出信号将是幅值变化的模拟信号。 HVM signal if the duty cycle varies with time, the output signal after filtering of the analog signal amplitude changes. 因此通过控制PWM信号的占空比,就可以产生不同的模拟信号,即DAC输出。 Therefore, by controlling the duty cycle of the PWM signal can be generated for different analog signals, i.e., the DAC output. 信号输出PWM数字信号要通过接口电路进行η型隔离滤波放大等作用后利用稳定的模拟信号才能驱动各个电机平稳稳定运转。 The PWM signal output the digital signal to be filtered and amplified η isolator and so on through the interface circuit to an analog signal using stable stable stable driving operation of each motor. 所以要设计合适的接口电路来实现主控制器和驱动器电器隔离,只进行信号之间的传递。 Therefore, to design a suitable interface circuit to implement the master controller and the drive electrical isolation between the transmitted signal only.

[0039] 如图2所示主控单元是实现电控产品的主要核心单元,相当于人体的大脑;采集信号就相当于人的眼、鼻、耳等感知部位;驱动的设计则表示着给电控产品安装上双手双脚等。 [0039] The main control unit shown in Figure 2 is the electrical control unit main core products, corresponding to the human brain; equivalent signal acquisition eyes, nose, ears and other parts of the human perception; indicates the drive is designed to electronic control products installed on the hands and feet and so on. 主控单元主要完成各项任务则需要对采集来的信号计算、处理之后并输出相应的控制信号,进而控制整个系统。 The main control unit is required to complete the task of computing the signal to the acquisition, processing and then outputs a corresponding control signal so as to control the entire system.

[0040] 本发明包括:采集信号的计算处理部分和控制处理信号的输出控制部分。 [0040] The present invention comprises: acquiring section calculates the output control processing section and the signal processing control signal.

[0041] 采集信号的计算处理部分包括霍尔转把信号的实时监测和计算处理、前轮转向系统的监测和计算处理、前轮及后轮电机霍尔信号监测和计算处理、刹车信号监测和处理等。 [0041] The calculation processing section comprises a Hall switch signal acquisition and real-time monitoring the signal calculation processing, calculation processing and monitoring front wheel steering system, front and rear wheels and a motor signal monitoring Hall calculation processing, and the brake signal monitoring processing.

[0042] 其中电门信号就可用常见所示的霍尔脚踏板,角度不同会输出不同的地电门信号,经过连接程序中对应的引脚进入主控单元的AD采集模块,进入后经一定比例做出响应控制。 [0042] wherein the switches can be a Hall signal common footboard shown, the output will be different at different angles signal switches through the connecting pin into the program corresponding AD acquisition module master unit, after entering through the respond to a certain percentage of control.

[0043] 前轮转向轴与编码器通过同步轮同步带的啮合,利用编码器可对车把转动角位移或当前位置信息精确的转变为电脉冲信号,用电信号传递到控制器,在控制器的编写对应接收程序,完成前轮速度方向信息的采集。 [0043] The front wheel steering shaft by engaging and synchronizing the encoder wheel belt can be of a handle, or rotational displacement information of the current position accurately converted to an electrical pulse signal, an electrical signal is transmitted to the controller by the encoder, the control the program corresponding to the received writer, the front wheel speed to complete the acquisition of direction information.

[0044] 目前采集前后轮最简单有效的方法是截取电机与电机驱动器之间的通信的交互信号进行测定当前电机转速。 [0044] Currently the most simple and effective method of front and rear wheels is taken interactive acquisition signal communication between the motor and the motor drive for determining a current motor speed. 三轮车在运行时,用户如遇到路障或其他需求需要停下时,操作者会踩下刹车,采用刹车断电开关,刹车开关为动合触点,不论在何种情况下对三轮车进行刹车时,刹车开关的触点被释放,刹车开关闭合,在刹车时控制器的感应脚被拉低,控制器(主控模块)得知刹车信号,并停止一切驱动信号输出,减少刹车时能量的损失甚至事故的发生;同时刹车灯两端出现电压差,刹车灯也被点亮。 When tricycle at runtime, in case the user needs to stop and barrier or other operator will brakes using the brake switch is off, the brake switch for the front contact, regardless of the tricycle when the brakes are circumstances in which , the brake switch contacts are released, the brake switch is closed, the controller sensing pin is pulled low during braking, the controller (control module) that the brake signal, and outputs a drive signal to stop all, reduce the loss of braking energy even accidents; while a voltage difference appears at both ends of the brake lights, brake lights are illuminated.

