CN105643395A - Grinding forming method for optical free-form surface - Google Patents

Grinding forming method for optical free-form surface Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105643395A
CN105643395A CN201610004135.4A CN201610004135A CN105643395A CN 105643395 A CN105643395 A CN 105643395A CN 201610004135 A CN201610004135 A CN 201610004135A CN 105643395 A CN105643395 A CN 105643395A
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China
Prior art keywords
grinding
matrix
cloud
design
err
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Pending
Application number
CN201610004135.4A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
代雷
崔庆龙
徐乐
隋永新
杨怀江
闫丰
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Changchun Institute of Optics Fine Mechanics and Physics of CAS
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Changchun Institute of Optics Fine Mechanics and Physics of CAS
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Application filed by Changchun Institute of Optics Fine Mechanics and Physics of CAS filed Critical Changchun Institute of Optics Fine Mechanics and Physics of CAS
Priority to CN201610004135.4A priority Critical patent/CN105643395A/en
Publication of CN105643395A publication Critical patent/CN105643395A/en
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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B24GRINDING; POLISHING
    • B24BMACHINES, DEVICES, OR PROCESSES FOR GRINDING OR POLISHING; DRESSING OR CONDITIONING OF ABRADING SURFACES; FEEDING OF GRINDING, POLISHING, OR LAPPING AGENTS
    • B24B13/00Machines or devices designed for grinding or polishing optical surfaces on lenses or surfaces of similar shape on other work; Accessories therefor
    • B24B13/02Machines or devices designed for grinding or polishing optical surfaces on lenses or surfaces of similar shape on other work; Accessories therefor by means of tools with abrading surfaces corresponding in shape with the lenses to be made
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B24GRINDING; POLISHING
    • B24BMACHINES, DEVICES, OR PROCESSES FOR GRINDING OR POLISHING; DRESSING OR CONDITIONING OF ABRADING SURFACES; FEEDING OF GRINDING, POLISHING, OR LAPPING AGENTS
    • B24B49/00Measuring or gauging equipment for controlling the feed movement of the grinding tool or work; Arrangements of indicating or measuring equipment, e.g. for indicating the start of the grinding operation
    • B24B49/02Measuring or gauging equipment for controlling the feed movement of the grinding tool or work; Arrangements of indicating or measuring equipment, e.g. for indicating the start of the grinding operation according to the instantaneous size and required size of the workpiece acted upon, the measuring or gauging being continuous or intermittent
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING OR COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F30/00Computer-aided design [CAD]
    • G06F30/10Geometric CAD
    • G06F30/17Mechanical parametric or variational design

Abstract

The invention discloses a grinding forming method for an optical free-form surface. The grinding forming method, where a numerical control grinding machining center and a spherical grinding wheel are used for grinding forming, comprises the following steps: S1: describing a designed target surface by using a point cloud matrix to obtain a point cloud design matrix Mdesign; S2, performing grinding work on a surface to be machined according to the point cloud design matrix Mdesign, and detecting the obtained surface after grinding to obtain a point cloud measure matrix Mmeasure; S3, comparing the point cloud measure matrix Mmeasure with the point cloud measure matrix Mmeasure to obtain a point cloud error matrix Merr; and S4, performing compensating grinding machining on the ground surface according to the point cloud error matrix Merr. The forming method is capable of effectively improving the grinding accuracy of the numerical control grinding center, and has the advantages of wide application range, low machining cost, and the like.

