CN105141104A - Yoke excitation winding high power density hybrid excitation permanent magnet linear generator - Google Patents

Yoke excitation winding high power density hybrid excitation permanent magnet linear generator Download PDF

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CN105141104A
CN105141104A CN201510694441.0A CN201510694441A CN105141104A CN 105141104 A CN105141104 A CN 105141104A CN 201510694441 A CN201510694441 A CN 201510694441A CN 105141104 A CN105141104 A CN 105141104A
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permanent magnet
excitation
stator
winding
yoke
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CN105141104B (en
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王道涵
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Shandong University
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Shandong University
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Abstract

The invention discloses a yoke excitation winding high power density hybrid excitation permanent magnet linear generator. Stator grooves comprise armature grooves and excitation grooves, the armature grooves and the excitation grooves are arranged alternatively at intervals, two adjacent armature grooves are internally surrounded by a set of armature winding, AC passes through the armature winding, the excitation groove is internally provided with a set of excitation winding, DC with the same direction passes through the excitation winding, a main air gap is arranged between a stator tooth and a rotor tooth, the yoke part of the stator groove above the groove where the excitation winding is is broken along the radial direction, and an additional air gap is arranged. An armature current magnetic field, an excitation current magnetic field and a magnetic field generated by the permanent magnet act mutually to enable magnetic flux on the stator tooth to be changed, and magneto resistance variation between the stator and the rotor is used for generating torque. The number of power switch devices can be effectively reduced, possibility that fault happens to the power switch devices in a motor control circuit is reduced, and reliability is improved.

Description

A kind of yoke portion excitation winding high power density composite excitation permanent magnet linear electric generator
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of yoke portion excitation winding high power density composite excitation permanent magnet linear electric generator.
Background technology
In recent years, along with the raising of permanent magnetic material resistance to elevated temperatures and the reduction of price, magneto obtains applying more widely in national defence, industrial and agricultural production and daily life etc., forward high-power, high performance and microminiaturized future development.The power of current magneto is from a few milliwatt to a few megawatt, and the large-scale magneto that range of application is drawn from toy motor, commercial Application to naval vessel, is widely applied in national economy, daily life, war industry, aerospace various aspects.
Regular alternating current magneto is divided into following a few class usually: asynchronous starting permanent magnet synchronous motor, brushless, permanently excited direct current motor, speed governing permanent magnet synchronous motor.
Brshless DC motor, with substantially identical on speed governing permanent magnetic synchronous motor structure, stator be polyphase windings, mover has permanent magnet, and their main distinction is that brshless DC motor is according to the motor synchronizing of rotor position information realization.Their advantage is: (1) eliminates brush-commutated device, and reliability improves; (2) loss produces primarily of stator, and radiating condition is good; (3) volume is little, lightweight.
Difference on asynchronous starting permanent magnet synchronous motor and speed governing permanent magnet synchronous motor structure is: the former mover has the integral core of starting winding or having priming, can realize self-starting, can be incorporated into the power networks without the need to control system.
In addition, also have electric machine, electric machine needs supporting capacitor start and operation, and volume is heavy, and cost is high, and the efficiency of overall operation and power factor all lower.
Existing magneto is fixed due to permanent magnet magnetic kinetic potential, and motor main flux is non-adjustable, causes output-constant operation narrow range, and speed adjustable range is wide in range not, and motor winding is generally 3 phases, and stator slot number is many, winding inserting complex process; Existing most of permanent magnet of permanent magnet motor is positioned on mover, rotate with mover during operation, permanent magnet need adopt special procedure to fix, manufacturing cost is high, especially, when motor speed is higher, permanent magnet is fixing more difficult, because permanent magnet is positioned on mover, heat radiation difficulty during operation, temperature rise and the vibration caused because mover rotates can cause permanent magnet mechanical structure to be damaged and irreversible demagnetization occurs; Existing magneto is generally three-phase; require that the power inversion circuit of motor at least needs 6 device for power switching; as IGBT or MOSFET etc.; and the drive circuit of corresponding this device for power switching of driving and protective circuit; make power of motor inverter circuit cost quite high, even reach two to three times of motor body cost, quantity of power switches increases and adds control circuit complexity; the possibility of device failure increases, and the reliability of runtime system reduces.
