CN105256759A - Bottomland transverse layered ecological disturbing comprehensive oncomelania-killing-resistant method - Google Patents

Bottomland transverse layered ecological disturbing comprehensive oncomelania-killing-resistant method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105256759A
CN105256759A CN201510560256.2A CN201510560256A CN105256759A CN 105256759 A CN105256759 A CN 105256759A CN 201510560256 A CN201510560256 A CN 201510560256A CN 105256759 A CN105256759 A CN 105256759A
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oncomelania
elevation
spiral shell
ladder
killing
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CN105256759B (en
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王家生
朱孔贤
卢金友
闵凤阳
魏国远
张琳
唐冬梅
范北林
杨启红
曾月
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Changjiang River Scientific Research Institute Changjiang Water Resources Commission
Changjiang Waterway Planning Design and Research Institute
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Changjiang River Scientific Research Institute Changjiang Water Resources Commission
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Abstract

The invention provides a bottomland transverse layered ecological disturbing comprehensive oncomelania-killing-resistant method. The method comprises the following steps that 1, a first step for blocking oncomelania with the width being 2-8 m is dug downwards in the position, close to an embankment, of the bottomland in the side direction, the two ends of the step are kept being communicated with rivers and lakes, the elevation of the bottom of the first step is lower than the local perennial lower water level, and it is ensured that the continuous waterflooding time is up to eight months every year and the depth of water is greater than or equal to 1 m; 2, oncomelania-containing soil on the surface layer of a second step is wiped out, the depth is made to exceed 15 cm, non-oncomelania soil with the thickness up to 30 cm is covered on the second step, and the second step face layer is regular and flat and forms a gradient of 5-10 degrees with the beach face; and 3, the elevation of the top face of a third step is higher than the local highest oncomelania-containing altitude traverse, and the width of the top face is added to be greater than or equal to 1 m. According to the bottomland transverse layered ecological disturbing comprehensive oncomelania-killing-resistant method, the defects of easy relapse and environmental pollution of existing drug molluscacidal and other methods are overcome, and the method has the advantages of being broad in application range, large in oncomelania treatment area, good in oncomelania-killing-resistant effect, flexible in utilization and the like.

