CN105585074A - Sea water desalting equipment made of hydrophilic materials - Google Patents

Sea water desalting equipment made of hydrophilic materials Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105585074A
CN105585074A CN201410790665.7A CN201410790665A CN105585074A CN 105585074 A CN105585074 A CN 105585074A CN 201410790665 A CN201410790665 A CN 201410790665A CN 105585074 A CN105585074 A CN 105585074A
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water
water wetted
wetted
refers
sea water
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冯益安
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Qingdao Muli New Energy Technology Co Ltd
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Qingdao Muli New Energy Technology Co Ltd
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Priority to CN201410790665.7A priority Critical patent/CN105585074A/en
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A20/00Water conservation; Efficient water supply; Efficient water use
    • Y02A20/124Water desalination
    • Y02A20/131Reverse-osmosis

Abstract

The invention discloses sea water desalting equipment made of hydrophilic materials and relates to another sea water desalting mode besides a reverse osmosis membrane. According to the equipment, a reverse osmosis pressure filtering structure is formed by the hydrophilic materials, filtration is conducted layer by layer, and the sea water desalting process is achieved. The equipment comprises a sea water structure area, osmosis structure areas, reservoir structure areas and a seepage-proofing structure area, wherein the sea water structure area is a structure area for storing and preliminarily filtering sea water and connected with the osmosis structure areas, the osmosis structure areas are connected with the reservoir structure areas, the sea water structure area, the osmosis structure areas and the reservoir structure areas are jointly connected with the seepage-proofing structure area, the osmosis structure areas are structure areas for filtering sea water to remove salinity and made of the hydrophilic materials, and the hydrophilic materials refer to organic matter or inorganic matter which can form hydrogen bonds with H2O. By means of the sea water desalting equipment, the limitation that at present, only the reverse osmosis membrane is used for conducting sea water desalination is changed, complexity of replacing the osmosis membrane is reduced, the equipment is more durable than the osmosis membrane and high in desalination degree, and cost can be reduced.

Description

A kind of sea water desalting equipment forming with water wetted material
Technical field:
Relate to a kind of sea water desalting equipment that has water wetted material to form.
Background technology:
Have material recycle and energy circulation process at earth's lithosphere, material recycle process comprises carbon cycle and water circulation, and carbon cycle process comprises the circulation between organic carbon and DIC,
The process of carbon cycle is such: 1) airborne carbon dioxide becomes organic carbon by photosynthesis of plant, 2) organic carbon is that organic matter is breathed and again become carbon dioxide by burning or animals and plants. 3) organic matter is changed and is buried to the underground energy of becoming fossilized by geology. 4) fossil energy becomes carbon dioxide again through burning. 5) underground buck or ocean buck absorbing carbon dioxide become carbonate precipitation (as calcium carbonate). 6) carbonate becomes carbon dioxide and alkaline dust (lime, cement etc.) again through high-temperature calcination or geology volcano eruption.
The process of water circulation is such: 1) by photosynthesis, water becomes organic composition, 2) organic compound combustion or animals and plants breathe and become carbon dioxide and water. 3) earth's surface or ocean evaporation become steam or moisture gas at atmosphere. 4) atmosphere saturated steam is met condensation knot precipitation or snowfall. 5) rainwash enters ocean. 6) mankind carry out desalinization activity and draw fresh water from ocean.
The process of desalinization has two kinds of modes conventionally: 1) under certain atmospheric pressure environments condition, realize desalinization by evaporation and condensation, and its process need heat energy, cost is generally higher. 2) carry out counter-infiltration by permeable membrane, realize desalinization by multistage counter-infiltration.
Plant in ocean or animal, live among the seawater with certain salt content, but the salt content in marine animal and plant body is far smaller than seawater around, illustrates that the skin of animal or the epidermal cell of plant have the ability of certain filtered brine, or is called " desalinization " ability.
The reverse osmosis membrane desalinization pattern adopting at present, the epidermal cell of actual similar plants, has certain hydrophile function and the salt discharge function of a little, such as the reverse osmosis membrane that utilizes cellulose acetate to make, wherein cellulose is hydrophilic, and cellulose acetate is also hydrophilic. In desalting process, adopt multistage counter-infiltration pattern, seawater is filled into the fresh water that salt content is certain step by step.
Process of osmosis refers under same pressure, and the less aqueous solution of salt content is to the higher aqueous solution infiltration of salt content, and both sides reach the pressure differential that dynamic equilibrium produces and are called osmotic pressure. Reverse osmotic pressure refers to the reverse flow that realizes moisture in the larger side pressurization (or raising liquid level) of salt content, and reverse osmosis process is by through being commonly used for desalting process.
Since desalinization realizes by reverse osmotic pressure, material therefor is permeable membrane. Can find a series of materials to replace reverse osmosis membrane in desalinization field so? in order to find this answer, we need to study the problem that flows to of water, and first, we study natural abnormal phenomena first: the water flow phenomenon that hoists.