For the nonadjustable shortcoming of existing magneto excitation magnetic potential, relevant scholar proposes some composite excitation structural electromotors, this kind of composite excitation structural electromotor can be divided into two classes from excitation mode, one class is permanent magnet magnetic potential and excitation winding magnetic potential series-mode frame, this class formation needs through permanent magnet due to magnetic flux, and exciting current is large, and excitation loss is high, and the risk of irreversible demagnetization can be produced to permanent magnet, apply not extensive, another kind of is the structure of permanent magnet magnetic potential and the parallel connection of excitation winding magnetic potential, this class formation generally adopts stator permanent-magnet, permanent magnet is positioned on stator, by regulating excitation winding Current adjustment magnetic field, this kind of motor adjustable magnetic performance is good, but after increase excitation winding, motor winding tricks is more, make electric machine structure complicated, occur in a groove, having the situation of many cover windings or existing phase winding to have again the situation of excitation winding sometimes, groove domestic demand increases phase insulation, winding inserting complex process, groove utilance is low, and, need to increase excitation groove, electromechanics structure scatteredization is serious, the fixing difficulty of assembling, processing technology is complicated, motor cost is high.What is more important, after increasing excitation winding, need to increase the electric current that a device for power switching controls excitation winding at least again, which further adds the cost of power circuit, and, the magnetic flux that excitation winding produces and main flux share main magnetic circuit and main air gap, excitation effect is subject to the restriction of other design parameters of motor, once motor is made, excitation effect can only be controlled by regulating exciting current, magnetic flux cannot be controlled by designing separately magnetic excitation circuit, therefore, seek a kind of body construction simple, cost is low, adjustable magnetic flexible function but device for power switching number is few, controller and the low hybrid excitation permanent magnet motor of power circuit cost most important, therefore, seek a kind of body construction simple, cost is low, there is adjustable magnetic function but device for power switching number is few, controller and the low hybrid excitation permanent magnet motor of power circuit cost most important.
In addition, existing magneto many employings distributed winding or the concentratred winding across multiple pole span, ubiquity winding terminal minister, copper consumption is large, and manufacturing cost is high, and when motor runs, copper loss is large, the shortcomings such as efficiency is low, especially comparatively large for external diameter, axial length is less, the motor that namely path length ratio is larger, this shortcoming is particularly outstanding, need to adopt special winding coil connected mode to reduce winding overhang, reduction copper, improves motor operational efficiency.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is in order to solve the problem, propose a kind of yoke portion excitation winding high power density composite excitation permanent magnet linear electric generator, the stator of this permanent magnet motor there are a set of stator armature winding and set of excitation winding, and only lay a set of winding in each groove of motor, phase insulation is not needed in groove, copper factor is high, and motor winding inserting operation is simple, and whole cost is lower than existing all kinds of three-phase induction motor and magneto; Excitation winding is laid in motor excitation groove of the present invention, excitation winding penetrates from an excitation groove, then pass outside stator back yoke in outward direction, form a coil, excitation winding is around stator slot yoke, permanent magnet and stator back yoke are wound around, and the excitation winding in each excitation groove is a set of coil; Armature winding indirect current stream of the present invention, another group excitation winding leads to direct current, therefore the control circuit of motor only needs two electric and electronic power switching devices, change on existing all kinds of induction motor and permanent magnet motor stator and all have three-phase and above armature winding, need the present situation of at least 6 electric and electronic power switching devices, effectively reduce device for power switching number, reduce the possibility that device for power switching in circuit for controlling motor breaks down, reliability improves.
To achieve these goals, the present invention adopts following technical scheme:
A kind of yoke portion excitation winding high power density composite excitation permanent magnet linear electric generator, comprise stator, mover, additional air gap and main air gap, mover is arranged at the inside of stator, wherein:
Described stator is evenly provided with even number stator tooth, stator slot is provided with in adjacent two stator tooths, permanent magnet is provided with near between the stator slot yoke and stator back yoke of lateral direction at stator slot, described permanent magnet does not rotate with mover, the magnetizing direction of the permanent magnet on same stator slot yoke is identical, and the magnetizing direction of the permanent magnet in adjacent two stator slot yoke portions is contrary;
Described stator slot comprises armature slot and excitation groove, described armature slot and the arrangement of excitation groove alternate intervals, a set of armature winding is surrounded with in two adjacent armature slots, described armature winding indirect current, be provided with set of excitation winding in described excitation groove, described excitation winding leads to the constant direct current in direction;
Main air gap is provided with between described stator tooth and mover tooth, the stator slot yoke portion of described excitation winding place trench bottom disconnects, be provided with additional air gap, the magnetic flux part that adjacent two pieces of permanent magnets produce enters mover through main air gap and forms main flux, another part enters mover without main air gap and closes formation leakage flux through this additional air gap, by regulating the size of the size adjustment leakage flux of electric current in excitation winding, and then regulate the size entering into the main flux of mover through main air gap, realize regulating excitation.
Permanent magnet does not move with mover, easy for installation, be conducive to heat radiation, eliminate mechanical stress that common permanent magnet generator produces because permanent magnet rotates with mover to damage and permanent magnet dispels the heat the shortcoming such as bad, every block permanent magnet both can have been magnetized by a monoblock permanent magnet and form, also can be spliced by the permanent magnet that polylith width is narrower, the width of described permanent magnet can be identical, also can be different.
The size of additional air gap determines the size of leakage field, and the size of additional air gap should be determined according to the number of turn of this leakage flux and excitation winding and electric current.
The number of described stator tooth be more than or equal to 2 even number.
The number of described mover tooth is more than or equal to 1/2 of stator tooth number.
The several number of block of described permanent magnet be the m of mover tooth doubly, m be more than or equal to 1 natural number.
