CN103882828A - Ecological restoration method for city watercourse - Google Patents

Ecological restoration method for city watercourse Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103882828A
CN103882828A CN201410127782.5A CN201410127782A CN103882828A CN 103882828 A CN103882828 A CN 103882828A CN 201410127782 A CN201410127782 A CN 201410127782A CN 103882828 A CN103882828 A CN 103882828A
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river
ecological
mainly
fish
river course
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张华俊
肖平
胡韧
肖彬
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SHENZHEN ECO-WATER SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Co Ltd
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SHENZHEN ECO-WATER SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Co Ltd
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A10/00TECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE at coastal zones; at river basins
    • Y02A10/30Flood prevention; Flood or storm water management, e.g. using flood barriers
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A20/00Water conservation; Efficient water supply; Efficient water use
    • Y02A20/40Protecting water resources
    • Y02A20/402River restoration
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W10/00Technologies for wastewater treatment
    • Y02W10/10Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage

Abstract

The invention relates to an ecological restoration method for a city watercourse. The ecological restoration method for the city watercourse is characterized in that the polluted city watercourse is comprehensively restored with the combination of physical, biological and ecological technologies, the ecological theory is used for reference in the treatment process, the ecological idea is used as the guiding thought, a complex water ecosystem structure is constructed and restored, the original natural state of the watercourse is restored, the self-cleaning capacity of a river system is improved, the environment is beautified, and the local city microclimates are improved at the same time. The ecological restoration method mainly comprises the steps of (1) controlling a pollution source, (2) modifying the river bank, (3) optimizing the environment of the river bottom, (4) modifying the watercourse, (5) conducting aeration and oxygenation, (6) constructing an aquatic plant community, (7) constructing a fish and macrobenthos community, and (8) maintaining the system. The watercourse ecological system restored through the ecological restoration method has the certain anti-interference capacity, on the premise that a large amount of exogenous pollution is cut off, the certain-strength interference can be resisted, and the good ecological environmental effect is obtained. After one-time input, the better ecological benefit can be obtained only with a small number of maintenance costs.

Description

A kind of ecological restoring method of city river
Technical field
The present invention relates to reparation field, river course, especially city river restoration of the ecosystem field, is specifically related to a kind of physics, biology and ecological comprehensive technology of administering city river.
Background technology
In basin, a large amount of unprocessed and direct discharges of pollutant enter river and make water body suffer severe contamination.Especially in city, for the needs of flood discharge, only consider river regulation from engineering viewpoint, by river cutoff, three of two sides, river are solidified by cement steel, such facility has completely cut off being connected of river and riverbed and riverbank system, the environment that is applicable to more biological existences has been disappeared, its ecological functions and net energy power are also degenerated thereupon, directly cause large number of biological in river course to disappear, the disposal of pollutants of high load capacity makes the inner ecosystem collapse of river water body disintegrate easily, so present stage, city river became not only black but also smelly mostly, become typical sewage ditch, function of flood drainage is seriously also lost in alluvial substantially.Add that curing riverbank lacks hydrophilic facility, people are gradually away from river course.According to investigations in 44 rivers of 42 big and medium-sized cities, the whole nation of flowing through, have 93% section contaminated, wherein to account for 79%, 64% section, city be 4 classes or 5 class water quality in serious and intermediate pollution section, 50% emphasis water head site does not meet drinking water standard (Xu Muqi, 1998).City river is also faced with oxygen-consuming organic matter to the more water quality of the water yield relatively preferably, nutrient concentrations is high, and Eutrophic Extent is serious, the threat that the water plants such as blue-green algae, Eichhornia crassipes and duckweed break out.Wherein blue-green algae can discharge toxin has very large toxicity to human body, in addition also there is the critical functions such as dissolving of view amusement, urban climate environment buffering, urban pollutant due to city river, when it becomes black when smelly, people's vision, sense of smell are had a strong impact on, brought inconvenience to people's life, health and the urban ecological security of its ecological deterioration to townsfolk formed serious threat.To city river administer repair be socio-economic development with Landscape Ecological Environment in Cities construction in the urgent need to.
