CN105755299B - A kind of preparation facilities and method of low cost particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material - Google Patents

A kind of preparation facilities and method of low cost particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material Download PDF

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CN105755299B
CN105755299B CN201410795873.6A CN201410795873A CN105755299B CN 105755299 B CN105755299 B CN 105755299B CN 201410795873 A CN201410795873 A CN 201410795873A CN 105755299 B CN105755299 B CN 105755299B
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composite
crucible
melt
magnetic stirrer
facilities
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CN105755299A (en
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白月龙
徐骏
张志峰
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Youyan metal composite technology Co.,Ltd.
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Beijing General Research Institute for Non Ferrous Metals
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Abstract

The present invention relates to a kind of preparation facilities and method of inexpensive particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material, belong to metal material processing technical field.The device mainly includes vacuum drying oven, and it is set in vacuum drying oven and prepares crucible, heater, thermal insulation material, magnetic stirrer, temperature controller, powder feeder and baffle, the periphery for preparing crucible sets gradually heater, thermal insulation material and magnetic stirrer, the top setting baffle and powder feeder of crucible are prepared, temperature controller, which is installed on, to be prepared in crucible.In preparation process, Composite Melt forms strong multidimensional turbulent flow agitation inside melt, strengthens turbulent flow effect, promote the dispersion of particulates reinforcements and be uniformly distributed while strong auger is carried out.The configuration of the present invention is simple, manufacturing cost are low;The present invention is using electromagnetic force as stirring external force, and the adverse effect of stirring rod material contamination alloy melt caused by can effectively avoid mechanical agitation, the composite material of preparation is pure, and quality is high.