Only lay a set of armature winding or excitation winding in described stator slot, do not need phase insulation in stator slot, groove utilance is high, and winding inserting technique is simple, low cost of manufacture.
The magnetic flux that described excitation winding produces forms closed-loop path through additional air gap, stator tooth, main air gap and mover tooth, the magnetic flux that excitation winding produces is without permanent magnet, the magnetic flux produced with permanent magnet forms parallel relationship, reduce the magnetic resistance in the corresponding loop of magnetic flux, same exciting current can produce larger magnetic flux, not only effectively improve adjustable magnetic efficiency, and avoid permanent magnet because magnetic flux causes permanent magnet magnetic reversal through permanent magnet the risk of degradation irreversible demagnetization under the magnetic property that produces, enhance the reliability of motor.
Described excitation winding penetrates from an excitation groove, then pass outside stator back yoke laterally, form a coil, excitation winding is around stator slot yoke, permanent magnet and stator back yoke are wound around, excitation winding in each excitation groove is a set of coil, and all coils of formation can parallel with one another or series connection.
Described armature winding penetrates from an armature winding place groove, pass from adjacent armature slot, the winding in adjacent two armature slots forms an armature coil, and each armature coil is across two stator tooth distances, in adjacent two armature winding place grooves, the size of current of winding is identical, and direction is contrary.
The magnetic flux part that described adjacent two pieces of permanent magnets produce enters mover through main air gap and forms main flux, another part enters mover without main air gap and closes formation leakage flux through this additional air gap, the total magnetic flux produced due to permanent magnet is certain, by the size regulating the size of electric current in excitation winding can regulate this leakage flux, and then regulate the size entering into the main flux of mover through main air gap, realize with this effect regulating excitation.
The width of described permanent magnet is by determining according to the magnetic energy product of permanent magnet or residual flux density, according to the residual flux density of the design air gap flux density determination permanent magnet of motor, pole embrace again by changing permanent magnet determines the magnetic energy product of permanent magnet, and existing magneto is subject to the restriction of number of poles due to pole embrace, usually only has and adopt high-performance permanent magnet could meet the close needs of design magnetic.
Described permanent magnet both can be that permanent magnetic material such as ferrite or the aluminium nickel cobalt of permanent magnetic material if neodymium iron boron also can be low magnetic energy product of high energy product is made.
Operation principle of the present invention is:
Stator core and mover core adopt silicon steel plate stacking to form or the core material of high permeability is once made, when armature winding and the equal no power of excitation winding, a part for the magnetic flux that described permanent magnet produces is through stator slot yoke, stator tooth and main air gap flow into mover tooth, again through adjacent mover tooth flow out to main air gap arrive another extremely under permanent magnet, close through stator back yoke again, this results in the main flux of motor; Another part magnetic flux that permanent magnet produces without main air gap, and is through stator slot yoke through additional air gap, enter into another extremely under permanent magnet, closed by stator back yoke, this part magnetic flux does not enter main air gap and mover, and only close in stator interior, this part magnetic flux is leakage flux.Excitation groove is provided with below additional air gap, excitation winding is laid in excitation groove, during excitation winding galvanization, according to the difference of the sense of current, the magnetic field that excitation winding produces will strengthen or weaken main flux, excitation winding electric current is larger, to the enhancing of main flux or weakening effect stronger, due to excitation winding magnetic potential and the parallel connection of permanent magnet magnetic potential, the total magnetic flux that permanent magnet produces is certain, therefore, the size of this leakage flux can be regulated by regulating sense of current and size in excitation winding, and then regulate the size entering into the main flux of mover through main air gap, the effect regulating excitation is realized with this.When armature winding is energized, the magnetic field that armature winding electric current produces makes the stator tooth of armature slot both sides, armature winding place present different polarity respectively, the magnetic fields produced with permanent magnet superposes, make a stator tooth display polarity, main flux magnetic flux is had to pass through, another adjacent stator tooth does not have polarity, flow through without magnetic flux, because armature winding is arranged every a groove, therefore, the stator tooth of half is had to have polarity in motor, the stator tooth of half does not have polarity, according to magnetic resistance minimum principle, the position that mover tooth is overlapped with the stator tooth with polarity is moved to by making mover, due to the half that the mover number of teeth is the stator number of teeth, now just in time each mover tooth is all just right with stator tooth, this position is the aligned position of mover tooth and stator tooth, inductance corresponding to this position is maximum and magnetic resistance is minimum.Now, mover continues motion, keeps sense of current in armature winding constant, mover will be subject to the power hindering it to move, and generator operation, continue to be energized in inductance last transition, power generation process will continue always, after stator and mover align once again, change the direction of armature supply, make the stator tooth display polarity just now without polarity, and originally had the stator tooth of polarity not show polarity, mover continues stressed and generates electricity, and this process will repeat always, and power generation process continues always.Because the main flux entering into mover tooth through main air gap can by above-mentioned exciting current adjustment, therefore, motor of the present invention can need to realize increasing magnetic according to actual condition and run and weak magnetic field operation, widens the output voltage range of motor, reduce manufacturing cost, improve electric efficiency.
