CN105112774B - The air-cooled hardening spring steel of the low middle carbon microalloy of high-strength tenacity and its shaping and Technology for Heating Processing - Google Patents

The air-cooled hardening spring steel of the low middle carbon microalloy of high-strength tenacity and its shaping and Technology for Heating Processing Download PDF

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CN105112774B
CN105112774B CN201510537763.4A CN201510537763A CN105112774B CN 105112774 B CN105112774 B CN 105112774B CN 201510537763 A CN201510537763 A CN 201510537763A CN 105112774 B CN105112774 B CN 105112774B
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steel
spring steel
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CN105112774A (en
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屠世润
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ZHE JIANG MEILI HIGH TECHNOLOGY Co Ltd
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Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of air-cooled hardening spring steel of the low middle carbon microalloy of high-strength tenacity and its shaping and Technology for Heating Processing, the composition of existing spring steel causes production cost high, and the chemical composition of spring steel of the present invention is by weight percentage:C:0.15%~0.50%, Si:0.30%~2.00%, Mn:0.60%~2.50%, S:≤ 0.020%, P:≤ 0.025%, B:0.0005%~0.0035%, surplus is iron.Steel of the present invention use after 900~1050 DEG C of insulations are heated to controls cooling to obtain based on bainite and martensite, containing a small amount of retained austenite and be free of other non-martensite microstructures(Free ferrite, pearlite and upper bainite)Metallographic structure.Then lonneal processing can further improve performance, material mechanical performance is reached Rm>=1350MPa, yield strength Rp0.2>=1050MPa, elongation after fracture A >=10%, contraction percentage of area Z >=35%.The manufacturing process of spring can be simplified using steel of the present invention, the energy is saved, reduce cost.