Description

A kind of preparation facilities and method of low cost particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of preparation facilities and method of inexpensive particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material, belong to metal material Processing technique field.
Background technology
Particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material is high than strong, Gao Bigang, high abrasion, low thermal expansion and excellent damping due to having The excellent comprehensive performance such as characteristic dimension stability is the key components and parts lightweight of the fields such as aerospace, automobile making, Gao Xing The ideal material of energyization has huge application potential and vast market prospect.
At present, the preparation method of particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material mainly has powder metallurgic method, and spray deposition, stirring is again Close a variety of methods such as casting.
Particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material comprehensive performance prepared by powder metallurgic method is good, can realize that volume mass difference is big Metal and particle it is compound, can prepare the composite material that high body divides particle to enhance, but this method complex process, long flow path, Manufacturing cost is higher, therefore limits its use scope and popularization and application.
Enhancing phase volume fraction can be adjusted arbitrarily in composite material prepared by spray deposition, and reinforcement granularity is without limit System can obtain the tiny composite material of crystal grain, but composite product prepared by this method is size-constrained, and manufacturing cost Also it is higher, therefore, it can not also obtain large-scale promotion and application.
For stirring casting method is compared to powder metallurgic method and spray deposition, preparation process equipment is simple, and manufacturing cost is low It is honest and clean, convenient for industrialized production, and complex-shaped part can be produced, be most to be paid attention at present, pay close attention at most compound Material preparation method.But this method must solve the wetability of reinforcement particle and aluminum melt and reinforcement particle is melted in aluminium Two key technical problems are uniformly dispersed in body, dense structure could be obtained, particle is uniformly dispersed, interface cohesion is good, property The excellent composite material of energy.
Invention content
For key technical problem above-mentioned existing for stirring casting method, the present invention proposes a kind of inexpensive particle-reinforced aluminum Based composites preparation facilities and method.
A kind of preparation facilities of low cost particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material, the device mainly include vacuum drying oven and setting Crucible, heater, thermal insulation material, magnetic stirrer, temperature controller, powder feeder and baffle etc. are prepared in vacuum drying oven, it is described The periphery for preparing crucible sets gradually having heaters, thermal insulation material and magnetic stirrer, the top for the preparing crucible setting There are baffle and powder feeder, the temperature controller, which is installed on, to be prepared in crucible.
It is described prepare crucible be provided centrally with a round guide post, the crucible internal walls that prepare are provided with spiral shape ditch Slot, the guide post outer wall are spiral shape, i.e. guide post outer wall setting spiral grooves;Guide post outer wall and prepare shape between crucible internal walls Circularize preparation room.
The guide post outer diameter and prepare the ratio between crucible internal diameter d/D=0.20-0.95.
The baffle is erected in the top for preparing crucible, and lifting gear, liftable movement are equipped on the baffle; At work, baffle is dropped in the alloy melt prepared inside crucible, is made inside alloy melt in strong whipping process, is melted Body surface face is tranquil.The main function of baffle is in preparation process, and blocking liquid level splashes, and ensures alloy melt in whipping process Liquid level is gentle, prevents volume gas and oxidation.
The magnetic stirrer is rotary EMS device or spiral magnetic stirrer, and main function is to provide rotation Or auger power, stir alloy melt.
The main function of the powder feeder is that enhancing particle is sent into alloy melt.
The main function of the vacuum drying oven is before preparing material, forms vacuum environment, prevents alloy in whipping process Volume gas, oxidation.
A kind of method that particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material is prepared based on above device, the main operational principle of this method It is:During charging, whirlpool is formed in the middle part of melt, particulates reinforcements add in vortex and are brought into alloy melt.Addition finishes Afterwards, baffle lowers into alloy melt, and whirlpool disappears, and bath surface is tranquil, prevents volume gas from aoxidizing.And inside melt, alloy Melt is combined under the action of electromagnetic stirring force with guide post outer wall spiral grooves with preparing the spiral grooves of crucible internal walls, It is stirred strongly in cyclic annular preparation room, while the spiral rotating for forcing Composite Melt progress strong stirs, inside melt Strong multidimensional turbulent flow agitation is formed, strengthens turbulent flow effect, promotes the dispersion of particulates reinforcements and be uniformly distributed.
This method mainly includes following process:
(1) matrix alloy blank is put into and prepared in crucible, heating melts matrix alloy blank, and fusion temperature is in alloy 50-100 DEG C of liquidus temperature more than;
(2) degasification, slag hitting are carried out to melt, adds in fining agent to alloy melt micronization processes;
(3) particulates reinforcements are put into powder feeder, open vacuum drying oven, Absolute truth reciprocal of duty cycle in stove is made to be maintained at 0.01- 1.00Pa;
(4) magnetic stirrer is opened, adjusting parameter makes alloy melt be acted in electromagnetic stirring force and stirs, heart-shaped in melt Into a whirlpool;
(5) start powder feeder, slowly particulates reinforcements pulverulent material is sent into the whirlpool of alloy melt, is melted in alloy Under the agitation of body, it is involved in inside alloy melt;
(6) after particulates reinforcements pulverulent material adds in, decline in baffle to melt, until the disappearance of melt whirlpool, melt Body fluid face is smooth;
(7) mixing power of magnetic stirrer is increased, the mixing direction of cyclomorphosis magnetic stirrer makes inside alloy melt Strong stirring occurs, promote the dispersion of particulates reinforcements and is uniformly distributed.
During electromagnetic agitation, mixing power and guide post outer wall spiral grooves and prepare crucible that magnetic stirrer generates Spiral inner wall shape groove is combined, and makes melt in the strong multidimensional turbulent flow agitation of the standby indoor generation of loop system.