Beneficial effect of the present invention is:
(1) motor excitation winding of the present invention leads to the constant direct current in direction, only need the size of current and the direction that control a set of armature winding, therefore only two device for power switching are needed, and common three phase electric machine needs at least 6 device for power switching, electric machine controller power demand switching device number is few, and cost is low;
(2) magnetic field that when motor of the present invention runs, armature winding and excitation winding produce mutually strengthens on the stator teeth or offsets, when motor runs, armature winding and excitation winding complete period are energized simultaneously, therefore, the power density of motor of the present invention is high, stock utilization is high, the motor of same design power, material usage saved by motor of the present invention, reduces costs;
(3) motor permanent magnet of the present invention is fixed on stator, does not rotate with mover, easy for installation, is conducive to heat radiation, eliminates the mechanical stress damage that common electric machine produces because permanent magnet rotates with mover, the shortcomings such as permanent magnet heat radiation is bad; Only lay a set of winding in each stator slot of motor of the present invention, motor winding inserting technique is simple, does not need to place phase insulation in groove, is conducive to improving copper factor and groove utilance;
(4) motor excitation winding of the present invention is simple concentratred winding, and around stator slot yoke, permanent magnet and stator yoke are wound around, when electric machine stator iron length is larger, can significantly reduce winding overhang copper consumption, reduce manufacturing cost, reduce copper loss, improve motor operational efficiency;
(5) except main air gap, motor of the present invention is also provided with additional air gap, and additional air gap designs the length direction at motor dexterously, and additional air gap can not increase the size of motor, a part of magnetic flux that adjacent two pieces of permanent magnets produce enters mover through main air gap and forms main flux, another part enters mover without main air gap and closes formation leakage flux through this additional air gap, the total magnetic flux produced due to permanent magnet is certain, by the size regulating the size of electric current in excitation winding conveniently can regulate this leakage flux, and then regulate the size entering into the main flux of mover through main air gap, both increasing magnetic action can be played, weak magnetic action can be played again, effectively widen voltage output range and the power stage scope of motor, significantly improve the performance of motor,
(6) geomery of additional air gap can need according to different weak magnetic to change flexibly, can adopt wide air gap, air gap wide at the top and narrow at the bottom or up-narrow and down-wide air gap, reach different weak magnetic effects with this;
(7) magnetic flux that excitation winding produces forms closed-loop path through additional air gap, stator tooth, main air gap and mover tooth, the magnetic flux that excitation winding produces is without permanent magnet, the magnetic flux produced with permanent magnet forms parallel relationship, reduce the magnetic resistance in the corresponding loop of magnetic flux, same exciting current can produce larger magnetic flux, not only effectively improve weak magnetic efficiency, and avoid permanent magnet because magnetic flux causes permanent magnet magnetic reversal through permanent magnet the risk of degradation irreversible demagnetization under the magnetic property that produces, enhance the reliability of motor;
(8) permanent magnet in motor of the present invention can be the permanent magnet that one piece of entirety magnetizes, also can be spliced by polylith permanent magnet, therefore manufacturing process is simple, cost is low, the cost improved due to the permanent magnet of motor wider width is higher, easily break time mechanically stressed, comparatively difficult during installation, the problem that the permanent magnet that mechanical strength is less not as good as polylith width is spliced;
(9) width of the permanent magnet of motor of the present invention can be determined flexibly according to the design magnetic energy product of permanent magnet or design residual flux density, so motor of the present invention both can adopt the permanent magnet of high energy product also can adopt the permanent magnet of low magnetic energy product, high energy product permanent magnet and low magnetic energy product permanent magnet mix and match can also be adopted, can according to the residual flux density of the design air gap flux density determination permanent magnet of motor in actual design, the magnetic energy product of required permanent magnet is determined again by the pole embrace of permanent magnet, solving existing magneto due to pole embrace is subject to the restriction of number of poles, usually the problem adopting high-performance permanent magnet could meet high performance motor needs is only had,
(10) permanent magnet of high energy product both can have been adopted also can to adopt the permanent magnet of low magnetic energy product, also high energy product permanent magnet and low magnetic energy product permanent magnet mix and match can be adopted, can according to the residual flux density of the design air gap flux density determination permanent magnet of motor in actual design, the magnetic energy product of required permanent magnet is determined again by the pole embrace of permanent magnet, and existing magneto is subject to the restriction of number of poles due to pole embrace, usually only have the needs adopting high-performance permanent magnet could meet high performance motor.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the power converter circuit figure of motor of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is existing brushless direct current permanent magnetic and permagnetic synchronous motor power converter circuit figure;
Fig. 3 is motor embodiment 1 structural representation of the present invention;
Fig. 4 is motor embodiment 2 structural representation of the present invention;
Wherein, 1. stator tooth, 2. stator back yoke, 3. stator slot yoke, 4. armature slot, 5. excitation groove, 6. armature winding, 7. excitation winding, 8. permanent magnet, 9. mover tooth, 10. mover groove, 11. main air gaps, 12. additional air gaps.