[0045]适时全轮驱动的农田电动三轮车控制方法,对于完成以上适时全轮驱动的三轮车来说,让控制器知道什么时候采取全轮驱动,这就要用到各信号的采集来的输入信号,控制单元对不同位置采集来的信号数据与实际理想运作状况结合分析对照,通常选定某信号数据处理后与理想数值之间的偏离的数值,当偏离的数值比例达到一设定值时,由控制器控制三轮车前轮开始驱动,增加动力以改善偏离的数值,当进入全轮驱动时,每隔一可设定的时间就会检测偏离数值当偏离值仍然大于设定值,将再次等待设定的时间后判断,直到信号处理的数据小于设定值即前后轮稳定输出时,控制器自动放弃前轮驱动,从而只对三轮车进行后轮驱动,减少在平坦路面上运行时电机损耗。 [0045] The control method farmland electric tricycle timely all-wheel drive, for the timely completion of the above-wheel drive tricycle, let the controller know when to take all-wheel drive, which use the acquisition of the signals to the input signal , the control unit different locations to collect signal data and the actual control over the operating conditions in conjunction with analysis, the value of a deviation between the signal data value is normally chosen over the processing, when the value of the ratio of the deviation reaches a set value, controlled by the controller starts to drive the tricycle front wheel, increasing the power to improve the offset value, when entering the all-wheel drive, every time will be set when the detected value deviates from the set value is still greater than the offset value, will again wait after setting the determination time, until the data signal processing stability than the set value i.e. the front and rear output controller waiver front-wheel drive, so that only the tricycle rear-wheel drive, to reduce motor loss when running on a flat road. 并且根据各位置速度计算出总体移动速度,根据速度计算并执行喷雾和撒肥的用量。 The calculated position and velocity of each moving speed of an overall, and performs calculation of the amount of spraying and spreading manure according to the speed.

[0046]如图3所示,在实际控制中利用不同位置的速度信号采集的数据在控制器中进行以下数据处理,并与实际结合分析。 [0046] 3, with different positions of the data in the actual control of the speed signal acquisition following data processing in the controller, and the actual binding assay. 对于转向信号数据对应出实际转向角度β,由于车轮在转向时两后轮平均速度始终垂直于两轮旋转中心的半径。 The steering signal data corresponding to the radius of the actual steering angle β, since the steering wheel when the rear wheel average speed of the two is always perpendicular to the rotational center of the two. 再由对采集来的前轮转向角度可设置合理区间,采集数据在合理区间内变化时,同时采集三个轮的实时的瞬时速度,折算出当前车轮线速度,前轮的转向信号采集的数据对应不同的角度信息,前轮转角越大后轮平均速度就要相对越小,理论上有图可得出以下公式 When then collected by the front wheel steering angle to be provided reasonable interval, collecting data change within a reasonable range, while the real-time acquisition of the instantaneous speed of the three wheels, converted into a current wheel speed, front wheel steering signal data acquisition information corresponding to different angles, the larger the angle of the front wheel is relatively smaller average velocity should, in theory, the following equation can be derived FIG.

Figure CN106080265AD00061

[0048]其中β实际转向角度是运行时的瞬时的两后轮平均速度,也就是后轮电机减速后的速度。 [0048] wherein β is the actual steering angle of the rear wheel average speed instantaneous two run-time, i.e. after the wheel deceleration of the motor speed. V前是前轮的瞬时速度力是前轮的相对车体正向前方瞬时分速度。 V is the instantaneous speed of the front wheel force of the vehicle body is relatively instantaneous points in front of a front wheel forward speed. V2、V3分别是后轮左边与后轮右边的瞬时速度。 V2, V3 are instantaneous speed of the left and right rear wheels of the rear wheels.

[0049]三轮车的各个轮转速的检测信号往往与理论数据存在差值,可通过以上公式建立联系并设置偏差范围,实际运行的偏差超出合理范围,控制器在短时间内感知并快速反应, 控制驱动前轮输出。 [0049] The tricycle respective wheel speed detection signal and there is often a difference between the theoretical data, can be linked by the above formula and set variation range, deviation of the actual operating beyond a reasonable range, the controller in a short time and rapid response sensing, control output drives the front wheels. 同样以分别表示前轮向前的速度分量、左后轮、右后轮转动的瞬时速度,ΤΙ、T2为可调定时时间。 Likewise represent forward wheel velocity component, the left rear wheel and right rear wheel of the instantaneous speed, ΤΙ, T2 adjustable regular time. 三轮车采集来的速度信号经过处理即可判定偏离数值, 若以三轮车前轮向前的分速度与后轮平均速度差值占向前分速度的50%时,也就是后轮的平均速度在向前分速度的二分之一和二分之三之间。 Tricycle to the speed signal acquisition can be processed determination value deviates, when the front wheel tricycle In terms of the forward velocity component and the rear wheel average speed difference of 50% of the forward component of velocity, i.e., the average speed of the rear wheel speed between the front sub-one-half and two-thirds. 即: which is:

Figure CN106080265AD00071

[0051] 化简后为:Vi<V2+V3<3Vi [0051] After simplified as: Vi <V2 + V3 <3Vi

[0052] 在三轮车行走过程中,一般电门控制信号会直接驱动后桥电机,开始行走,信号采集来的数据可以处理计算出当前的各轮速度,当检测到各轮速度不符合以上公式时,会在间隔很小一段时间再次判定速度防止信号抖动的误差,若还是不符合上式,将会自动的对前轮进行驱动,在等待一段时间后再次判定车轮速度的偏离状态。 [0052] In the tricycle during walking, generally switches the control signal directly drives the rear axle motor starts running, the data can be processed for signal acquisition calculate the current speed of each wheel, each wheel is detected when the speed does not meet the above formula , the speed will be determined in a time interval small error signal will again prevent jitter, or if do not meet the above formula, will automatically drive the front wheels, the wheel speed is determined again after a waiting period deviates state. 自动控制判别的流程如图4所示。 Automatic control process is determined as shown in FIG. 而当在接收到刹车信号时,控制器快速响应,停止一切驱动信号的输出(也可根据前后轮速度适当给与当前转速相反的电信号驱动以加快制动速度)。 And when the brake signal is received, the controller fast response, all stops outputting the drive signal (current rotation speed can be appropriately given opposite electric signal according to the driving speed of front and rear wheels to accelerate the speed brake).

[0053] 在采集来给定的霍尔信号急速上升或者急速下降时,输出速度信号不可立即随霍尔信号变化,可设定采集的霍尔信号为目标值,判定当前值与目标值大小,当目标值大时就输出当前的速度加上某额定数值,反之输出当前的速度减去这个额定数值,返回主程序,主程序会自动循环,进入下一次判定、输出。 [0053] When given to acquisition of the Hall signal rises rapidly or rapid decline, with the output speed signal is not immediately change the Hall signal can be set as a target value acquired Hall signal, determines the size of the current target value, is output when a large target current plus the rate of a nominal value, whereas the current output speed minus the nominal value, return to the main program, the main routine will automatically cycle, a determination into the output. 这就完成了控制信号的梯形加速。 This completes the trapezoidal acceleration control signal. 提醒加速分析图如图5所示,其中1线代表的是霍尔信号,2指的线代表输出PWM的占空比。 Analysis acceleration reminder shown in FIG. 5, where 1 represents the Hall signal line, line 2 refers to the PWM duty cycle representative of the output.

[0054]只有经过控制系统处理和输出这个中间环节系统才能正常运行。 [0054] Only after this control system, process and output of intermediate links system to run properly. 主控部分将车中各部分模块密切联系起来,从各模块获取信息或是对各模块进行控制。 The main part of the car in various parts of the module are closely linked, to obtain information from each module or controlling each module. 去感知需要有大脑的处理,才能有机械部分的支撑、执行。 To perceive the need for treatment of the brain, in order to have the supporting mechanical part of the implementation. 所以控制系统程序设计任务是三轮车能自动适时全轮驱动设计的核心。 The control system programming tasks are automatically tricycle timely core all-wheel drive design. 根据整车电力信号的控制流程绘出的适时全轮驱动电动三轮车行走功能结构简图如6所示。 Depicted timely all-wheel drive traveling electric tricycle diagram of a functional configuration of a control flow of the vehicle in accordance with the power signal as shown in Fig. 只有建立一个处理性能优越,相应敏捷,动作准确的控制系统,才能从"眼、鼻、耳"传递到"大脑"并用手脚回应的完整而稳定的控制系统。 Only by establishing a excellent processing performance, the corresponding agile, precise movements of the control system in order to pass from the "eye, nose, ears" to the control system "brain" and respond with hands full and stable.