At nature, due to the Action of Gravity Field of water, water is to D score trickling, and proverb " The natural flow of water always proceeds from a higher level to a lower one " is exactly the real picture of this natural phenomena. But, also there is the abnormal phenomena of one " water hoist stream " at nature, such as: 1) drip lotus in a humid environment blade can drip water droplet, these water droplets be by the moisture of the root absorption soil of plant and to " on " transport through stem's conduit to blade, wherein there is again partial blade to hang downwards, hydrone is gathered into water droplet in the blade lower end hanging, water droplet is affected by gravity final drippage downwards, and this has just formed moisture by the soil phenomenon that blade " stream " then drips again that first hoists downwards. 2) dripping phenomenon of dripping guanyin is as good as with the lotus of dripping. 3) trees, all there is Evaporation Phenomenon in the blade of all plants of nature, the plant evaporation capacity of diameter 20mm can exceed 0.05 milliliter each second, the evaporation capacity of one day can reach 4.3 kilograms, and the moisture of evaporation is by root absorption, stem is dredged, blade evaporation, therefore the transpiration of plant is also a kind of phenomenon at " water is to upper reaches ". For this phenomenon, people can explain: the conduit of plant and screen casing are realized and being caused by " capillarity " by root to the transport of blade, have numerous " capillary " in plant, and this capillary has the effect of dredging moisture and nutrient. 4) human or animal's capillary. It is believed that in human body artery or vein blood vessel, the power of blood transportation is from heartthrob, to blood, trickling provides power with expansion in the contraction of heart, but in human or animal's tissue, the blood trickling direction of capillary is the upper and lower all directions in left and right, in human or animal body, microcirculatory power is from the structure of capillary wall, be that the usually said osmosis by blood arrives health each several part histoorgan, people are still called this phenomenon " capillarity " of capillary. 5) spring. It is generally acknowledged that spring is underground water, to have underground warm water after the massif rock permeability of ground and concentrate, slit trickling through massif goes out, with the dripping phenomenon difference of plant be: the capillarity of plant only can realize " dripping ", the current that mountain spring forms normally gurgle are gushed out, some mountain spring flows are even very large, and several cubes of discharges per minute are often on the books. 6) immersion stone. In potted plant art, the stone of common a kind of immersion, damp all the year round on stone, on stone, place mud, plant in cultivation, stone is put into water, as long as stone has water below, just lack of water not of immersion stone, sums up " immersion stone " this phenomenon, also can be summed up as a kind of phenomenon at " water is to upper reaches ".
The reason that forms " water is to upper reaches " is: capillary channels (conduit) numerous in plant have larger contact area with hydrone, add the interior bottom of plant moisture large, top moisture is few, due to " infiltration " effect of hydrone, realizes the function at " water is to upper reaches ". Osmosis can be explained with osmotic pressure. Osmotic pressure can be explained with mechanics, this phenomenon is explained with mechanics: because plant internal water molecule is subject to the double action of gravity and capillary wall van der Waals' force in capillary, for reaching the mechanical balance of molecular level, under the effect of molecular force, moisture is just flowed to " top " of plant by " bottom " of plant, realize the function at " water is to upper reaches ".
At nature, some material is hydrophilic, some is hydrophobic or hydrophobic, for the existence of hydrophobic and hydrophobic substance, people are easy to expect utilizing some specific material such as hydrophilic material is made capillary channel and realized so-called " capillarity ", hydrophobic and material hydrophobic can not be realized " capillarity ", therefore can use similar hydrophilic substance, realizes " function " at " water is to upper reaches " such as manufacture fiber or capillary channel with polyvinyl alcohol.
" water is to upper reaches ", because hydrophilic substance causes, we probe into the principle of hydrophilic substance: prove through summary of experience for many years of scientific worker, hydrophilic substance all exists some hydrophilic groups, such as-OH ,-CHO ,-COOH ,-NH2. Wherein 1) hydrophilic group (group) of anion surfactant has carboxylic acid group, sulfonic group and phosphate etc. 2) hydrophilic group of cationic surfactant (group) has amino, quaternary ammonium group etc. 3) hydrophilic group of non-ionic surface active agent (group) is by the ether being made up of oxy radical and hydroxyl and carboxylate, block polyether etc. Sum up, " activity " of so-called hydrophilic group is made up of protium, oxygen element, nitrogen element, P elements, element sulphur, carbon, and they are also the organic basic elements of composition. And why hydrophilic be owing to forming hydrogen bond with water. So-called hydrogen bond is exactly: atom X(fluorine that hydrogen atom and electronegativity are large, radius is little, oxygen, nitrogen etc.) with covalent bonds, if the another kind of atom Y(large with electronegativity identical with X also can) approach, between X and Y taking hydrogen as medium, generate X-H ... a kind of special intermolecular or intramolecular interaction of Y shape formula, is called hydrogen bond. (X and Y can be one species atoms, as the hydrogen bond between hydrone). In the case of the a-spiral of protein, be N-H ... the hydrogen bond of O type is N-H in the double helix situation of DNA ... O, N-H ... the hydrogen bond of N-type, because such hydrogen bond is a lot, therefore these structures are stable. In typical hydrogen bond, X and Y are F, N and the O atoms that electronegativity is very strong. But C, S, Cl, P even Br and I atom also can form hydrogen bond in some cases, but bond energy is lower conventionally. The Average bond energy data of common hydrogen bond are: F-H ...: F(155kJ/mol or 40kcal/mol); O-H ...: N(29kJ/mol or 6.9kcal/mol); O-H ...: O(21kJ/mol or 5.0kcal/mol); N-H ...: N(13kJ/mol or 3.1kcal/mol); N-H ...: O(8kJ/mol or 1.9kcal/mol); HO-H ...: OH3(18kJ/mol or 4.3kcal/mol). Between