Embodiment:
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing and embodiment, the invention will be further described.
A kind of yoke portion excitation winding high power density composite excitation permanent magnet linear electric generator, it comprises stator, mover, main air gap and additional air gap, and stator comprises permanent magnet, stator yoke, stator tooth, stator slot and stator winding, mover comprises mover tooth and mover groove, stator yoke comprises stator slot yoke and stator back yoke, stator slot yoke is positioned at stator slot near lateral direction, permanent magnet is provided with between stator slot yoke and stator back yoke, permanent magnet does not move with mover, easy for installation, be conducive to heat radiation, eliminate mechanical stress that common permanent magnet generator produces because permanent magnet rotates with mover to damage and permanent magnet dispels the heat the shortcoming such as bad, every block permanent magnet both can have been magnetized by a monoblock permanent magnet and form, also can be spliced by the permanent magnet that polylith width is narrower, the width of permanent magnet can be identical, also can be different, the magnetizing direction of the permanent magnet on same stator slot yoke is identical, the magnetizing direction of the permanent magnet in adjacent two stator slot yoke portions is contrary, stator slot comprises armature winding place groove (armature slot) and excitation winding place groove (excitation groove), described armature slot and the arrangement of excitation groove alternate intervals, a set of armature winding is laid in described armature slot, set of excitation winding is laid in described excitation groove, when motor runs, only need the size of current and the direction that control a set of armature winding, described excitation winding leads to the constant direct current in direction, armature supply magnetic field, the magnetic field interaction that exciting current magnetic field and permanent magnet produce makes the magnetic flux on stator tooth mutually strengthen or offset, stator field is opened continuously in a certain direction or is turned off, magnetic resistance change rate between stator and mover is utilized to produce torque and generate electricity, main air gap is provided with between stator tooth and mover tooth, the stator slot yoke portion of excitation winding place groove inner bottom part disconnects, if additional air gap, additional air gap does not increase the size of motor, a part of magnetic flux that adjacent two pieces of permanent magnets produce enters mover through main air gap and forms main flux, another part enters mover without main air gap and closes formation leakage flux through this additional air gap, the total magnetic flux produced due to permanent magnet is certain, by the size regulating the size of electric current in excitation winding can regulate this leakage flux, and then regulate the size entering into the main flux of mover through main air gap, the effect regulating excitation is realized with this.
The number ns of motor stator tooth meets: ns=2*n, wherein n be more than or equal to 1 natural number.
The number nr of electric mover tooth and the number ns of motor stator tooth meets: nr >=ns/2.
The block number npm of permanent magnet and the number ns of motor stator tooth meet: npm/m=0.5*ns, m be more than or equal to 1 natural number.
Only lay a set of armature winding or excitation winding in stator slot, do not need phase insulation in stator slot, groove utilance is high, and winding inserting technique is simple, low cost of manufacture.
The magnetic flux that excitation winding produces forms closed-loop path through additional air gap, stator tooth, main air gap and mover tooth, the magnetic flux that excitation winding produces is without permanent magnet, the magnetic flux produced with permanent magnet forms parallel relationship, reduce the magnetic resistance in the corresponding loop of magnetic flux, same exciting current can produce larger magnetic flux, not only effectively improve adjustable magnetic efficiency, and avoid permanent magnet because magnetic flux causes permanent magnet magnetic reversal through permanent magnet the risk of degradation irreversible demagnetization under the magnetic property that produces, enhance the reliability of motor.
Permanent magnet and stator back yoke iron core and the equal close contact of stator slot yoke core.
Additional air gap can be the even air gap that width is identical everywhere, also can be the non-homogeneous air gap that width is different everywhere, the width of additional air gap can be changed or adopt not wide gap structure up and down to obtain different increasing magnetic and weak magnetic characteristic, meeting the needs of different application occasion with this.
Excitation winding penetrates from an excitation groove, then pass outside stator back yoke laterally, form a coil, excitation winding is around stator slot yoke, permanent magnet and stator back yoke are wound around, excitation winding in each excitation groove is a set of coil, altogether formed 4 cover magnet exciting coils, 4 cover coils can parallel with one another or series connection;
Armature winding penetrates from an armature winding place groove, pass from adjacent armature slot, the winding in adjacent two armature slots forms an armature coil, and each armature coil is across two stator tooth distances, in adjacent two armature winding place grooves, the size of current of winding is identical, and direction is contrary.
The width of the permanent magnet of motor can by determining according to the magnetic energy product of permanent magnet or residual flux density flexibly, can according to the residual flux density of the design air gap flux density determination permanent magnet of motor, pole embrace again by changing permanent magnet determines the magnetic energy product of permanent magnet, and existing magneto is subject to the restriction of number of poles due to pole embrace, usually only has and adopt high-performance permanent magnet could meet the close needs of design magnetic.