Description

A kind of beach, continent horizontal layering ecological disturbance Comprehensive Preventing snail-killing method
Technical field
The present invention relates to water conservancy prevention and cure of schistosomiasis technical field, specifically the horizontal layering ecological disturbance in beach, a kind of continent Comprehensive Preventing snail-killing method.
Background technology
Snail fever is one of six large emphasis tropical diseases of determining of the World Health Organization (WHO), because schistosomiasis infection power is strong, propagation link is many, Epidemic Scope is wide, snail fever is classified as the disease that in all parasitic diseases, distribution is the widest by WHO, and its infection rate occupies the pathophorous first place of water.China's Major Epidemic be Japanese schistosomiasis, and oncomelania is unique intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum.
Due to the amphibious biology that oncomelania is a kind of gill respiration, therefore its life habit to be lived under water for a long time, can not live in for a long time on dry ground, its process such as growth, breeding is all subject to the various factors such as water, temperature, soil, vegetation and illumination.In view of the bilharzial history of life just can must be completed by this specific host of oncomelania, therefore, killing oncomelania is the means cutting off route of transmission most effectively.
Oncomelania can be divided into lake type, network of rivers type and hilly endemic area according to its environmental form.Wherein, lake type is main type, and its Endemic Area has spiral surface to amass to account for that the whole nation is real 96.52% of oncomelania area, and epidemic-stricken area epidemic situation is also serious.Lake type be mainly distributed in that Hubei, Hunan, Anhui, Jiangxi, Jiangsu etc. economizes along the Yangtze River with lake region in large stretch of beach, continent.This kind of area produces " winter Lu Xia water " phenomenon with river level seasonal movement, the Oncomelania Snails that is highly advantageous to is bred, oncomelania often in planar distribution or according to elevation in " two lines, three band " (namely the highest and minimum have spiral shell altitude traverse, upper and lower rare ribbon, middle close ribbon) characteristic distributions, as shown in Figure 1.Facts have proved for many years, the dense waterway net region relatively isolated in some water systems and part knob, by make great efforts can killing oncomelania, but in the Yangtze river basin, the lake region of the wide scope such as Poyang Lake and Dongting Lake, complete killing oncomelania to there is larger difficulty.
Snail control with drugs is that China adopts maximum a kind of snail-killing methods in decades, and the scope of application is very wide.But snail control with drugs is one controls calibration method, easily repeatedly, and all there is certain toxicity and have earth suction-operated in snail killing agent to spiral shell feelings, therefore has pollution in various degree to environment.A lot of prevention and cure of schistosomiasis expert also have studied in succession by interspecies competition, predation, the parasitic microbe snail-killing method controlling oncomelania, and adopts the physical method of the spiral shells that go out such as vapours, baked wheaten cake, hot water, but effect is all undesirable.Ecological disturbance goes out the ecological habit of spiral shell for oncomelania, by changing the means such as Surfaces soil water content, surface vegetation, elevation, thoroughly can change the environment of Oncomelania Snails, be a kind of lasting effectively, the many-side ecology that is better than other snail-killing methods goes out spiral shell measure.
Summary of the invention
The invention provides beach, a kind of continent horizontal layering ecological disturbance Comprehensive Preventing snail-killing method, for life habit and the elevation characteristic distributions of oncomelania, disturbed by artificial engineering, change earth's surface moisture content and transformation vegetation, suppress existence and the diffusion of oncomelania, raise beach, continent elevation, it is made to have spiral shell altitude traverse higher than locality is the highest, destroying the snail habitat of winter Lu Xia water, for solving the problem of rivers and lakes large area continent beach prevention and control oncomelania difficulty, providing a kind of combined type technological means.
On solving, address problem, the present invention adopts following technical scheme:
A kind of beach, continent horizontal layering ecological disturbance Comprehensive Preventing snail-killing method, transversely form three grades of anti-spiral shell ladders by the mode that low elevation region reduces elevation, elevation is raised in the interference of middle elevation region surface, elevation region on beach, continent, described method comprises the steps:
Step one, under dyke side direction, excavate 2 ~ 8m wide resistance spiral shell first ladder on beach, continent, the two ends of ladder are kept to be communicated with lake, river, bottom surface rule is smooth-going, determine that the Bottom Altitude of the first ladder is lower than the long-term low water stage in locality according to local hydrologic condition, ensure that the annual permanent flooding time reaches more than 8 months, the depth of water is not less than 1m, is connected the gradient is not less than 45 degree with the second ladder;
Step 2, have spiral shell mamoty to remove on the second ladder top layer, the degree of depth more than 15cm, it covers thick more than 30cm without spiral shell soil, second-order tread layer rule is smooth, and to the gradient of beach face formation 5-10 degree, is beneficial to draining, to avoid Oncomelania Snails;
The elevation of top surface of step 3, the 3rd ladder has spiral shell altitude traverse higher than locality is the highest, increases end face width and makes top width be not less than 1m, and end face should be regular smooth, avoids the formation of new hole water hole, thoroughly to eliminate the environment of Oncomelania Snails.
Beach, continent as above horizontal layering ecological disturbance Comprehensive Preventing snail-killing method, also comprise centering elevation region bank protection or the domatic middle elevation surface disturbance step of carrying out anti-spiral shell transformation of dyke, concrete employing cast-in-situ concrete, concrete precast block or stone masonry, transformation elevation has more than spiral shell altitude traverse from levee toe to the highest, domatic maintenance is smooth seamless, again forms snail habitat to avoid weedy in seam.
Instant invention overcomes the shortcoming that the methods such as existing snail control with drugs easily recur and there is environment pollution; In addition, the present invention has applied range, administer oncomelania area large, anti-sn ail control effect good, use the advantages such as flexible, the Oncomelania Snails region such as beach, continent, dyke being adapted at rivers and lakes is applied.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is that lake type oncomelania is in " two lines, three bands " distribution schematic diagram;
Fig. 2 is that beach, continent of the present invention horizontal layering ecological disturbance Comprehensive Preventing goes out the structural representation of spiral shell device.
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with the accompanying drawing in the present invention, the technical scheme in the present invention is clearly and completely described.
Please refer to Fig. 2, the invention provides beach, a kind of continent horizontal layering ecological disturbance Comprehensive Preventing snail-killing method, transversely form three grades of anti-spiral shell ladders by the mode that low elevation region reduces elevation, elevation is raised in the interference of middle elevation region surface, elevation region on beach, continent, reach the object killed with prevention and control oncomelania.