How to recover the original ecologic structure in river, create a good human settlement, people have carried out a large amount of work.Traditional cities river regulation both at home and abroad at present mainly adopts physics, chemistry and biological means, artificial aeration, desilting, build overfall dam, change water, diversion erosion and deposition, machinery kill algae, add molysite and promote the chemical means such as phosphorus precipitation, lime denitrogenation except the physical means such as algae and medicament, although these methods are effective, but cure the symptoms, not the disease, after a period of time, effect again can variation, consumes a large amount of manpower financial capacities.And chemical method easily produces secondary pollution to environment, should not use.Biological method is as added microbial bacterial, plantation emergent aquactic plant etc., though healthier, the system architecture of constructing is simple, and a little less than anti-external interference ability, under the effect of external interference, effect is also very limited.Tracing it to its cause is mainly seldom ecological theory to be taken into account, therefore be difficult to long-term continuous and effective.Can only serve as to a certain extent auxiliary governing measure, can not thoroughly improve water quality at all, and ecological reestablishment is the recovery technique in recent years most with development prospect, this technology instructs Ecological Thought as core, when reparation, river course is regarded as to an intact ecocystem, all measures are all around the recovery of water ecosystem and perfect.The method cost saving, effective, non-secondary pollution.But the improvement in river is a systematic engineering of business, especially the complexity of city river has determined that simple a certain technology is difficult to get a desired effect, should be by other technologies support, they are combined preferably, its effect of common performance, certainly front summary is using ecology as core guiding theory.
Summary of the invention
The object of this invention is to provide a kind of ecological restoring method of city river, recover and improve the impaired city river ecosystem by a series of means, by the recovery of river channel ecology system, various biologies in system are coexisted, bio-diversity increases, the ability of anti-external interference strengthens, and system can be stablized and continue to maintain better state.Focus on city river view simultaneously and promote, build hydrophilic setting, allow people's close contact water body, create a beautiful human settlement, meet the needs of Ecological Civilization Construction.
Above-mentioned purpose of the present invention is by following process implementation: take ecological theory as core guiding theory, comprehensive utilization physics, biology and ecological technology remove to improve recovery river course aquatic ecosystem, mainly comprise the following steps: (1) block basin presence of pollution sources, improve vegetation coverage; (2) riverbank transformation: build collection rain escape canal, the less or curing embankment of improvement, carry out ecological revetment construction, hydrophily facility structure; (3) river bed transformation: dredging, the complicated structure of river course microenvironment, lime disinfection pretreatment polluted bed mud; (4) river course remold: build overfall dam, condition appropriate area makes straight river course into meander, increases river course habitat diversification; (5) lay aerator, river training water condition; (6) submerged plant, emergent aquactic plant plantation; (7) fish, zoobenthos and zooplankter are thrown in; (8) microbial technique application; (9) system later maintenance.Ecological theory has all fully been used in above measure, as " uplink and downlink effect " theory classical in fresh water ecology is applied in reparation, " upper row effects " is by the improvement to bed mud, control the release of substrate sludge nutritive salt, reduce water nutrition salt content, thereby reach the object of controlling amount of algae." lower row effects ", by the improvement of food chain, increases the quantity of algophagous zooplankter or filter-feeding fish, reaches the object of controlling algae.Select emergent aquactic plant to be because its growth course, except absorbing the pollutants such as a large amount of nutritive salt, heavy metal, forms competitive relation at the aspect such as nutritive salt and illumination and algae, can also secrete allelochemical, suppress the growth of algae, make water body so clear that you can see the bottom.Selecting predacious fish and filter-feeding fish is all in order to increase the predator pressure to algae, predacious fish can reduce small fish and trash fish quantity in water body, this class fish is mainly take zooplankter as food, and zooplankter is food mainly with algae, like this by the optimization of food chain, the zooplankter quantity of eating algae is increased, thereby reduce algae density.The structure of Aquatic Higher Plants is also hidden prey for zooplankter provides hiding-place, indirect protection the quantity of zooplankter.Selecting the Magna genus of zooplankter cladocera is because this genus is the strongest kind of filter-feeding in zooplankter, and individuality is larger, can reduce better the quantity of algae.In addition also have different tail wheel worm and the Brachionus of rotifers, they are not only individual large but also be the sociales in eutrophication water, can be directly take algae as food, thus to a certain degree control the quantity of algae.Selecting zoobenthos is because they can decompose the organic matter in water body, and when purifying water, the loosening bed mud of their activity makes bed mud top layer in the state of oxidation, is conducive to nutritive salt and fixes and plant, microbial growth.In addition some zoobenthos adheres to algae as food take submerged plant blade, can improve the photosynthetic efficiency of submerged plant, improves water body oxygen content and improves water body environment.Selecting microorganism is because they have decomposed vegeto-animal residual body, organic debris in water body, accelerate the circulation of nutritive salt, in river course, hung microbial adhesion base, allowed microorganism, periphtic algae grow, absorb nutritive salt, decompose organic matter, thereby reach the effect purifying water.