Description

A kind of freeform optics surface grinding-shaping method
Technical field
The present invention relates to optical manufacturing field, specifically provide a kind of freeform optics surface grinding-shaping method.
Background technology
Free form surface is introduced in optical system, can greatly improve the image quality of optical system and the efficiency of transmission of energy. The application of free form surface in contemporary optics system, it is possible to for the specific free form surface of special aberration design of system, compensates system aberration, improves system imaging quality. Due to the multiple degrees of freedom characteristic of free form surface, generally when ensureing optical system imaging quality, the number of elements in optical system can be reduced further, reduce the size of optical system, therefore medical treatment it is widely used in all the more, military, the field such as space flight.
Advanced numerical control ultra-precision fabrication technique freeform optics element, can effectively solve the technical bottleneck of freeform optics element processing, but the involved numerical control grinding machining center used of general Free Surface Grinding forming method directly affects the crudy of freeform optics surface, improve machining accuracy and often mean that higher processing cost, such as introduce ultraprecise hydraulic pressure or air supporting machining center, it is to using environment, and rapidoprint all has very big restriction.
Therefore, how to solve the problems referred to above, become people's problem demanding prompt solution.
Summary of the invention
Given this, it is an object of the invention to provide a kind of freeform optics surface grinding-shaping method, to solve in the past when carrying out Free-Form Surface Machining, it is necessary to use ultraprecise numer centre, for using environment and rapidoprint by considerable restraint, and the problems such as processing cost height.
Technical scheme provided by the invention, specifically, a kind of freeform optics surface grinding-shaping method, adopts numerical control grinding machining center and spherical emery wheel to carry out grinding-shaping, it is characterised in that:
S1: the target surface of design adopts some cloud matrix be described, invocation point cloud design matrix Mdesign;
S2: according to described some cloud design matrix MdesignTreat processing curve and carry out grinding work, and gained curved surface after grinding is detected, invocation point cloud detection matrix Mmeasure;
S3: by described some cloud detection matrix MmeasureWith described some cloud design matrix MdesignCompare, it is thus achieved that some cloud error matrix Merr;
S4: according to described some cloud error matrix MerrGrinding rear curved surface is compensated grinding.
Preferably, described step S4 includes:
S401: by described some cloud error matrix MerrCompare with threshold value;
S402: as described some cloud error matrix MerrDuring more than threshold value, according to described some cloud error matrix Merr, calculate and obtain some cloud correction matrix Mdesign_1;
S403: according to described some cloud correction matrix Mdesign_1Grinding rear curved surface is compensated grinding, carries out a cloud detection to compensating grinding rear curved surface, and by the some cloud detection matrix of detection gained and some cloud design matrix MdesignRelatively, some cloud error matrix M is again obtainederr;
S404: repeat step S401��S403, until some cloud error matrix MerrLess than or equal to threshold value.
It is preferred that, in described step S402, according to described some cloud error matrix Merr, calculate and obtain some cloud correction matrix Mdesign_1Formula be:
Mdesign_1=Mdesign+Merr��
It is preferred that,
In step S2, after detection grinding, the method for gained curved surface is contact measurement;
In step S403, detection compensates the method for grinding rear curved surface is contact measurement.
It is preferred that, step S2 is identical with the some cloud design matrix sampling point position of target surface with the test point position in step S403.
It is preferred that, described some cloud design matrix MdesignWith described some cloud detection matrix MmeasureIn all include curved surface at X, Y, Z three-dimensional coordinate data.
Freeform optics surface grinding-shaping method provided by the invention, the mode adopting some cloud is evaluated and measurement for free form surface, calculating obtains a cloud error matrix, compensate processing with a cloud error matrix, to revise processing result, use this grinding-shaping method to carry out grinding work, the grinding accuracy at numerical control grinding center can be effectively improved, without quoting ultraprecise numer centre, reduce processing cost, be conducive to manufacture and the application of freeform optics element.
Freeform optics surface grinding-shaping method provided by the invention, has the advantage that
1, carry out curved design by the mode of some cloud to describe with detection, be applicable to major part freeform optics element, effectively extend its scope of application;
2, by compensating the Flexible Manufacture mode of processing, reduce the requirement to machining center, can effectively reduce the manufacturing cost of freeform optics element.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of spherical emery wheel;
Fig. 2 is the grinding-shaping machining sketch chart of freeform optics element.
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with specific embodiment, the present invention is further expalined, but is not limited to protection scope of the present invention.
In order to solve in the past to add man-hour carrying out freeform optics element, need to use ultraprecise machining center, for using environment and rapidoprint all to have a lot of restrictions, and the problem that cost is high, the present embodiment provides a kind of freeform optics surface grinding-shaping method, it goes for common numer centre, the machining accuracy at general NC center can be improved, and then general NC grinding center and spherical emery wheel can be adopted to carry out the processing of freeform optics surface, reduce the cost of Free-Form Surface Machining, and for using environment and rapidoprint all without harsh requirement.
With a specific embodiment, the present invention is described in detail below:
Adopt numerical control grinding machining center and spherical emery wheel, carry out free form surface z=a by the mode of single-point grinding1x2+a2y2+a3x3+a4y3Grinding-shaping, the bore of this optical element is D, owing to including cubic term in the equation of this free form surface, is therefore the free form surface of a non-rotational symmetric.