Permanent magnet both can be that permanent magnetic material such as ferrite or the aluminium nickel cobalt of permanent magnetic material if neodymium iron boron also can be low magnetic energy product of high energy product is made.
When motor of the present invention runs, excitation field can regulate, the magnetic flux density in motor gas-gap can be regulated by the electric current of adjustment excitation winding F, motor excitation winding of the present invention is placed in below additional air gap, both are placed side by side, the magnetic flux that excitation winding produces is directly through additional air gap, stator tooth, main air gap and mover tooth form closed-loop path, magnetic flux is without permanent magnet, the magnetic flux produced with permanent magnet forms parallel relationship, this not only effectively improves weak magnetic efficiency, and avoid the risk of degradation irreversible demagnetization under magnetic property that permanent magnet produces due to magnetic reversal, the permanent magnet of motor of the present invention is selected flexibly, both the permanent magnet of high energy product can have been selected, also the permanent magnet of the low magnetic energy products such as ferrite can be selected, because can by the residual flux density of the design air gap flux density determination permanent magnet of motor, pole embrace again by changing permanent magnet determines the magnetic energy product of permanent magnet, and existing magneto is subject to the restriction of number of poles due to pole embrace, usually only have and adopt high-performance permanent magnet could meet the close needs of design magnetic.
Difference due to additional air gap width significantly can change the magnetic resistance of motor magnetic circuit, affect the leakage flux between permanent magnet, and then affect the increasing magnetic of motor and weak magnetic effect, therefore, the width of additional air gap can be changed or adopt not wide gap structure up and down, different motor characteristics can be obtained by the additional air gap width changing motor, meet the needs of different application occasion with this.
As shown in Figure 1, motor is hybrid excitation permanent magnet motor, stator only has a set of stator armature winding A and set of excitation winding F, and only lay a set of winding in each groove of motor, do not need phase insulation in groove, motor winding inserting operation is simple, and whole cost is lower than existing all kinds of three-phase induction motor and magneto, owing to not needing phase insulation in groove, copper factor is high; Armature winding is laid in armature groove of the present invention, armature winding penetrates from an armature slot, then pass through stator back yoke to the outer direction, form a coil, armature winding is wound around around stator slot yoke, permanent magnet and stator back yoke, armature winding in each armature slot is a set of coil, and all coils can be each other in series or parallel; Motor permanent magnet of the present invention is fixed on stator, does not rotate with mover, easy for installation, is conducive to heat radiation, eliminates the mechanical stress damage that common electric machine produces because permanent magnet rotates with mover, the shortcomings such as permanent magnet heat radiation is bad; The power density of motor of the present invention is high, and stock utilization is high, the motor of same design power, and material usage saved by motor of the present invention, reduces costs; Motor of the present invention only has a set of armature winding A indirect current stream when running, and excitation winding F passes to the constant direct current in direction, and therefore the control circuit of motor only needs two electric and electronic power switching devices, as IGBT or MOSFET.
As shown in Figure 2, existing all kinds of induction motor and permanent magnet motor stator all there are three-phase and above armature winding, need at least 6 electric and electronic power switching devices.Therefore, needed for the control system of motor of the present invention, switching device is few, and cost is low, and structure is simple.In addition, because device for power switching number is few, reduce the possibility that device for power switching in circuit for controlling motor breaks down, reliability improves.
When motor of the present invention runs, excitation field can regulate, the magnetic flux density in motor gas-gap can be regulated by the electric current of adjustment excitation winding F, motor excitation winding of the present invention is placed in below additional air gap, both are placed side by side, the magnetic flux that excitation winding produces is directly through additional air gap, stator tooth, main air gap and mover tooth form closed-loop path, magnetic flux is without permanent magnet, the magnetic flux produced with permanent magnet forms parallel relationship, this not only effectively improves weak magnetic efficiency, and avoid the risk of degradation irreversible demagnetization under magnetic property that permanent magnet produces due to magnetic reversal, the permanent magnet of motor of the present invention is selected flexibly, both the permanent magnet of high energy product can have been selected, also the permanent magnet of the low magnetic energy products such as ferrite can be selected, because can by the residual flux density of the design air gap flux density determination permanent magnet of motor, pole embrace again by changing permanent magnet determines the magnetic energy product of permanent magnet, and existing magneto is subject to the restriction of number of poles due to pole embrace, usually only have and adopt high-performance permanent magnet could meet the close needs of design magnetic.
Difference due to additional air gap width significantly can change the magnetic resistance of motor magnetic circuit, affect the leakage flux between permanent magnet, and then affect the increasing magnetic of motor and weak magnetic effect, therefore, the width of additional air gap can be changed or adopt not wide gap structure up and down, different motor characteristics can be obtained by the additional air gap width changing motor, meet the needs of different application occasion with this.