Described method comprises the steps:
Step one, under dyke side direction, excavate 2 ~ 8m wide resistance spiral shell first ladder on beach, continent, the two ends of ladder are kept to be communicated with lake, river, bottom surface rule is smooth-going, determine that the Bottom Altitude of the first ladder is lower than the long-term low water stage in locality according to local hydrologic condition, ensure that the annual permanent flooding time reaches more than 8 months, the depth of water is not less than 1m, is connected the gradient is not less than 45 degree with the second ladder.If when the engineering quantity of the first ladder excavation is larger, also can the measures such as guardrail be taked, prevent the animals such as ox to be with Luo Zhou beach.
Step 2, have spiral shell mamoty to remove on the second ladder top layer, the degree of depth more than 15cm, it should cover the native without spiral shell of thick more than 30cm, to reach the object of the spiral shell that goes out.Can spiral shell soil be had to be placed in bottom the first ladder the second ladder top layer, utilize the deep layer of excavation first ladder to cover the second ladder without spiral shell soil, maintain cut and fill balance.In addition, second-order tread layer should be regular smooth, and form the gradient of 5-10 degree, is beneficial to draining, to avoid Oncomelania Snails.
When step 3, the crest level determining anti-spiral shell the 3rd ladder and width, its influence degree to river course flood should be considered, when not affecting river course flood, raise the elevation of top surface of the 3rd ladder as far as possible, spiral shell altitude traverse should be had higher than locality is the highest, increase end face width, top width should not be less than 1m, end face should be regular smooth, avoids the formation of new hole water hole, thoroughly to eliminate the environment of Oncomelania Snails.In order to prevent Oncomelania Snails, the 3rd ladder near water side slope should carry out the process of anti-spiral shell surface modification.
Preferably, also can comprise centering elevation region bank protection or the domatic middle elevation surface disturbance step of carrying out anti-spiral shell transformation of dyke, the forms such as concrete employing cast-in-situ concrete, concrete precast block, stone masonry, transformation elevation generally has more than spiral shell altitude traverse from levee toe to the highest, domaticly should keep smooth seamless, weedy to avoid in seam, again form snail habitat.
The engineering measure of middle elevation surface disturbance generally has full surface modification and local surface modification two type.Full surface modification refers to that Surface hardened layer transformation is pushed up from toe to slope.Local surfaces transformation refers under the prerequisite meeting hydraulic engineering requirement, is investment reduction, and can have this principle of helical according to snail habitat existence is the highest, carry out local surfaces transformation, the bank slope as rivers, lake can adopt this remodeling method.To the outer dike section without beach, continent of dike, surface modification elevation generally has more than helical (prerequisite meets dyke flood control requirement) from this low water level to the highest; For the dike section having beach, continent outside dike, surface modification elevation generally has more than helical from levee toe to the highest.
Cardinal principle of the present invention: can not live under water for a long time for oncomelania, dry ground habit can not be lived in for a long time, and according to elevation in " two lines, three bands " (namely the highest and minimumly have spiral shell altitude traverse, upper and lower rare ribbon, middle close ribbon) characteristic distributions, by excavating resistance spiral shell first ladder downwards, reduce elevation, the permanent flooding time is kept to reach more than 8 months, prevent oncomelania from multiplying in ladder and surviving, prevent oncomelania from diffusing to the often movable nearly dike region of people and animals by outbeach, can prevent people and animals from entering outside dike simultaneously and have Luo Zhou beach, reduce the schistosomiasis infection rate of people and animals.
At cruel summer and cold and heat, oncomelania can in soil under grass roots " aestivation " or " hibernation ", and the existence degree of depth in soil layer, winter can reach 14cm the most deeply.Therefore, by removing weeds in the snail habitat of nearly dike region or shrub, root out top layer soil layer, the degree of depth should more than 15cm, it should cover thick more than 30cm without spiral shell soil, to reach the object of the spiral shell that goes out.
Middle elevation surface disturbance is mainly by changing the top layer moisture content in suitable oncomelania existence region, and reducing oncomelania can living space, reaches the object eliminating oncomelania.Oncomelania optimum is survive in the environment of about 20% at Water Content of Top Soil, the top layer moisture content transforming region after surface disturbance engineering construction is 0 at most of time, according to oncomelania to Water Content of Top Soil compliance achievement in research, when moisture content is 0, the death rate of oncomelania is 100%.Pansclerosis or differential hardening surface disturbance are adopted to canal bank (limit) slope, rivers lake, thoroughly can change snail habitat, prevent Oncomelania Snails.Owing to fetching earth, often form hypsography low-lying, hole water hole not of uniform size in dyke both sides, become the high-risk higher risk area of snail fever.
And newly-built, reconstruct or strengthen the dikes engineering time, Chang Yinfang blends the stable needs of dyke, builds bank protection platform in dyke both sides, therefore can building in conjunction with bank protection platform, form anti-spiral shell the 3rd ladder, to prevent Oncomelania Snails or to reduce the probability of Oncomelania Snails to contact epidemic-stricken area probability with people and animals.
Bank slope or dyke surface modification generally adopt the patterns such as cast-in-situ concrete, concrete precast block, stone masonry, also can adopting through proving new material, the new technology applied, selecting according to conditions such as local concrete condition, construction investments.No matter adopt which kind of form, transformation surface should keep smooth seamless, weedy to avoid in seam, again forms snail habitat.Investigation shows, hardfacing materials adopts cast-in-situ concrete sclerosis, and not easily grow grass, anti-spiral shell effect is better; And adopt precast concrete plate, stone masonry, because mortar first ladder seam construction quality is difficult to reach the requirement of tamping completely, cause domatic operation 2 years just easy growth of weeds afterwards, suitable Oncomelania Snails and survival.
The invention has the advantages that: instant invention overcomes the shortcoming that the methods such as existing snail control with drugs easily recur and there is environment pollution; In addition, the present invention has applied range, administer oncomelania area large, anti-sn ail control effect good, use the advantages such as flexible, the Oncomelania Snails region such as beach, continent, dyke being adapted at rivers and lakes is applied.
The above; be only the specific embodiment of the present invention, but protection scope of the present invention is not limited thereto, anyly belongs to those skilled in the art in the technical scope that the present invention discloses; the change that can expect easily or replacement, all should be encompassed within protection scope of the present invention.Therefore, protection scope of the present invention should be as the criterion with the protection domain of claim.