[0055]上述虽然结合附图对本发明的具体实施方式进行了描述,但并非对本发明保护范围的限制,所属领域技术人员应该明白,在本发明的技术方案的基础上,本领域技术人员不需要付出创造性劳动即可做出的各种修改或变形仍在本发明的保护范围以内。 [0055] The combination with drawings of specific embodiments of the present invention have been described, but not limit the scope of the present invention, those skilled in the art should understand that, on the basis of the technical solution of the present invention, those skilled in the art without paying creative work to make various modifications or variations are still within the scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

  1. 1. 适时全轮驱动的农田电动三轮车控制方法,其特征是,包括, 控制单元根据采集来的速度信号判断是否在设定的偏差范围内,当偏离比例达到设定值时,控制单元控制三轮车前轮开始驱动,增加动力以改善偏离的数值; 当进入全轮驱动时,每隔设定的时间检测偏离数值,当偏离数值仍大于设定值时,将再次等待设定的时间后判断,直到信号处理的数据小于设定值即前后轮稳定输出时,控制单元自动放弃前轮驱动,只对三轮车进行后轮驱动,并且根据各位置速度计算出总体移动速度,根据速度计算并执行喷雾或撒肥的用量。 1. The agricultural method for controlling electric tricycle timely all-wheel drive, characterized in that, comprising a control unit according to the collected speed signal to determines whether the variation range of the set, when the ratio reaches the set value deviates, the control unit controls the tricycle starts to drive the front wheels, increasing the power to improve the offset value; when entering the all-wheel drive, every time the detection value deviates from the set, when the value is still greater than the set value deviates from the set again wait time determination, until the data signal processing than the set value i.e., front and rear wheels when the regulated output, the control unit waiver front-wheel drive, rear-wheel drive only the tricycle, and calculates the moving speed according to an overall speed at each position, calculates the speed and performs spraying or the amount of fertilizer distributor.
  2. 2. 如权利要求1所述适时全轮驱动的农田电动三轮车控制方法,其特征是,对采集来的前轮转向角度设置偏离区间,采集数据在偏离区间内变化时,同时采集三个轮的瞬时速度, 折算出当前车轮线速度,两后轮瞬时的平均速度等于前轮的瞬时速度与前轮实际转向角度β的余弦值的乘积,前轮转向角度越大后轮平均速度就越小。 2. The method claimed in agricultural tricycle timely control of the all-wheel drive vary within a data collection interval departing claims, characterized in that the collected set to deviate from the front wheel turning angle range, while collecting three wheels the value of the cosine of the instantaneous velocity, converted into a current wheel speed, the average speed of the rear wheels is equal to the instantaneous speed and instantaneous actual front wheel steering angle β, the greater the steering angle of the rear wheel average speed less.
  3. 3. 如权利要求1所述适时全轮驱动的农田电动三轮车控制方法,其特征是,偏离区间为,两后轮瞬时的平均速度在前轮向前分速度的二分之一和二分之三之间。 3. A method for controlling agricultural tricycle timely all-wheel drive according to claim 1, characterized in that, departing from the interval, the average speed of the two rear wheels instantaneous velocity component in front of the forward one-half and two-thirds among the three.
  4. 4. 如权利要求3所述适时全轮驱动的农田电动三轮车控制方法,其特征是,当检测到各轮的速度不在偏离区间时,在间隔设定的一段时间后再次判定防止信号抖动的误差,若还是不在偏离区间内,将会自动的对前轮进行驱动,在等待设定时间后再次判定车轮速度的偏离状态,直到在偏离区间内时只驱动后轮。 4. A method for controlling agricultural tricycle timely AWD claim 3, wherein, when detecting the speed of each wheel is not departing from the range, the period of time set interval error jitter determination again prevented , or if not departing from the range, will automatically drive the front wheels, after waiting for a set time is determined departing from the wheel speed state again, until the rear wheel drive only within a range departing.
  5. 5. 如权利要求1所述适时全轮驱动的农田电动三轮车控制方法,其特征是,在采集来给定的霍尔信号急速上升或者急速下降时,输出速度信号不能立即随霍尔信号变化,设定采集的霍尔信号为目标值,判定当前值与目标值大小,当目标值大时就输出当前的速度加上某额定数值,反之输出当前的速度减去这个额定数值,返回主程序,主程序会自动循环,进入下一次判定、输出,这就完成了控制信号的梯形加速。 5. A method for controlling agricultural tricycle timely all-wheel drive according to claim 1, characterized in that, when given to the acquisition of the Hall signal rises rapidly or rapid decline, with the output speed signal can not immediately change the Hall signal, Hall signal acquisition is set as a target value, the target value determining the size of the current value, the target value is output when a large current speed plus a nominal value, whereas the current output speed minus the nominal value, return to the main program, the main program will automatically cycle, a determination incoming, outgoing, this completes the trapezoidal acceleration control signal.