our known water molecule, be hydrogen bond, if realize " water is upwards walked ", will ensure to form hydrogen bond between material and hydrone, and the bond energy of hydrogen bond approaches or is more than or equal to the bond energy between hydrone. In microcosmos, although the irregular motion of hydrone is subject to the impact of Newtonian mechanics equally, hydrone produces micromotion under the effect of hydrogen bond, should be greater than bond energy between hydrone from the hydrogen bond energy of this reason material, but consider molecular structure, the not necessarily single hydrogen bond forming between molecule and molecule, and be likely that two keys even may have triple bond or how strong, therefore, when the material of not talkative formation " water is upwards walked " and water form hydrogen bond, its bond energy is necessarily greater than the bond energy between hydrone. Such as above-mentioned polyvinyl alcohol, being commonly called as PVA molecular formula is [C2H4O] n, there is stronger water imbibition, 80-90 Celsius is dissolved in water while spending, the element of its water suction can be thought oxygen element and protium, H in oxygen atom and H2O wherein interacts, and the oxygen atom effect in hydrogen atom and H2O wherein, forms multiple hydrogen bonds in pairs. On using, can utilize its water-soluble, film-forming to be attached on other carriers, also can make particle or reel off raw silk from cocoons into fiber and then fiber is inserted to the utilization of drawing water in pipeline. Cellulosic molecule Shi Shi ﹝ C6H10O5 ﹞ n, its oxygen element and protium content are higher equally, and easy and hydrone forms hydrogen bond, and therefore cellulose is also the good material that absorbs moisture. Its derivative, as acetate fiber can corrode by bacteriological protection, can use for a long time.
More than can find out: the phenomenon at " water is to upper reaches " is because water wetted material material is to form hydrogen bond with water to cause. mostly the material that forms hydrogen bond is organic matter. organic matter needs to process in practice, corrodes with bacteriological protection. inorganic matter does not just exist by bacterium and corrodes this situation. so except organic matter, whether inorganic matter also possesses and water effect, finally form the effect at " water is to upper reaches "? at nature, it is hydrophilic having a lot of inorganic matters, its hydrophilic ability even exceedes above-described organic matter, such as numerous drier, but these materials but can not be realized the function at " water is to upper reaches " under normal temperature environment, why? be below conventional drier: calcium sulfate (CaSO4), barium monoxide (BaO), phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5), volume calcium chloride (CaCl2) is crossed in melting, magnesium perchlorate Mg (ClO4) 2, potassium hydroxide (melting) KOH, aluminium oxide Al 2O3, concentrated sulfuric acid H2SO4, silica gel SiO2, NaOH (melting) NaOH, calcium oxide CaO, active anhydrous cupric sulfate CuSO4, magnesium sulfate MgSO4, sodium sulphate Na2SO4, potash K2CO3 etc.
From can finding out of above drier, the feature of drier is to contain oxygen element, P elements, element sulphur, chlorine element, these are the element that can form with water hydrogen bond just, therefore water is had to stronger attraction, particularly contain more than above-mentioned two kinds of hydrophilic elements simultaneously, such as sulfate ion contains oxygen element and two kinds of elements of element sulphur simultaneously, two kinds of elements are all hydrophilic, so sulfate ion has stronger water imbibition, thereby the water-free concentrated sulfuric acid has even dehydration property of stronger water imbibition, corresponding sulfate also has the ability of stronger combination water. other have stronger water absorbing capacity equally as phosphate, perhafnate, carbonate, silicate, nitrate etc., similar close, the structure of H2O is containing aerobic and hydrogen, protium in other compounds in oxygen element contact water, forms hydrogen bond, the oxygen element in other compounds in the adsorbed water such as metallic element, protium and semiconductor element, what form is also hydrogen bond or similar hydrogen bond, its active force is larger, and bond energy is stronger, thereby has strong water imbibition function.
Copper sulfate crystal just can lose two crystallizations water in the situation that exceeding 45 ° of C, lose 4 molecular crystalline water at 110 ° of C, in other words the binding ability of dry copper sulfate crystal and water is very large, at normal temperatures with water affine almost can not separate, unless the uniform temperature of being heated to or vibrations to a certain extent. Therefore, at normal temperatures, the saturated copper sulfate crystal of being combined with water no longer has the ability that absorbs more by force water, and only there is very general hydratability, so, use and do not possessed water suction advantage in conjunction with the drier of water at normal temperatures, under the structure at " water is to upper reaches ", use " drier " material not to be well suited for as material.
Water can be transported to eminence fresh water to upper reaches, has saved the suction pump that consumes conventional energy resource. Can seawater be transported to eminence so? applicant is through simple experiment and with reference to osmotic pressure data analysis, and the actual effect that analysis all proves the seawater to be transported to eminence through natural phenomena is undesirable. Can be from following phenomenon analysis: 1) trees run into salt solution aqueous reflux phenomenon can occur, can dry up and dead. 2) salt-soda soil is barren land, so-called barren land be exactly in soil salinity too many, affected the absorption of moisture. 3) in salt-soda soil, also there are some plants, can Salt And Alkali Tolerance, just water absorption is less, and some plant has salt discharge function. 4) applicant to do the result of testing with polyvinyl alcohol be the speed that draws water while taking out fresh water, and polyvinyl alcohol cloth is placed among salt solution, water velocity significantly slows down. 5) if polyvinyl alcohol cloth is set level instead of allowed " current direction eminence ", speed can be accelerated so. 6) allow salt solution pass through polyvinyl alcohol cloth to dirty, speed is faster, and " downwards " flows this mode and meet reverse osmotic pressure desalinization pattern.