Claims (2)

1. the horizontal layering ecological disturbance in beach, continent Comprehensive Preventing snail-killing method, it is characterized in that: transversely form three grades of anti-spiral shell ladders by the mode that low elevation region reduces elevation, elevation is raised in the interference of middle elevation region surface, elevation region on beach, continent, described method comprises the steps:
Step one, under dyke side direction, excavate 2 ~ 8m wide resistance spiral shell first ladder on beach, continent, the two ends of ladder are kept to be communicated with lake, river, bottom surface rule is smooth-going, determine that the Bottom Altitude of the first ladder is lower than the long-term low water stage in locality according to local hydrologic condition, ensure that the annual permanent flooding time reaches more than 8 months, the depth of water is not less than 1m, is connected the gradient is not less than 45 degree with the second ladder;
Step 2, have spiral shell mamoty to remove on the second ladder top layer, the degree of depth more than 15cm, it covers thick more than 30cm without spiral shell soil, second-order tread layer rule is smooth, and to the gradient of beach face formation 5-10 degree, is beneficial to draining, to avoid Oncomelania Snails;
The elevation of top surface of step 3, the 3rd ladder has spiral shell altitude traverse higher than locality is the highest, increases end face width and makes top width be not less than 1m, and end face should be regular smooth, avoids the formation of new hole water hole, thoroughly to eliminate the environment of Oncomelania Snails.
2. beach, continent as claimed in claim 1 horizontal layering ecological disturbance Comprehensive Preventing snail-killing method, it is characterized in that: also comprise centering elevation region bank protection or the domatic middle elevation surface disturbance step of carrying out anti-spiral shell transformation of dyke, concrete employing cast-in-situ concrete, concrete precast block or stone masonry, transformation elevation has more than spiral shell altitude traverse from levee toe to the highest, domatic maintenance is smooth seamless, again forms snail habitat to avoid weedy in seam.
CN201510560256.2A 2015-09-06 2015-09-06 Bottomland transverse layered ecological disturbing comprehensive oncomelania-killing-resistant method Active CN105256759B (en)

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CN101513195A (en) * 2008-02-21 2009-08-26 长江大学医学院 Method for controlling propagation of schistosomiasis in lake regions
CN202222316U (en) * 2011-09-20 2012-05-23 武汉大学 Comprehensive ecological hydraulic snail removal device

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