Advantage of the present invention and effect: the disposable input of the present invention, through suitably adjusting with perfect, river water body system, by self-continuous service, reduces artificial maintenance and rehabilitation cost.Aquatic ecosystem after reparation has certain anti-external interference ability, in the time being subject to being less than the pollution of system to lerance threshold, system is automatically dissolved pollution and is continued operation and go down, and has certain dirt, dirty removal capacities received, and also can keep well sight of River Landscape.Aquatic plants growth can absorb the nutritive salt in water body in a large number, and the growth of fish, zoobenthos also can be fixed a part of nutritive salt, by the results to both, the nutritive salt of water body can be taken out of, can not produce any pollutant, ecological, environmental protective.
The specific embodiment
1. block pollution sources, all pollution sources in basin, river course are cut to dirty processing, comprise point source face source.Point source control: ban all sewage draining exits, industrial wastewater, sanitary sewage are adopted and be piped to Wastewater Treatment Plant, focus on after up to standard and discharge again.For the more remote river course of distance, can adopt distributed integrated sewage treating apparatus, after laying sewerage treatment, discharges each larger effluent discharge point.Face source is controlled: improve green percentage in basin, especially in two sides, river course, green area is set, plantation trees, turf etc. are stopped part pollutant to absorb, and reduce cement solidification ground, make water can infiltrate through soil, reduce pollution of area source load.
2. riverbank transformation, at condition Production Zones Suitable, eliminates and solidifies bank slope, recovers soil stone sloping bank and carries out slope protection works.Collection rain escape canal (wide 2 m are built on condition appropriate area bank; Dark 2 m), collects the flood that excretion heavy showers water causes, and carries in a large number the surface flow of silt to the impact in river course while weakening rainfall simultaneously.Adopt the Gu Po such as ecology bag and timber, stone, and sloping bank planting metasequoia, willow, the contour megaphanerophyte of locust tree (spacing in the rows be 8-10 m); Sheet is planted or the shrub such as group planting sea-buckthorn, fiery sour jujube, Huang Xin, false indigo; The herbaceous plant such as high-density planting rye grass, Bermuda grass, annual bluegrass, utilize root system of plant to fix sloping bank.Simultaneously plant adsorbed water body, water moisture self restraint, holds back absorption pollutant, alleviates the impact to river course of surface flow that rainfall forms.
3. river bed transformation, discharges water body in city river as far as possible, and the bed mud serious region of depositing is dredged, and when improving river course drainability, reduces the release of the pollutants such as nutritive salt in bed mud to water body.Then use quicklime disinfection (every mu of area uses 200 kilograms of left and right), play the effect such as nutritive salt, kill bacteria, worm's ovum in fixing bed mud, bottom is spread to the 10 thick clean soils in cm left and right and plays the effect of covering internal pollution sources, can provide growth substrate for submerged plant, emergent aquactic plant simultaneously.Make river course there is certain gradient, and suitably make river course microenvironment complicated, build mound, clitter, cave etc.