Reverse osmosis membrane is also pellicle, is industrial products, needs often to scrub or change in desalinization, has so just caused the increase of cost. Simultaneously frequent replacing has also increased the complexity of desalting process.
Utilize hydrophilic substance filtering sea impurity, and utilize principle of reverse osmosis use broad sense water wetted material carry out desalinization, can break the limitation of only utilizing reverse osmosis membrane to carry out desalinization at present, and can be durable in use, desalination degree is high, cost-saving.
Summary of the invention:
For the feature that needs reverse osmosis membrane often to change in desalinization, utilize water wetted material to make fresh-water generator or Seawater Desalination Project, can effectively avoid changing the loaded down with trivial details and cost increase that reverse osmosis membrane causes.
A kind of sea water desalting equipment forming with water wetted material, comprise seawater tectonic province, infiltration tectonic province, reservoir structure district, Seepage control structure district, it is characterized in that: seawater tectonic province is the structure realm that stores seawater and preliminary filtering sea, seawater tectonic province connects infiltration tectonic province, infiltration tectonic province connects reservoir structure district, seawater tectonic province, infiltration tectonic province, reservoir structure district connects Seepage control structure district jointly, described " infiltration tectonic province " is the structure realm of filtering sea elimination salinity, there is water wetted material to form, described water wetted material refers to organic matter or the inorganic matter that can form with H2O hydrogen bond, its structure is the particulate that particle diameter is less than 200 microns, or the diameter microballoon that is less than 200 microns, or vertical tangent plane diameter is less than the gengon that the diagonal of the cylinder of 200 microns or vertical tangent plane is less than 200 microns, described vertical tangent plane is vertical vertical tangent plane, described water wetted material and water form organic matter or the inorganic salts compound that protium that oxygen element that hydrogen bond refers to that in molecule, electronegativity is larger or element sulphur or fluorine element or nitrogen element or P elements or carbon or above-mentioned two or more elements wherein and electronegativity are less or metallic element or semiconductor element form.
Place with reservoir structure district (3), (5), (7), (9), (11) interval infiltration tectonic province (2), (4), (6), (8), (10).
Infiltration tectonic province (2), (4), (6), (8), (10) connect successively.
Reservoir structure district (11) is merged in reservoir structure district (3), (5), (7), (9), (11).
Described infiltration tectonic province (2), (4), (6), (8), (10) correspond to one, two, three, four, Pyatyi infiltration tectonic province, the composition grain diameter in Mei Ji reservoir structure district or the descending arrangement of vertical tangent plane particle diameter or descendingly arrive larger arrangement.
Described water wetted material refers to polyvinyl alcohol.
Described water wetted material refers to cellulose acetate.
Described water wetted material refers to polyacrylic resin.
Described water wetted material refers to that POLYPROPYLENE GLYCOL is resin.
Described water wetted material refers to that PEO is resin.
Described water wetted material refers to unorganic glass.
Described water wetted material refers to quartz glass.
Described water wetted material refers to SiO 2 powder.
Described water wetted material refers to calcium sulfate (CaSO4).
Described water wetted material refers to magnesium sulfate MgSO4.
Described water wetted material refers to sodium sulphate Na2SO4.
Described water wetted material refers to copper sulphate CuSO4.
Described water wetted material refers to potash K2CO3.
Described water wetted material refers to magnesium perchlorate Mg (ClO4) 2.
Described water wetted material refers to calcium chloride (CaCl2).
Described water wetted material refers to barium monoxide (BaO).
Described water wetted material refers to aluminium oxide (Al2O3).
Described water wetted material refers to phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5).
Described water wetted material refers to calcium oxide (CaO).
Described water wetted material refers to silica gel SiO2.
Described water wetted material refers to potassium hydroxide (melting) KOH.
Described water wetted material is NaOH (melting) NaOH.
Described seawater tectonic province has enclosure net structure, and described enclosure net structure is one or more layers purse seine composition filter screen structure, described multilayer purse seine composition filter screen structure be that peripheral aperture is large, peripheral aperture is progressively decreased to the pore size of pellicle inwards.
The composition structure of described water wetted material is tubular structure, and the horizontal ring set of body and body forms pipe-in-pipe integrated morphology.
The composition structure of described water wetted material is column structure, the horizontal column integrated morphology of the transversely arranged formation of cylinder and cylinder.
The composition structure of described water wetted material is plate-like structure, the horizontal tabular integrated morphology of the transversely arranged formation of platysome and platysome.
The composition structure of described water wetted material is a watt type platy structure, watt template body and horizontal watt of template shape integrated morphology of watt transversely arranged formation of template body.
The composition structure of described water wetted material is fibrous material structure, the integrated fascicular texture of the transversely arranged formation transverse fiber of fiber and fiber.
The composition structure of described water wetted material is the mixing supporting construction of fibrous material and tubular body or cylinder composition, and the transversely arranged formation transverse combination of fiber and tubular body or cylinder fiber is strengthened structure.