Wherein, the structure of spherical emery wheel can referring to Fig. 1, including cylinder emery wheel handle of a knife 1, the cylinder emery wheel matrix 2 that be connected fixing with cylinder emery wheel handle of a knife 1, the periphery of grinding wheel base body 2 is provided with the grinding-wheel grinder bed of material 3, the grinding work surface of the grinding-wheel grinder bed of material 3 is circular arc, and its curvature reducing is emery wheel bore, and namely grinding wheel base body 2 and the grinding-wheel grinder bed of material 3 are considered as one section of sheet of spheroid.Such advantage is in that actual grinding process is that the circular arc grinding work surface of the grinding-wheel grinder bed of material 3 carries out grinding, fineness and the working (machining) efficiency on surface can be improved, due to the part that actual emery wheel contact position is spherical, the impact that machining center kinematic accuracy is processed for reality with dynamic characteristic therefore can be made up to a certain extent. Wherein the bore of spherical emery wheel is less than the radius of curvature of processed free form surface best fit ball.
By free form surface z=a1x2+a2y2+a3x3+a4y3Bore D negative camber discretization, if the sampling interval is d, it is possible to obtain this curved surface face form point cloud design matrix Mdesign
M d e s i g n = x 1 y 1 z 1 x 2 y 2 z 2 x 3 y 3 z 3 . . . . . . . . . x n y n z n
Wherein, some cloud design matrix includes X, Y, Z three-dimensional coordinate data;
According to putting cloud design matrix MdesignDesign parameter with above-mentioned spherical emery wheel, select suitable machining path, generate processor importing numerical control grinding machining center to be processed, as in figure 2 it is shown, wherein, A is spherical emery wheel to machining sketch chart, B is curved surface to be processed, using contact measurement method after machining, test point position is identical with Free-form Surface cloud sampling point position, obtains a cloud calculation matrix M after detectionmeasure;
M m e a s u r e = x 1 y 1 z ′ 1 x 2 y 2 z ′ 2 x 3 y 3 z ′ 3 . . . . . . . . . x n y n z ′ n
Analysis site cloud calculation matrix MmeasureWith a cloud design matrix MdesignDeviation, obtain a cloud error matrix Merr,
M e r r = x 1 y 1 Δz 1 x 2 y 2 Δz 2 x 3 y 3 Δz 3 . . . . . . . . . x n y n Δz n
This error it is believed that include machining center performance, machined parameters, processing environment, therefore the mismachining tolerance that the combined factors such as abrasion of grinding wheel causes, if can compensate this error can effectively reduce mismachining tolerance;
Will a cloud error matrix MerrAligned position joins a cloud design matrix Mdesign, obtain a cloud correction matrix Mdesign_1, computing formula is as follows:
Mdesign_1=Mdesign+Merr
Based on new some cloud design matrix Mdesign_1Design parameter with spherical emery wheel, reselect suitable machining path, generate processor importing numerical control grinding machining center to be processed, re-use contact measurement method after machining to detect, and the some cloud detection matrix of detection gained is compared with design matrix again, obtain some cloud error matrix, if fruit dot cloud error matrix is more than the threshold value set, regeneration point cloud correction matrix, it is processed again, such iteration is processed, progressively reduce mismachining tolerance, a cloud error matrix is made to reduce, till the curved surface face form point cloud matrix making processing meets design requirement, namely some cloud error matrix is less than threshold value, threshold value therein can carry out actual set according to different needs.
The freeform optics surface grinding-shaping method that the embodiment above proposes, involved use is general numerical control grinding machining center, can effectively reduce processing and maintenance cost, the mode adopting spherical emery wheel single-point grinding improves grinding efficiency, and reduce the requirement for maximum speed of spindle, the mode adopting some cloud is evaluated and measurement for free form surface, calculating obtains a cloud error matrix, compensate process data to revise processing result, such iteration is processed, progressively reduce mismachining tolerance, finally give the optical element of the free-curved-surface shape met design requirement. The method can be effectively improved the machining accuracy of free form surface, reduces processing cost, is conducive to manufacture and the application of freeform optics element.
The method is equally applicable to that unavailable equation describes but by the Free-Form Surface Machining of some cloud matrix description, with a specific embodiment, the present invention can be carried out further description below.
Embodiment 1
Processed freeform optics surface as in figure 2 it is shown, wherein A be grinding use emery wheel, bore is 150mm, and radius of edge is 75mm, B is processed freeform optics surface element.This freeform optics surface unavailable equation of element B is described, and may only adopt lower some cloud matrix MdesignDescribing, where each row includes the x of diverse location, y, z coordinate, has 70 coordinates, front 20 coordinates given below:
According to a cloud matrix MdesignCalculating grinding path with emery wheel used, post processing generates nc program, imports numerical control grinding processing and carries out grinding, uses contact measurement mode to measure, obtain calculation matrix M after processingmeasure, only provide front 20 coordinates as follows:
By a cloud matrix MdesignWith measurement pointcloud matrix MmeasureCalculating obtains error dot cloud matrix Merr, only providing front 20 coordinates, wherein coordinate Z maximum deviation 0.066mm as follows, this deviation, more than threshold value, can be by numerical control grinding center and is modified. Calculate Mdesign_1=Mdesign+Merr, and regenerating machining path, post processing generates processor, imports numerical control grinding processing and carries out grinding, loop iteration, final error point cloud matrix MerrMeet design requirement.
Below being only the preferred embodiment of the present invention, it is noted that above-mentioned preferred implementation is not construed as limitation of the present invention, protection scope of the present invention should be as the criterion with claim limited range. For those skilled in the art, without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention, it is also possible to make some improvements and modifications, these improvements and modifications also should be regarded as protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (6)