  6. 6. 如权利要求1所述适时全轮驱动的农田电动三轮车控制方法,其特征是,控制单元检测到任何的刹车信号时,停止一切驱动信号的输出,并点亮刹车灯。 6. A method for controlling agricultural tricycle timely all-wheel drive according to claim 1, characterized in that, when the control unit detects any braking signal to stop outputting the drive signal of all, brake lights and lighting.
  7. 7. 采用权利要求1所述适时全轮驱动的农田电动三轮车控制方法的控制系统,其特征是,包括控制单元,信号采集单元与控制单元的输入端连接,控制单元的输出端连接前轮隔离器和数模转换单元后连接前轮驱动器,前轮驱动器与前轮电机连接,控制单元的输出端还连接后轮隔离器和数模转换单元后连接后轮驱动器,后轮驱动器与后轮电机连接; 所述控制单元还与存储器连接;动力电池的输出经过稳压模块后为系统供电。 7. The use of a control system of claim 1 tricycle timely all-wheel drive control method for an electric farmland, characterized in that the control unit comprises an input terminal, a signal acquisition unit and the control unit is connected to the output terminal of the control unit is connected to the front spacer and a digital-analog conversion means connected to the front-wheel drive, front wheel drive motor and connected to the output terminal of the control unit is also connected to the rear spacer and digital to analog conversion means connected to the rear-wheel drive, rear-wheel drive and rear-wheel electromotor ; said control unit is further connected to a memory; battery output power after the system power supply voltage regulator.
  8. 8. 如权利要求7所述控制系统,其特征是,所述信号采集单元包括前轮转速传感器、后轮左转速传感器、后轮右转速传感器、转把霍尔传感器、转向编码器、刹车传感器。 8. A control system as claimed in claim 7 left rear wheel speed sensor, a right rear wheel speed sensor, the Hall switch sensor, a steering encoder, a brake sensor, characterized in that said signal collection unit comprises a front wheel speed sensor, .
  9. 9. 如权利要求7所述控制系统,其特征是,所述信号采集单元连接模数转换模块后连接控制单元的输入端。 9. The control system as claimed in claim 7, characterized in that, after the signal acquisition unit connected to analog to digital conversion module connected to the input of the control unit.
  10. 10. 如权利要求7所述控制系统,其特征是,前轮隔离器和后轮隔离器包括单路π型滤波光耦接口电路,包括端口1+和I -,端口1+和光电耦合器的一输入端之间串联电阻R3,端口I _ 与光电耦合器的另一输入端连接,端口1+和I-之间串联电阻R4和发光二极管D3,所述光电親合器的一输出端同时连接电阻R5的一端和发光二极管D2的负极,电阻R5的另一端同时接电阻R6的一端和电容C1的一端,电阻R6的另一端留有输出端01,同时R6的另一端接电容C2 后接地,电容C1的另一端接地;发光二极管D2的负极串接电阻R2后接电源。 10. The control system as claimed in claim 7, characterized in that the front and rear isolators isolator comprises single π-type filter optocoupler interface circuit, including port 1+ and I -, and the photocoupler port 1+ connected in series between the input terminal of a resistor R3, the I _ port connected to the other input terminal of the photocoupler, a series resistor R4 and a light emitting diode D3 between the ports 1+ and I-, an output of the photoelectric filter affinity At the same time the negative electrode, the other end of the resistor R5 is connected to one end of resistor R5 and light emitting diode D2 is connected to one ends while the capacitor C1 and resistor R6, the other end of the resistor R6 is leaving an output terminal 01, the other end of the capacitor C2 while R6 the other end grounded, the capacitor C1; the negative electrode via a resistor R2 to the power of the light emitting diode D2.
CN 201610552979 2016-07-14 2016-07-14 Control system and control method of timely all-wheel drive farmland electro-tricycle CN106080265A (en)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN2153486Y (en) * 1993-06-30 1994-01-19 北京市西城区新开通用试验厂 Digital control full speed car with electric transmission device
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WO2004016459A1 (en) * 2002-08-16 2004-02-26 Yaoqing Yu Electric-vehicle power and driving device
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CN104276050A (en) * 2014-01-30 2015-01-14 比亚迪股份有限公司 Vehicle and brake feedback control method thereof

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN2153486Y (en) * 1993-06-30 1994-01-19 北京市西城区新开通用试验厂 Digital control full speed car with electric transmission device
US20020123836A1 (en) * 2001-03-01 2002-09-05 Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. Vehicle drive system and vehicle controlling method
WO2004016459A1 (en) * 2002-08-16 2004-02-26 Yaoqing Yu Electric-vehicle power and driving device
US20140238766A1 (en) * 2013-02-26 2014-08-28 Jtekt Corporation Vehicle and vehicle driving device
CN104276050A (en) * 2014-01-30 2015-01-14 比亚迪股份有限公司 Vehicle and brake feedback control method thereof

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