The composition structure of described water wetted material is grain structure, and particle and particle packing support mutually, forms any direction integrated morphology between particle.
The composition structure of described water wetted material is particle and tubular structure combination, and particle packing is in transversal tubular body, and particle and body form horizontal integrated morphology jointly.
Described water wetted material is made particle and is bonded on non-hydrophilic composite material, or water wetted material is made to colloid is bonded in non-hydrophilic composite material surface, and non-hydrophilic composite material is as backing material.
Utilize hydrophilic substance filtering sea impurity, and utilize principle of reverse osmosis use broad sense water wetted material carry out desalinization, can break and only utilize reverse osmosis membrane to carry out the limitation of desalinization at present, and reduce and change the loaded down with trivial details of permeable membrane, more durable in use than permeable membrane, desalination degree is high, cost-saving, mini-plant is convenient to batch production production, and it is life-extending that heavy construction is conducive to increase output, thereby reduces the desalinating cost of desalinization.
Brief description of the drawings:
Fig. 1 is circumference type sea water desalting equipment vertical tangent plane figure, and wherein 1 is seawater tectonic province, and 2 is one-level infiltration tectonic province, 3 is one-level reservoir structure district, 4 is secondary infiltration tectonic province, and 5 is secondary reservoir structure district, and 6 is three grades of infiltration tectonic provinces, 7 is three grades of reservoir structure districts, 8 is level Four infiltration tectonic province, and 9 is level Four reservoir structure district, and 10 is Pyatyi infiltration tectonic province, 11 is Pyatyi reservoir structure district, and 12 is Seepage control structure district. Fig. 2 is the circumference type sea water desalting equipment vertical tangent plane figure in clipped reservoir structure district, and digital code is identical with Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is column water wetted material vertical tangent plane exemplary plot, and wherein 13 is cylinder. Fig. 4 is horizontal polygon cylinder or the integrated vertical tangent plane schematic diagram of cylinder, and wherein 13 is single cylinder, and 14 is cylinder integrated morphology. Fig. 5 is for being horizontal dull and stereotyped integrated schematic diagram, and wherein 15 is single flat board, the 16 integrated schematic diagrames that are multiple flat boards. Fig. 6 is the vertical tangent plane schematic diagram of pipe box tubular structure, and wherein 17 is pipe body, and 18 is the water wetted material passage on gap between tube and tube.
Detailed description of the invention:
With Figure of description, concrete implementation process is described: Fig. 1 circumference type sea water desalting equipment vertical tangent plane figure, the face shaping that so-called circumference type is exactly sea water desalting equipment is circle or sub-circular, and in physical device production and Seawater Desalination Project, can be various shape, such as semicircle, arc, polygons etc., but that shape no matter, all will have four part contextures, this four part is exactly: one, seawater tectonic province is exactly the place that contacts seawater or storage seawater in equipment or engineering. Two, permeate tectonic province, utilize exactly the equipment structure realm of the filtering sea elimination salinity of water wetted material making. Three, reservoir structure district, retaining region is exactly the temporary transient place storing of water that seawater is desalinated step by step through infiltration tectonic province. Four, Seepage control structure district, just refers to not the structure realm of seawater and fresh water thoroughly. Wherein seawater tectonic province connects infiltration tectonic province, and infiltration tectonic province connects reservoir structure district, and seawater tectonic province, infiltration tectonic province, reservoir structure district connect Seepage control structure district jointly. There are support, protective effect in Seepage control structure district to above-described seawater tectonic province, infiltration tectonic province, reservoir structure district; with fluid-tight organic material such as plastics, organic film etc. are made; also can make with the porcelain material of waterproof; also can make with metal material or alloy material; also can make with crystalline material; in a word, make and just can meet the demands with fine and close waterproof material.
For Figure of description 1 and accompanying drawing 2, each several part region corresponding to numeral is: 1 is seawater tectonic province, and 2 is one-level infiltration tectonic province, 3 is one-level reservoir structure district, 4 is secondary infiltration tectonic province, and 5 is secondary reservoir structure district, and 6 is three grades of infiltration tectonic provinces, 7 is three grades of reservoir structure districts, 8 is level Four infiltration tectonic province, and 9 is level Four reservoir structure district, and 10 is Pyatyi infiltration tectonic province, 11 is Pyatyi reservoir structure district, and 12 is Seepage control structure district. Seawater tectonic province (1) as its name suggests, it is exactly the region of sea water desalting equipment contact seawater, while being used as small-sized fresh-water generator, this part region must be container type, when work, can hold full seawater, seawater is through permeating to the water wetted material of infiltration tectonic province with the contact portion of infiltration tectonic province (1), and then seawater is progressively filtered into fresh water through infiltration tectonic provinces at different levels. Can imagine, within infiltration tectonic provinces at different levels, exist the salinity of a seawater poor, infiltration tectonic province is longer, and structure link is more, and the desalination degree of seawater is higher.