1. a freeform optics surface grinding-shaping method, adopts numerical control grinding machining center and spherical emery wheel to carry out grinding-shaping, it is characterised in that:
S1: the target surface of design adopts some cloud matrix be described, invocation point cloud design matrix Mdesign;
S2: according to described some cloud design matrix MdesignTreat processing curve and carry out grinding work, and gained curved surface after grinding is detected, invocation point cloud detection matrix Mmeasure;
S3: by described some cloud detection matrix MmeasureWith described some cloud design matrix MdesignCompare, it is thus achieved that some cloud error matrix Merr;
S4: according to described some cloud error matrix MerrGrinding rear curved surface is compensated grinding.
2. freeform optics surface grinding-shaping method described in claim 1, it is characterised in that described step S4 includes:
S401: by described some cloud error matrix MerrCompare with threshold value;
S402: as described some cloud error matrix MerrDuring more than threshold value, according to described some cloud error matrix Merr, calculate and obtain some cloud correction matrix Mdesign_1;
S403: according to described some cloud correction matrix Mdesign_1Grinding rear curved surface is compensated grinding, carries out a cloud detection to compensating grinding rear curved surface, and by the some cloud detection matrix of detection gained and some cloud design matrix MdesignRelatively, some cloud error matrix M is again obtainederr;
S404: repeat step S401��S403, until some cloud error matrix MerrLess than or equal to threshold value.
3. freeform optics surface grinding-shaping method described in claim 2, it is characterised in that: in described step S402, according to described some cloud error matrix Merr, calculate and obtain some cloud correction matrix Mdesign_1Formula be:
Mdesign_1=Mdesign+Merr��
4. freeform optics surface grinding-shaping method described in claim 2, it is characterised in that:
In step S2, after detection grinding, the method for gained curved surface is contact measurement;
In step S403, detection compensates the method for grinding rear curved surface is contact measurement.
5. freeform optics surface grinding-shaping method described in claim 4, it is characterised in that: step S2 is identical with the some cloud design matrix sampling point position of target surface with the test point position in step S403.
6. freeform optics surface grinding-shaping method described in claim 1, it is characterised in that: described some cloud design matrix MdesignWith described some cloud detection matrix MmeasureIn all include curved surface at X, Y, Z three-dimensional coordinate data.
CN201610004135.4A 2016-01-04 2016-01-04 Grinding forming method for optical free-form surface Pending CN105643395A (en)