4. the transformation in river course, by one section of river course, by the building of overfall dam, (the about 200-500 of every segment length m), controls water velocity, increases the time that water body is detained each, improves treatment effeciency to be divided into several sections.Between each section, keep certain depth displacement, water holds when flowing full enters another section and forms cascade from one section, plays the effect of natural aeration oxygenation.Each section is taked reclamation activities step by step.Condition appropriate area makes straight river course into meander, increases the diversity in habitat, river course, is beneficial to biological adaptation existence.
5. lay aerator, in central area, every section of river course, lay aeration and make flow device, to increase dissolved oxygen content in water body, be conducive to the survival of each biology in organic decomposition and water body.1-2 platform aerator is laid in every section, and During Initial Stage Construction aeration keeps the long period as far as possible, and more than 12 hours, the construction later stage can be controlled aeration time, repeatedly short-time aeration as required.
6. the plantation of submerged plant, emergent aquactic plant, in the river course of crossing at the poison that disappeared, aeration, first utilize diluted acid to carry out the neutralization of water body acid-base value, utilize pH meter to detect, reach after neutral environment, in river course, plant planting submerged plant, emergent aquactic plant and floating plant.Submerged plant area reaches the more than 50% of river course area, and submerged plant adopts combined type turf, and eel grass, Haloragidaceae Myriophyllum spicatum, hydrilla verticillata by a certain percentage (3:1:1) are made, and is directly laid on bottom, river course fixing; And being not suitable for for the depth of water place region that heavy water plant survives, available long bamboo pole hangs submerged plant growth net cage, acts in water and grows by it.Emergent aquactic plant carries out river course bank that sheet is planted or group planting, and seeding row spacing is controlled at 10 cm left and right.For curing embankment river course, can arrange on embankment both sides that biological floating bed (wide 2 m of floating bed, long 5 m), selects floating bed quantity according to actual conditions.In floating bed, plant emergent aquactic plant calamus, iris, aquatic canna, rhizoma alismatis, the matched combined such as power flower again.Floating plant (water lily, water chestnut) is sporadicly planted, and controls compared with low-density.After institute's Plants survives, continuing, under the prerequisite of aeration, increases water depth several times, and 10 cm left and right weekly, until be applicable to the plant life degree of depth.
7. the input of fish, zoobenthos and zooplankter, utilizes " lower row effects " in ecology, and manual adjustment is optimized food chain structure in water body.That fish are mainly is carnivorous, filter-feeding and ominivore-fish; Zoobenthos is mainly freshwater mussel, spiral shell, shrimp etc.; Wherein predacious fish is mainly mandarin fish, snakehead, perch, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco etc., and filter-feeding fish is mainly silver carp, bighead, and ominivore-fish is mainly silver xenocypris fish.All fish specifications are 5-10 cm, to guarantee survival rate.Predacious fish is thrown in density 0.01 tail/m 3, filter-feeding fish is thrown in density 0.05 tail/m 3.It is 0.01 tail/m that ominivore-fish is thrown in density 3.Spiral shell is mainly ring rib spiral shell; Freshwater mussel is mainly anodon, hydriopsis cumingii, cristaria plicata etc.Wherein the input density of spiral shell is controlled at 10-50/m 2, specification 1 g/; The input density of freshwater mussel is controlled at 0.5/m 2, 1-2 age.The whole water surface is evenly thrown in the wheel animalcule, the cladocera zooplankter that cultivate.Cladocera mainly comprises flea shape Magna, Daphnia magna, carina Magna, wise water Magna, square reticulate pattern Magna, transparent Magna, helmet shape Magna; Wheel animalcule essentialspecies comprises crystal sac wheel animalcule, large-scale different tail and Brachionus.Guarantee biomass and the composition of zooplankter, increase the predator pressure to phytoplankton.
8. the application of microbial technique, in the water body of upstream, every section of river course, Transverse to the flow direction hangs microbial bacterial nethike embrane, after nethike embrane being immersed in the endemic species bacterium liquid (nitrobacteria, bacillus, photosynthetic bacteria etc.) having cultivated, hang in the middle of river water body, hang one every 5-10 m.Hang biological attachment nethike embrane in the downstream in river course, for microorganism, adhere to algae growth substrate is provided, utilize them to purify water, nethike embrane is consistent with channel length, wide 1 m.In whole river course, hang, upstream density is large, the little suitable reduction of downstream density.