Like this, the structure of infiltration tectonic province is the key position of desalinization. there is a directionality problem in the structure of seawater tectonic province, such as the bottom level of infiltration tectonic province is placed, or be inclined upwardly, such as the water suction direction of trees is vertically upward, even but good again through the water wetted material used of mode vertically upward of this similar trees of simple experiment, absorption speed or desalinization speed are very slow, and in plant kingdom, the plant in salt-soda soil is also that long not high reason is also this reason. therefore, in order to improve desalinization speed, the substructure direction of Figure of description 1 and accompanying drawing 2 infiltration areas used is tilted to down, why is tilted to down instead of reason is vertically downward, in certain region, more water wetted material to be set, and convenient transformation, or clean in real time. thickness or structure as for infiltration tectonic province still will be according to the salinity of seawater, the requirement of condition of water quality and desalination and the characteristic of water wetted material are set jointly, while desalinating with seawater desalination reverse osmosis film, also use multilevel mode to desalinate step by step, and the difference of the application's water wetted material used and reverse osmosis membrane is the wider of water wetted material, reverse osmosis membrane utilizes membrane molecule water-wet behavior, water suction, be combined with water, flow to fresh water on one side through reverse osmosis pressure, and the application's water wetted material used is identical with the water-wet behavior of reverse osmosis membrane, the gap of hydrophilic granules is below 200 microns, so little particle can be more washed away in the time that current are larger, again little particle can form colloid with water, therefore the structure of infiltration area is comparatively complicated and changeful, but way is a lot, such as hydrophilic granules being fixed on the large-scale grains of sand, fixed form is also varied, evenly be sprayed on the grains of sand such as be melted into liquid (with spray pattern) with polyvinyl alcohol, as for additive method such as chemical deposition, magnetron sputtering method, galvanoplastic, chemical corrosion method etc. can be used, object is on water wetted material, to build fine channel, or on non-hydrophilic composite material, spray water wetted material, object is also to build hydrophilic channel. the gap of hydrophilic channel is defined as below 200 microns, the source of this size is the channel diameter of the capillarity screen casing of trees, this size of trees can make water upwards walk, capillarity is exactly that diameter is less than hair thickness, the diameter of hair is also hundreds of micron, and this is consistent in saying.
So, just does not only absorb moisture absorb salinity to water wetted material under so little diameter? it is actual that no. Water wetted material and water have active force and salinity also to have active force. Reverse osmotic pressure molecular film is also this reason. Reverse osmosis membrane is not to absorb scarcely salinity. But we want the difference of analysis moisture and molecules of salt. In molecule microcosmos, fluid molecule flows, single hydrone H2O molecular weight is 18, sodium chloride is 58, and other salts are also almost greater than 58, namely corresponding to each molecule or corresponding to each ion, the overall molecule quality of H2O is less, according to Newton mechanics law, under same pressure environment condition, the H2O movement velocity that quality is less is very fast. F=ma, whether this formula is applicable to microcosmos molecular motion rule actually, and this tests bad doing, but can explain a lot of phenomenons by this rule, comprises the water suction phenomenon of reverse osmosis membrane desalinization phenomenon and trees. In like manner, also can infer the desalinization principle of utilizing water wetted material to make sea water desalting equipment or Seawater Desalination Project, be exactly under same pressure, the movement velocity of hydrone is greater than the movement velocity of salt quasi-molecule, therefore motion path is longer, hydrone will be larger at the proportion of whole fluid, and the contained proportion of salinity is just lower, and the dilution capacity of seawater is stronger. Therefore, how thick is the thickness of water wetted material actually? this will decide according to environmental condition, such as seawater salinity, pressure, temperature. If desalinate once undesirable, can repeat again desalination once, can further reduce like this salinity. It is lower than 4% that the salinity of general fresh water requires, too low also not meeting quoted requirement, such as human body need to supplement salinity or need certain mineral element requirement, such as mineral water, be exactly to want certain salinity, so-called pure water neither 100% H2O, namely water quality has requirement, plant absorbs moisture also salinity requirement. Otherwise, too light instead can be dead. According to the requirement of salinity, it is no longer just problem that the thickness of water wetted material is set, because be a very large region from the scope of pure water to 4%. Can imagine, the thickness of reverse osmosis membrane is a millimeter rank, through several times, the thickness of counter-infiltration water wetted material is more so, but in structure, want firmly, withstand from the reverse osmosis pressure of seawater tectonic province and the gravity of seawater self, therefore the setting of thickness is to set according to the mechanical support dynamics of material. The mechanical field that is set in of support degree is again a region of variation that variation is larger, and this has become again the problem of Mechanics of Machinery. And Mechanics of Machinery relates to another problem, do not relate to the application's content. It can be 10mm-1000mm that the thickness of small-sized sea water desalting equipment water wetted material is added up, and the thickness of large-scale Seawater Desalination Project engineering water wetted material can be 250mm-10000mm, and this scope is almost enough.
Be directed in Fig. 1, infiltration tectonic province is divided into infiltration tectonic province (2), (4), (6), (8), (10), and Fig. 2 will permeate tectonic province (2), (4), (6), (8), (10) merging, reservoir structure district (3), (5), (7), (9), (11) are merged into (11). This can only illustrate in examples of implementation can multiple mutation.
Be directed to Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, Seepage control structure district (12) are jointly connected and it are carried out to mechanical support with seawater tectonic province (1), infiltration tectonic province (2), reservoir structure district (3).