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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106826400A (en) * 2016-07-25 2017-06-13 中国科学院长春光学精密机械与物理研究所 A kind of complex-curved combinational processing method
CN109299514A (en) * 2018-08-28 2019-02-01 天津大学 The wheel path generation method of inclined shaft grinding free form surface
CN109333165A (en) * 2018-09-25 2019-02-15 杭州电子科技大学 A kind of grinding method of the non-circular bend glass ornaments based on point cloud data description
CN109895341A (en) * 2017-12-11 2019-06-18 财团法人金属工业研究发展中心 The mode compensation method of free surface lens
CN109968204A (en) * 2019-03-21 2019-07-05 华南理工大学 A kind of numerical control grinding form error self-adapting compensation method that grinding wheel workpiece is mutually worn
CN114589582A (en) * 2022-03-18 2022-06-07 重庆臻宝实业有限公司 Machining method for grinding curved surface of symmetrical circular curved surface electrode

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CN102854841A (en) * 2012-09-29 2013-01-02 广东工业大学 Shape and position error in-situ compensating and processing method for curved surface parts
CN102880756A (en) * 2012-09-26 2013-01-16 西北工业大学 Method for compensating precision milling deformation of thin-wall blade
CN103777570A (en) * 2014-01-07 2014-05-07 浙江大学 Machining error rapid detection and compensation method based on NURBS curved surface

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JPH01277966A (en) * 1988-04-29 1989-11-08 Sony Corp Design data delivery device
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Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106826400A (en) * 2016-07-25 2017-06-13 中国科学院长春光学精密机械与物理研究所 A kind of complex-curved combinational processing method
CN109895341A (en) * 2017-12-11 2019-06-18 财团法人金属工业研究发展中心 The mode compensation method of free surface lens
CN109299514A (en) * 2018-08-28 2019-02-01 天津大学 The wheel path generation method of inclined shaft grinding free form surface
CN109333165A (en) * 2018-09-25 2019-02-15 杭州电子科技大学 A kind of grinding method of the non-circular bend glass ornaments based on point cloud data description
CN109333165B (en) * 2018-09-25 2019-11-05 杭州电子科技大学 A kind of grinding method of the non-circular bend glass ornaments based on point cloud data description
CN109968204A (en) * 2019-03-21 2019-07-05 华南理工大学 A kind of numerical control grinding form error self-adapting compensation method that grinding wheel workpiece is mutually worn
CN109968204B (en) * 2019-03-21 2021-05-14 华南理工大学 Numerical control grinding shape error self-adaptive compensation method for mutual abrasion of grinding wheel workpieces
CN114589582A (en) * 2022-03-18 2022-06-07 重庆臻宝实业有限公司 Machining method for grinding curved surface of symmetrical circular curved surface electrode
CN114589582B (en) * 2022-03-18 2022-12-16 重庆臻宝实业有限公司 Machining method for grinding curved surface of symmetrical circular curved surface electrode

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Application publication date: 20160608