The preparation facilities and method of the present invention is preparing magnesium-based composite material, Cu-base composites, iron base composite material, zinc Application in based composites, nickel-base composite material, cobalt-based composite material and titanium matrix composite etc..I.e. the device of the invention and Method is equally applicable to composite material, as magnesium-based composite material, Cu-base composites, iron base composite material, Zinc-base compounded material, The preparation of nickel-base composite material, cobalt-based composite material, titanium matrix composite etc..
Compared with prior art, the advantage of the invention is that:
(1) using electromagnetic force as stirring external force, stirring rod material contamination alloy caused by can effectively avoid mechanical agitation The adverse effect of melt, the composite material of preparation is pure, and quality is high.
(2) design of annular pulping chamber can substantially improve the mixing effect of alloy melt, strengthen Turbulence Flow, promote enhancing It the dispersion of body and is uniformly distributed.
(3) simple in structure, cost of investment is low.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is apparatus structure schematic diagram during charging.
Fig. 2 is that charging finishes, apparatus structure schematic diagram in preparation process.
Fig. 3 is that melt multidimensional turbulent flow stirs schematic diagram in preparation process.
Main appended drawing reference:
1 vacuum drying oven, 2 temperature controller
2 powder feeder, 4 baffle
5 prepare 6 reinforced phase pulverulent material of crucible
7 heater, 8 guide post
The cyclic annular preparation room of 9 thermal insulation material 10
11 magnetic stirrers
Specific embodiment
As shown in Figure 1, the schematic device of enhancing aluminum-base composite material by silicon carbide particles is prepared for the present invention.Device master Will by vacuum drying oven 1, temperature controller 2, powder feeder 3, baffle 4, prepare crucible 5, heater 7, thermal insulation material 9, magnetic stirrer 11 etc. Composition, temperature controller 2, baffle 4, prepare crucible 5, heater 7, thermal insulation material 9, magnetic stirrer 11 etc. and are placed in powder feeder 3 In vacuum drying oven 1.The periphery for preparing crucible 5 is heater 7, thermal insulation material 9 and magnetic stirrer 11 successively, prepares the top of crucible 5 Baffle 4 and powder feeder 3 are provided with above portion, temperature controller 2, which is installed on, to be prepared in crucible 5.
5 internal diameter of crucible is prepared as 240mm, is highly 450mm.Preparing 5 inwall processing of crucible has screw pitch for 12mm, and screw thread is deep Spiral groove for 8mm.8 a diameter of 100mm of guide post, 8 outer wall of guide post are spiral shape, and 8 outer wall of guide post is machined with screw pitch and is 12mm, screw thread depth are the spiral grooves of 8mm.8 outer wall of guide post forms annular preparation room 10 with preparing the inner wall of crucible 5.
Baffle 4 is erected in the top for preparing crucible 5, and lifting gear is equipped on baffle 4;At work, baffle 4 drops to It prepares in the alloy melt inside crucible 5, makes inside alloy melt in strong whipping process, bath surface is tranquil.Electromagnetism stirs It mixes device 11 and uses spiral magnetic stirrer, main function is to provide auger power, stirs alloy melt.The master of powder feeder 3 Act on is that particulates reinforcements pulverulent material 6 is sent into alloy melt.The main function of vacuum drying oven 1 is shape before preparing material Into vacuum environment, alloy volume gas, oxidation in whipping process are prevented.
As shown in Figures 2 and 3, it is to prepare Aluminum Matrix Composites Strengthened by SiC process schematic and melt in whipping process The multidimensional Turbulence Flow schematic diagram of middle generation.Composite material is prepared as enhancing aluminum-base composite material by silicon carbide particles, silicon carbide body Product percentage composition is 20%, and matrix alloy is A357 cast aluminium alloy golds.
First, it is A357 aluminium alloy cast ingot removing surfaces is clean, it is put into and prepares in crucible 5, heating is melted to about 700 DEG C, Then argon gas is passed through into melt and carries out degasification, degassing procedure 10 minutes, degasification finishes slag hitting.AlTiB fining agents are added in molten Body carries out micronization processes.Silicon carbide powder is put into powder feeder 3, vacuum drying oven 1 is opened, vacuumizes, make Absolute truth in vacuum drying oven Reciprocal of duty cycle is maintained at 0.5Pa hereinafter, and making alloy melt heat preservation at 680 DEG C.Magnetic stirrer 11 is opened, adjusts magnetic stirrer 11 Frequency 20Hz, input power 8Kw are inputted, the A357 alloy melts prepared in crucible 5 are centrally formed whirlpool in rotary course, this When, powder feeder 3 is opened, silicon carbide powder is slowly sent into whirlpool.Wait silicon carbide powders conveying finishes, landing baffle 4 until Whirlpool disappears in melt, at this point, 11 power of magnetic stirrer is increased to 12Kw, meanwhile, every 20 seconds, change magnetic stirrer 11 Direction of rotation makes melt carry out strong electromagnetic agitation, the auger that magnetic stirrer 11 generates in annular preparation room 10 Power is with 8 outer wall spiral grooves of guide post and prepares 5 spiral inner wall groove of crucible and is combined, and melt is made to be produced in annular preparation room 10 Raw strong multidimensional turbulent flow agitation, so as to promote dispersion and homogenization of the silicon-carbide particle in alloy melt.Mixing time is total to Continue after forty minutes, to stop magnetic stirrer 11, adjust alloy melt temperature, poured into collector in vacuum environment, made It is standby to obtain the SiC/A357 aluminum matrix composites of volume fraction 20%.
It is compound that above device and method are also applied for magnesium-based composite material, Cu-base composites, iron base composite material, zinc-base The preparation of the composite materials such as material, nickel-base composite material, cobalt-based composite material, titanium matrix composite.
The present invention is spiral shape, guide post outer wall and system in the round guide post that is provided centrally with for preparing crucible, guide post outer wall The inner wall of standby crucible forms annular preparation room.In preparation process, alloy melt is preparing earthenware under the action of electromagnetic stirring force It is stirred in the cyclic annular preparation room of crucible, is arranged on the guide post outer wall spiral grooves for preparing crucible center portion and the spiral for preparing crucible internal walls Groove is combined, and while forcing the Composite Melt to carry out strong auger, strong multidimensional is formed inside melt Turbulent flow agitation, strengthens turbulent flow effect, promotes the dispersion of particulates reinforcements and be uniformly distributed.The configuration of the present invention is simple, manufacturing cost It is low.The present invention is using electromagnetic force as stirring external force, and stirring rod material contamination alloy melts caused by can effectively avoid mechanical agitation The adverse effect of body, the composite material of preparation is pure, and quality is high.