In Fig. 1, described " infiltration tectonic province " (3), (5), (7), (9), (11) refer to the structure realm of filtering sea elimination salinity, specifically there is water wetted material to form, described water wetted material refers to the organic matter or the inorganic matter that form hydrogen bond with H2O, its structure is the particulate that particle diameter is less than 200 microns, or the diameter microballoon that is less than 200 microns, said that granular too little meeting flowed away with current above, so can add protection particle in both sides while using particle, such as the 5mm-10mm grains of sand are before this at peripheral filtering sea, then be the overcoat of 1mm-5mm, prevent that molecule runs off, then be 0.2-1mm overcoat, then be that particle diameter is less than the water wetted material layer that 0.2mm is less than 200 microns. the multiple edge body that is less than 200 microns as for the diagonal that utilizes vertical tangent plane to be less than the cylinder of 200 microns or vertical tangent plane is piled up (as Fig. 3), the problem that does not just exist particle to run off. the regular hexagon cylinder that Fig. 3 shows, it is a shape special case, cylinder vertical tangent plane can various shape, column diameter or vertical tangent plane diagonals of polygon be greater than 200 microns also harmless, because the passage of water is the gap of cylinder and cylinder, and smooth degree between column and same flexibility whether are depended in this gap. saying below 200 microns, is almost the particle diameter of fiber, and this requirement is somewhat high, in practical operation, just meets the demands as long as the gap between guarantee cylinder is less than 200 microns.
In Fig. 1, permeate that tectonic province (2), (4), (6), (8), (10) are placed with described reservoir structure district (3), (5), (7), (9), (11) interval or infiltration tectonic province (2), (4), (6), (8), (10) are connected (as Fig. 2) successively, reservoir structure district (11) (as Fig. 2) is merged in reservoir structure district (3), (5), (7), (9), (11). Described infiltration tectonic province (2), (4), (6), (8), (10) correspond to one, two, three, four, Pyatyi infiltration tectonic province, the composition grain diameter in Mei Ji reservoir structure district or the descending arrangement of vertical tangent plane particle diameter or descendingly arrive larger arrangement. On figure, Pyatyi structure is only also a special case. What is divided into actually, can be divided into as required tens grades, in design, can set flexibly.
Water wetted material has a larger scope, and is confined to several organic matter materials unlike reverse osmosis membrane, such as CAM. Water wetted material requires to form hydrogen bond with water and can. Being defined in the application approval as giving a definition of hydrogen bond: water wetted material and water form organic matter or the inorganic salts compound that protium that oxygen element that hydrogen bond refers to that in molecule, electronegativity is larger or element sulphur or fluorine element or nitrogen element or P elements or carbon or above-mentioned two or more elements wherein and electronegativity are less or metallic element or semiconductor element form.
The decisive factor of discharge: the contact area of infiltration area and water and the performance of water wetted material determine jointly, water is larger with the material contact area of composition capillary channel, in principle, the transport capacity of water is larger, the water absorbing force of material is stronger, transport capacity is larger, this " transport capacity " also refers to the penetrating power of water, penetration is larger, the transport capacity of water is stronger, also to consider absorption speed and the water separation capability under certain temperature and pressure condition simultaneously, only have very fast water suction constantly dehydration, could realize the fast transportation of water. The water absorbing capacity of various materials and dehydration conditions are different, such as, anhydrous cupric sulfate has very strong water absorbing capacity, a copper sulphate molecule can absorb 5 molecular crystalline water, but the copper sulphate with the crystallization water can not dewater under normal pressure at normal temperatures, only more than C could dewater 45 ° of facilities, therefore at normal temperatures and pressures, with copper sulphate as water suction or dehydration material be unaccommodated. But, copper sulphate can be used under specific condition, such as in the development process of geothermal energy resources, such as being greater than in the hot spring of 70 ° of C, if just improper with polyvinyl alcohol, because polyvinyl alcohol would just become liquid in the time exceeding 80 ° of C, liquid has mobility, if pipeline inner capillary tube road is the water absorbing agent as material with polyvinyl alcohol, under the environment lower than 65 ° of C, be safe, polyvinyl alcohol can only be used under the environmental condition lower than 65 ° of C in other words. Polyvinyl alcohol is available under low temperature or normal temperature, if but as underground artificial hot spring, in underground piping as the words of water absorbing agent, just see the temperature of underground water, if underground water temperature has exceeded 65 ° of C, such as being 80 ° of-110 ° of C, can select copper sulphate as water absorbing agent, in other words, all solid driers are all water absorbing agents, but will be used at specific temperature, are convenient to dewater under normal pressure, under certain gravity or other pressure, dewater, could realize quick seawater desalination functions. Also have absorbent material necessarily to there is certain intensity, such as the concentrated sulfuric acid has very strong water absorbing capacity, but itself be liquid, liquid does not possess the supporting role of solid, and liquid has mobility, flowing liquid can not be as supporting self and the effect of supporting moisture, and therefore liquid can not be as absorbent material, although it may have very strong water absorbing capacity. So-called bearing capacity be exactly absorbent material this be solid in operation interval (such as polyvinyl alcohol is under 65 °), there is some strength, this intensity can support self and the moisture that carries, and under this intensity index, has larger contact area with water. Absorbent material is very huge, but is not that any absorbent material can nonoptionally use. What absorbent material can be selected has: 1) nonionic system, as hydroxy kind, acid amides base class etc.; 2) multiple hydrophilic radical is: hydroxyl-carboxylic acids, hydroxyl-carboxylic acid group-acid amides base class, sulfonic group-carboxylic acid base class etc. Most of super absorbent resins are made up of the tridimensional network that contains strongly hydrophilic group (as carboxyl, sulfonic group, phthalein amido, hydroxyl etc.) on strand. But after a lot of absorbent material water suctions, expanding, give pipeline build-up of pressure, is not therefore that the stronger just more applicable water wetted material that does desalinization of water absorbing capacity uses yet. The water wetted material of sea water desalting equipment must have following technical indicator: 1) water suction is hydrophilic ability. 2) water suction and dehydration meet the temperature and pressure condition of environment. 3) absorbent material will possess certain intensity. 4) absorbent material and seawater have larger contact area. 5) caliber of the desalinization of material composition is always certain orientation, fastest downwards.