Embodiment one:
As shown in Figure 3, the motor stator number of teeth is 8, the mover number of teeth is 4, permanent magnet blocks number is 4, present embodiment comprises stator, mover, main air gap and additional air gap, stator comprises stator core, permanent magnet and stator slot, stator core comprises stator tooth 1, stator back yoke 2 and stator slot yoke 3, stator core is made up of high permeability ferromagnetic material, stator core is provided with stator slot, stator slot comprises armature slot 4 and excitation groove 5, armature slot 4 and the arrangement of excitation groove 5 alternate intervals, excitation winding 7 is laid in excitation groove 5, excitation winding 7 penetrates from an excitation groove 5, then pass along stator back yoke 2 in outward direction, form a coil, excitation winding 7 is around stator slot yoke 3, permanent magnet 8 and stator back yoke 2 are wound around, excitation winding in each excitation groove is a set of coil, form 4 cover coils altogether, 4 cover coils can be each other in series or parallel, armature winding 6 is laid in armature slot 4, armature winding 6 penetrates from an armature slot 4, pass from another adjacent armature slot, form a coil, make the size of current in every adjacent two armature slots identical, direction is contrary, lay permanent magnet 8 between stator slot yoke 3 and stator back yoke 2, permanent magnet adopts the ferrite permanent magnet material of low magnetic energy product, and the magnetizing direction of adjacent two pieces of permanent magnets is contrary, mover comprises mover tooth 9 and mover groove 10, is provided with main air gap 11 between mover tooth 9 and stator tooth 1, in the groove of excitation winding 7 place, the stator slot yoke portion of top disconnects, if additional air gap 12, the width everywhere of additional air gap 12 is all equal.
Embodiment two:
As shown in Figure 4, the motor stator number of teeth is 8, the mover number of teeth is 4, permanent magnet blocks number is 8, present embodiment comprises stator, mover, main air gap and additional air gap, stator comprises stator core, permanent magnet and stator slot, stator core comprises stator tooth 1, stator back yoke 2 and stator slot yoke 3, stator core is made up of high permeability ferromagnetic material, stator core is provided with stator slot, stator slot comprises armature slot 4 and excitation groove 5, armature slot 4 and the arrangement of excitation groove 5 alternate intervals, excitation winding 7 is laid in excitation groove 5, excitation winding 7 penetrates from an excitation groove 5, then pass along stator back yoke 2 in outward direction, form a coil, excitation winding 7 is around stator slot yoke 3, permanent magnet 8 and stator back yoke 2 are wound around, excitation winding in each excitation groove is a set of coil, form 4 cover coils altogether, 4 cover coils can be each other in series or parallel, armature winding 6 is laid in armature slot 4, armature winding 6 penetrates from an armature slot 4, pass from another adjacent armature slot 4, form a coil, make the size of current in every adjacent two armature slots identical, direction is contrary, permanent magnet 8 is laid between stator slot yoke 3 and stator back yoke 2, each stator slot yoke there are 2 pieces of permanent magnets, permanent magnet adopts the Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet material of high energy product, the magnetizing direction of 2 pieces of permanent magnets on same stator slot yoke is identical, and the magnetizing direction of the permanent magnet on adjacent different stator slot yokes is contrary, mover comprises mover tooth 9 and mover groove 10, is provided with main air gap 11 between mover tooth 9 and stator tooth 1, in the groove of excitation winding 7 place, the stator slot yoke portion of top disconnects, if additional air gap 12, the width everywhere of additional air gap 12 is all equal.
Meanwhile, motor provided by the invention, according to the difference of its application; those skilled in the art are for the difference of embody rule environment and object; not creative change is carried out to electric machine structure of the present invention, easily expects, also should be under the jurisdiction of protection scope of the present invention.
By reference to the accompanying drawings the specific embodiment of the present invention is described although above-mentioned; but not limiting the scope of the invention; one of ordinary skill in the art should be understood that; on the basis of technical scheme of the present invention, those skilled in the art do not need to pay various amendment or distortion that creative work can make still within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. a yoke portion excitation winding high power density composite excitation permanent magnet linear electric generator, comprise stator, mover, additional air gap and main air gap, mover is arranged at the inside of stator, wherein:
Described stator is evenly provided with even number stator tooth, stator slot is provided with in adjacent two stator tooths, permanent magnet is provided with near between the stator slot yoke and stator back yoke of lateral direction at stator slot, described permanent magnet does not rotate with mover, the magnetizing direction of the permanent magnet on same stator slot yoke is identical, and the magnetizing direction of the permanent magnet in adjacent two stator slot yoke portions is contrary;
It is characterized in that: described stator slot comprises armature slot and excitation groove, described armature slot and the arrangement of excitation groove alternate intervals, a set of armature winding is surrounded with in two adjacent armature slots, described armature winding indirect current, be provided with set of excitation winding in described excitation groove, described excitation winding leads to the constant direct current in direction;
Main air gap is provided with between described stator tooth and mover tooth, the stator slot yoke portion of described excitation winding place trench bottom disconnects, be provided with additional air gap, the magnetic flux part that adjacent two pieces of permanent magnets produce enters mover through main air gap and forms main flux, another part enters mover without main air gap and closes formation leakage flux through this additional air gap, by regulating the size of the size adjustment leakage flux of electric current in excitation winding, and then regulate the size entering into the main flux of mover through main air gap, realize regulating excitation.