9. system later maintenance, after system stability, reduces aeration number of times and time gradually.Regularly the floating leaf of pumped surface and plant and animal residues in the time that biomass of submerged plant is increased to some, removed its harvesting before its death, with prevent its residual body rot after impact on water quality.Treat that zoobenthos or fish grow to certain size, when winter is when its fixing nutritive salt Efficiency Decreasing, adult is salvaged away, then put into the young of same ratio.Come temporarily, to carry out in time the preparation of drainning off floodwaters at flood, control water level in the degree of depth that is applicable to water plant existence.

Claims (8)

1. the ecological restoring method of a city river, it is characterized in that the river water body ecosystem that builds and regain one's integrity in conjunction with physics, biology and ecological technique, improve the ability of water ecosystem oneself purification and anti-external interference, and can sustainable operation and self-control, its main contents are as follows:
(1) block basin presence of pollution sources, improve vegetation coverage;
(2) riverbank transformation: build collection rain escape canal, the less or curing embankment of improvement, carry out ecological revetment construction, hydrophily facility structure;
(3) river bed transformation: dredging, the complicated structure of river course microenvironment, lime disinfection pretreatment polluted bed mud;
(4) river course remold: build overfall dam, condition appropriate area makes straight river course into meander, increases river course habitat diversification;
(5) lay aerator, river training water condition;
(6) submerged plant, emergent aquactic plant plantation;
(7) fish, zoobenthos and zooplankter are thrown in;
(8) microbial technique application;
(9) system later maintenance.
2. the pollution sources that block according to claim 1, it is characterized in that containing blocking of point source and face source, after rainfall, solidifying earth's surface, to form the surface flow that carries a large amount of pollutants be the main pollution of area source of city river, plant trees and build collection rain escape canal by kind of a grass, reducing measures such as solidifying surface area; Point source blocks mainly by banning littoral sewage draining exit, and sewage discharges after focusing on.
3. riverbank according to claim 1 transformation, is characterized in that this measure mainly comprises that building collection rain escape canal, changing curing embankment is native bank of stone bank, carries out ecological revetment construction and carry out littoral zone view lifting according to landscape design building with hydrophily facility.
4. river bed according to claim 1 transformation, is characterized in that deep river bed silt displacement or on polluted bed mud, covers one deck polluting lighter soil layer; The river course microenvironment of adding stone, building the complex structures such as cave by river bed; The quicklime liquid river course sterilization pretreatment polluted bed mud of splashing.
5. river course remold according to claim 1, is characterized in that mainly comprising that river course is divided into the overfall dam of several sections to be built; Condition appropriate area is made straight river course to into meander, increase river course habitat diversification, be beneficial to different biological existences.
6. emergent aquactic plant according to claim 1, submerged plant and bank protection plant, is characterized in that these plant varieties mainly refer to cattail, calamus, appropriately combined at planting area separately of the several plant such as power flower, aquatic canna, eel grass, hydrilla verticillata, Haloragidaceae Myriophyllum spicatum, hornwort, water caltrop, waterweed, Hawaii grass, rye grass again.
7. fish according to claim 1, zoobenthos and zooplankter, is characterized in that fish are mainly filter-feeding, carnivorous and a small amount of omnivorousness kind, and wherein, filter-feeding fish is mainly class silver carp, bighead; Predacious fish is mainly: mandarin fish, snakehead, perch, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco; Ominivore-fish is mainly silver xenocypris fish, and it is thrown in by a certain percentage; Zoobenthos is mainly freshwater mussel, spiral shell, shrimp etc., and wherein freshwater mussel is one or more combinations of hydriopsis cumingii, anodon or cristaria plicata; Spiral shell is ring rib spiral shell; Shrimp is Penaeus monodon and rice shrimp etc.; Zooplankter is mainly large-scale wheel animalcule and cladocera.
8. microbial technique according to claim 1, is characterized in that mainly comprising the suspension of microbial adhesion base net film and cultivation and the input of local microenvironment biological inoculum.
CN201410127782.5A 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 Ecological restoration method for city watercourse Pending CN103882828A (en)

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