Claims (6)

1. a kind of preparation facilities of low cost particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material, it is characterised in that:The device mainly includes vacuum It stove and is set in vacuum drying oven and prepares crucible, heater, thermal insulation material, magnetic stirrer, temperature controller, powder feeder and baffle, The periphery for preparing crucible sets gradually heater, thermal insulation material and magnetic stirrer, the top for preparing crucible Baffle and powder feeder are set, and the temperature controller, which is installed on, to be prepared in crucible;The centrally disposed circle for preparing crucible is led Column, described to prepare crucible internal walls and guide post outer wall is respectively provided with spiral grooves, guide post outer wall and preparing is formed between crucible internal walls Annular preparation room.
2. the preparation facilities of low cost particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:It is described Guide post outer diameter and prepare the ratio between crucible internal diameter as 0.20-0.95.
3. the preparation facilities of low cost particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:It is described Baffle on lifting gear is installed.
4. the preparation facilities of low cost particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:It is described Magnetic stirrer be rotary EMS device or spiral magnetic stirrer.
5. a kind of preparation method of low cost particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material, includes the following steps:
(1) matrix alloy blank is put into and prepared in crucible, heating melts matrix alloy blank, and fusion temperature is in alloy liquid phase 50-100 DEG C of line temperature more than;
(2) degasification, slag hitting are carried out to melt, adds in fining agent to alloy melt micronization processes;
(3) particulates reinforcements are put into powder feeder, open vacuum drying oven, Absolute truth reciprocal of duty cycle in stove is made to be maintained at 0.01-1.00Pa;
(4) magnetic stirrer is opened, adjusting parameter makes alloy melt be stirred under electromagnetic stirring force effect, and melt is centrally formed One whirlpool;During electromagnetic agitation, mixing power and guide post outer wall spiral grooves and prepare earthenware that magnetic stirrer generates Crucible spiral inner wall shape groove is combined, and makes melt in the strong multidimensional turbulent flow agitation of the standby indoor generation of loop system;
(5) start powder feeder, be slowly sent into particulates reinforcements pulverulent material in the whirlpool of alloy melt, in alloy melt Under agitation, it is involved in inside alloy melt;
(6) after particulates reinforcements pulverulent material adds in, decline in baffle to melt, until the disappearance of melt whirlpool, melt liquid Face is smooth;
(7) mixing power of magnetic stirrer is increased, the mixing direction of cyclomorphosis magnetic stirrer makes to occur inside alloy melt Strong stirring promotes the dispersion of particulates reinforcements and is uniformly distributed.
6. prepared by the preparation facilities of the inexpensive particle enhanced aluminum-based composite material according to any one of claim 1-4 Magnesium-based composite material, Cu-base composites, iron base composite material, Zinc-base compounded material, nickel-base composite material, cobalt-based composite wood Application in material and titanium matrix composite.
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CN106583727B (en) * 2016-12-14 2018-11-02 中国科学院力学研究所 A kind of increasing material manufacturing method of metal-base particles enhancing component
CN107058785B (en) * 2017-03-21 2018-07-20 湖北玉立恒洋新材料科技有限公司 SiC particulate reinforced aluminum matrix composites preparation method
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