The supporting construction of water wetted material also has following structure in addition: 1) tubular structure (as Fig. 6), the horizontal ring set of body and body, forms pipe-in-pipe integrated morphology, on pipe, can have Baltimore groove. 2) column structure (as Fig. 4), the horizontal column integrated morphology of the transversely arranged formation of cylinder and cylinder. 3) plate-like structure (as Fig. 5), the horizontal tabular integrated morphology of the transversely arranged formation of platysome and platysome. 4) watt type platy structure, watt template body and horizontal watt of template shape integrated morphology of watt transversely arranged formation of template body. 5) fibrous material structure, the transversely arranged formation transverse fiber of fiber and fiber integrated morphology. 6) the mixing supporting construction of fibrous material and tubular body or cylinder composition, the transversely arranged formation transverse combination of fiber and tubular body or cylinder fiber is strengthened structure. 7) grain structure, particle and particle packing support mutually, form any direction integrated morphology between particle. 8) particle and tubular structure combination, particle packing is in transversal tubular body, and particle and body form horizontal integrated morphology jointly.
Other brief description of the drawings: Fig. 4 is horizontal polygon cylinder or the integrated vertical tangent plane schematic diagram of cylinder, and wherein 13 is single cylinder, and 14 is cylinder integrated morphology. Fig. 5 is for being horizontal dull and stereotyped integrated schematic diagram, and wherein 15 is single flat board, the 16 integrated schematic diagrames that are multiple flat boards. Fig. 6 is the vertical tangent plane schematic diagram of pipe box tubular structure, and wherein 17 is pipe body, and 18 is the water wetted material passage on gap between tube and tube.
In addition, in practical embodiments, water wetted material can also be made to particle and be bonded on non-hydrophilic composite material, non-hydrophilic composite material is as backing material.

Claims (10)

1. the sea water desalting equipment forming with water wetted material, comprise seawater tectonic province, infiltration tectonic province, reservoir structure district, Seepage control structure district, it is characterized in that: seawater tectonic province is the structure realm that stores seawater and preliminary filtering sea, seawater tectonic province connects infiltration tectonic province, infiltration tectonic province connects reservoir structure district, seawater tectonic province, infiltration tectonic province, reservoir structure district connects Seepage control structure district jointly, described " infiltration tectonic province " is the structure realm of filtering sea elimination salinity, there is water wetted material to form, described water wetted material refers to organic matter or the inorganic matter that can form with H2O hydrogen bond, its structure is the particulate that particle diameter is less than 200 microns, or the diameter microballoon that is less than 200 microns, or vertical tangent plane diameter is less than the gengon that the diagonal of the cylinder of 200 microns or vertical tangent plane is less than 200 microns, described vertical tangent plane is vertical vertical tangent plane, described water wetted material and water form organic matter or the inorganic salts compound that protium that oxygen element that hydrogen bond refers to that in molecule, electronegativity is larger or element sulphur or fluorine element or nitrogen element or P elements or carbon or above-mentioned two or more elements wherein and electronegativity are less or metallic element or semiconductor element form, this sea water desalting equipment by water wetted material formation can be broken the limitation of only utilizing reverse osmosis membrane to carry out desalinization at present, and reduces and change the loaded down with trivial details of permeable membrane, and more durable in use than permeable membrane, desalination degree is high, has reduced cost.
2. a kind of sea water desalting equipment forming with water wetted material according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described water wetted material refers to polyvinyl alcohol.
3. a kind of sea water desalting equipment forming with water wetted material according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described water wetted material refers to cellulose acetate.
4. a kind of sea water desalting equipment forming with water wetted material according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described water wetted material refers to polyacrylic resin.
5. a kind of sea water desalting equipment forming with water wetted material according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described water wetted material refers to that POLYPROPYLENE GLYCOL is resin.
6. a kind of sea water desalting equipment forming with water wetted material according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described water wetted material refers to that PEO is resin.
7. according to claim 1 sea water desalting equipment forming with water wetted material, it is characterized in that: described water wetted material refers to unorganic glass.
8. a kind of sea water desalting equipment forming with water wetted material according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described water wetted material refers to quartz glass.
9. a kind of sea water desalting equipment forming with water wetted material according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described water wetted material refers to SiO 2 powder.
10. a kind of sea water desalting equipment forming with water wetted material according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described water wetted material refers to calcium sulfate.
CN201410790665.7A 2014-12-18 2014-12-18 Sea water desalting equipment made of hydrophilic materials Pending CN105585074A (en)

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Application publication date: 20160518