2. a kind of yoke portion as claimed in claim 1 excitation winding high power density composite excitation permanent magnet linear electric generator, is characterized in that: the number of described stator tooth be more than or equal to 2 even number.
3. a kind of yoke portion as claimed in claim 1 excitation winding high power density composite excitation permanent magnet linear electric generator, is characterized in that: the number of described mover tooth is more than or equal to 1/2 of stator tooth number.
4. a kind of yoke portion as claimed in claim 1 excitation winding high power density composite excitation permanent magnet linear electric generator, is characterized in that: the several number of block of described permanent magnet be the m of mover tooth doubly, m be more than or equal to 1 natural number.
5. a kind of yoke portion as claimed in claim 1 excitation winding high power density composite excitation permanent magnet linear electric generator, it is characterized in that: the magnetic flux that described excitation winding produces forms closed-loop path through additional air gap, stator tooth, main air gap and mover tooth, the magnetic flux that excitation winding produces is without permanent magnet, and the magnetic flux produced with permanent magnet forms parallel relationship.
6. a kind of yoke portion as claimed in claim 1 excitation winding high power density composite excitation permanent magnet linear electric generator, it is characterized in that: described excitation winding penetrates from an excitation groove, then pass outside stator back yoke laterally, form a coil, excitation winding is around stator slot yoke, permanent magnet and stator back yoke are wound around, and the excitation winding in each excitation groove is a set of coil, and all coils of formation is parallel with one another or connect.
7. a kind of yoke portion as claimed in claim 1 excitation winding high power density composite excitation permanent magnet linear electric generator, it is characterized in that: described armature winding penetrates from an armature winding place groove, pass from adjacent armature slot, winding in adjacent two armature slots forms an armature coil, each armature coil is across two stator tooth distances, and in adjacent two armature winding place grooves, the size of current of winding is identical, direction is contrary.
8. a kind of yoke portion as claimed in claim 1 excitation winding high power density composite excitation permanent magnet linear electric generator, it is characterized in that: the width of described permanent magnet is by determining according to the magnetic energy product of permanent magnet or residual flux density, according to the residual flux density of the design air gap flux density determination permanent magnet of motor, then determined the magnetic energy product of permanent magnet by the pole embrace changing permanent magnet.
9. a kind of yoke portion as claimed in claim 1 excitation winding high power density composite excitation permanent magnet linear electric generator, it is characterized in that: described additional air gap is the even air gap that width is identical everywhere, by changing the width of additional air gap, obtain different increasing magnetic and weak magnetic characteristic.
10. a kind of yoke portion as claimed in claim 1 excitation winding high power density composite excitation permanent magnet linear electric generator, it is characterized in that: described additional air gap is the non-homogeneous air gap that width is different everywhere, adopt not wide gap structure up and down to obtain different increasing magnetic and weak magnetic characteristic.
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CN105490409A (en) * 2016-01-22 2016-04-13 山东理工大学 Two-phase cylinder electromagnetic linear actuator
CN105610262A (en) * 2016-01-22 2016-05-25 山东理工大学 Two-phase electro-magnetic doubly-salient power sunroof drive motor
CN105656281A (en) * 2016-01-22 2016-06-08 山东理工大学 Three-phase reluctance-type tubular linear motor with excitation windings

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CN1913290A (en) * 2006-08-23 2007-02-14 南京航空航天大学 Radial magnet steel double salient-pole mixed excitation electric machine
CN101552497A (en) * 2009-05-14 2009-10-07 浙江大学 A mixed excitation biconvex pole motor T
CN101820192A (en) * 2010-05-19 2010-09-01 常州工学院 Mixed excitation permanent magnet flux switching motor
CN205081587U (en) * 2015-10-22 2016-03-09 山东大学 Excitation winding high power density mixed excitation permanent magnet linear generator of yoke portion

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN1214565A (en) * 1997-10-07 1999-04-21 瓦莱奥电机设备公司 Flux steering motor, especially AC generator of vehicle
CN1913290A (en) * 2006-08-23 2007-02-14 南京航空航天大学 Radial magnet steel double salient-pole mixed excitation electric machine
CN101552497A (en) * 2009-05-14 2009-10-07 浙江大学 A mixed excitation biconvex pole motor T
CN101820192A (en) * 2010-05-19 2010-09-01 常州工学院 Mixed excitation permanent magnet flux switching motor
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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105490409A (en) * 2016-01-22 2016-04-13 山东理工大学 Two-phase cylinder electromagnetic linear actuator
CN105610262A (en) * 2016-01-22 2016-05-25 山东理工大学 Two-phase electro-magnetic doubly-salient power sunroof drive motor
CN105656281A (en) * 2016-01-22 2016-06-08 山东理工大学 Three-phase reluctance-type tubular linear motor with excitation windings
CN105610262B (en) * 2016-01-22 2018-01-16 山东理工大学 Two-phase electric excitation biconvex electrode power sunroof motor

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