Description

The air-cooled hardening spring steel of the low middle carbon microalloy of high-strength tenacity and its shaping and heat treatment Technique
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of air-cooled hardening spring steel of the low middle carbon microalloy of high-strength tenacity and its shaping and Technology for Heating Processing, The elastic parts such as helical spring, automobile stabilizer bar, torque arm for manufacture material diameter of phi 10mm~Φ 60mm.
Background technology
Generally two classes are broadly divided into the technical process of conventional springs steel making spring-like product:One kind is to use hard state i.e. Reach the material of high intensity and high elastic limit after Overheating Treatment, as long as being carried out generally after shaping at low temperature destressing Reason can meet requirement, be used for the spring compared with small dimension material manufacture at present, another kind of is the big spring of specification It is use the soft state material for not carrying out heat treatment reinforcement more, generally there are hot forming and cold forming two ways to be processed into spring, then Quenching and the tempering heat treatment of spring are carried out again, wherein hot formed spring some utilizes waste heat direct quenching temper again.
Problems be present in the heat treatment using the spring of traditional material:
The quenching of large-scale spiral spring, Automotive Stabilizer Bar and torsion-bar spring is most to be used as cooling using liquid medium Agent, the continuous quenching cooling device equipped with automatic loading/unloading is generally required, including hardening media(Generally with quenching oil or Aqua polymer solution quenchant)Composition and temperature controlled device, the investment of equipment and the consumption of maintenance cost and quenching medium etc. Make the cost of spring quenching process very high.
Quenching of the spring in liquid medium is quickly to cool down, and can all have quenching distortion, and has the danger ftractureed, This deformation and the control of cracking and it is corrected or crack detection to remedy all is relatively difficult, can be also added to afterwards This.
The oil quenching of spring has oil smoke generation, and spring also needs to clean after quenching, and cleaning dirty remains in spring table The oil in face can burn and produce oil smoke again when spring is tempered, and these all can pollute the air around factory and cause environment Problem.
Scope of the current most of alloy spring carbon content of steel 0.5% -0.65%, temperature after quenching will be More than 400 DEG C, the energy resource consumption of heat treatment step is big.
In recent years in order to save the energy, simplify process, automobile and the higher parts of mechanical performance requirement are developed in succession Go out the new materials such as non-hardened and tempered steel, air-cooled bainitic steels, but the application in spring-like product is less.Such as Publication No. CN 102899589A《A kind of high intensity non quenched and tempered bainitic steel and preparation method》It is the quick air cooling obtaining portion point after crankshaft forging The method that bainite structure replaces quenched steel crankshaft, although having added a variety of noble elements such as Mo, V, Cr in steel, obtained because final The tissue obdurability deficiency arrived, its performance(Tensile strength Rm >=1085MPa, yield strength RP0.2 >=795MPa)It can only meet The quenched part of axle class and requirement of the spring part to performance can not be met.And the air-cooled bainitic steels of most high-strength tenacities have plenty of power The requirement that performance does not reach spring product also is learned, some then contains the valuable or rare alloy element of a variety of high levels(As Mo, Ni, V, etc.), make material cost very high and be difficult to practical application.As patent of invention CN 86 103008 be one kind based on Mn, B Want the air-cooled bainitic steels of element, it is believed that 60Si2MnA manufacture springs, its tensile strength >=1300MPa can be replaced;It is such Strength character can not still fully meet the requirement of present spring product.Publication No. CN 1078269A patent《High-strength tenacity High-hardenability air-cooled bainitic steels》, emphasize high-hardenability, it is desirable to and large-sized part natural cooling in atmosphere, i.e., 900 Cooling rate >=1 DEG C/min between DEG C -300 DEG C, but must not be not added with the alloying elements such as big Mn, Si to protect quenching degree Amount, will also add the noble elements such as Mo, V, material cost is higher.And because the time needed for part air cooling is very long, for requiring short The spring for automobile that cycle produces in enormous quantities can not just obtain practical application.
The content of the invention
The purpose of the present invention is the technical problem for background above technology introduction, based on spring-like product parts section not The characteristics of too big and uniformity, from requiring to obtain in terms of bainite class loading, it is possible to by the optimization of composition design in spring In the case that steel product cost increase is few, spring is set directly to accelerate to cool down with air after high-temperature heating(Air-cooled or air cooling), obtain It is able to bainite, the quenching structure based on martensite carries out lonneal and obtains excellent mechanical property again, there is provided a kind of high-strength The air-cooled hardening spring steel of the low middle carbon microalloy of toughness and its shaping and Technology for Heating Processing.
To reach above-mentioned purpose, the low middle air-cooled hardening spring steel of carbon microalloy of high-strength tenacity of the invention, it is characterized in that should Spring steel includes the chemical composition of following percentage by weight:
C:0.15%~0.50%,
Si:0.30%~2.00%,
Mn:0.60%~2.50%,
S:≤ 0.020%,
P:≤ 0.025%,
B:0.0005%~0.0035%,
Surplus is iron.
As the optimization technique means of the low middle air-cooled hardening spring steel of carbon microalloy of high-strength tenacity of the present invention, the spring steel is also At least one of chemical composition comprising following percentage by weight:
Mo:0.10%~0.50%,
Cr:0.20%~1.00%;Or/and
At least one of chemical composition comprising following percentage by weight:
V:0.03%~0.12%,
Nb:0.02%~0.1%,
Ti:0.005%~0.5%.
As the optimization technique means of the low middle air-cooled hardening spring steel of carbon microalloy of high-strength tenacity of the present invention, the spring steel rolls H content is≤0.8ppm in manufactured steel, and O content is≤15ppm, and N content is 50ppm~130ppm.
As the optimization technique means of the low middle air-cooled hardening spring steel of carbon microalloy of high-strength tenacity of the present invention, the steel are Φ 10mm~Φ 60mm round steel or wire rod steel.
As the optimization technique means of the low middle air-cooled hardening spring steel of carbon microalloy of high-strength tenacity of the present invention, spring steel warp Steel ingot is poured into after crossing smelting and external refining or is casting continuously to form steel billet, rerolls and steel are made.
As the optimization technique means of the low middle air-cooled hardening spring steel of carbon microalloy of high-strength tenacity of the present invention, described steel For heat treatment hardening state or soft state.
As the optimization technique means of the low middle air-cooled hardening spring steel of carbon microalloy of high-strength tenacity of the present invention, the spring steel reaches To minimum mechanical property be:Tensile strength Rm>=1350MPa, yield strength Rp0.2>=1050MPa, elongation after fracture A >=10%, Contraction percentage of area Z >=35%.
To reach above-mentioned purpose, at the shaping of the low middle air-cooled hardening spring steel of carbon microalloy of high-strength tenacity of the invention and heat Science and engineering skill, it is characterized in that obtaining final gold using the shaping of following any form and Technology for Heating Processing to the spring steel of the present invention Phase constitution, the final metallographic structure are to be no more than based on the bainite and martensite by tempering, containing percent by volume 5% retained austenite and the metallographic structure without other non-martensite microstructures:
(1) the hard state material of heat treatment uses the lonneal processing of 250 DEG C~500 DEG C of progress after cold machine-shaping;
(2) hot forming after soft state material is heated to 900 DEG C~1050 DEG C, then direct hardening by cooling, then carry out 250 DEG C~ 500 DEG C of lonneal processing;
(3) spring of soft state material cold forming is heated to 900 DEG C~1050 DEG C direct hardenings by cooling, then carry out 250 DEG C~ 500 DEG C of lonneal processing.
As the low middle air-cooled hardening spring steel of carbon microalloy of high-strength tenacity of the present invention shaping and Technology for Heating Processing it is preferred Technological means, the final metallographic structure contain the carbonitride of at least one of micro alloying element V, Nb, Ti.
The beneficial effects of the invention are as follows:Due to liquid quenching medium need not be used to avoid Conventional springs described previously Steel oil quenching a variety of disadvantages, so as to save the energy, simplify can be greatly lowered in process manufacturing cost obtain it is economical Benefit, and also can meet that society's requirement higher and higher to environmental protection obtains corresponding social benefit because improving environment.
Embodiment
The present invention will be further described below.
The low middle air-cooled hardening spring steel of carbon microalloy of high-strength tenacity of the present invention, its basic design are:The spring steel includes The chemical composition of following percentage by weight:
C:0.15%~0.50%,
Si:0.30%~2.00%,
Mn:0.60%~2.50%,
S:≤ 0.020%,
P:≤ 0.025%,
B:0.0005%~0.0035%,
Surplus is iron.
Further, the spring steel also at least one of chemical composition comprising following percentage by weight:
Mo:0.10%~0.50%,
Cr:0.20%~1.00%;Or/and
Include the chemical composition of following percentage by weight(Micro alloying element)At least one of:
V:0.03%~0.12%,
Nb:0.02%~0.1%,
Ti:0.005%~0.5%.
H content is≤0.8ppm in the steel that the spring steel is rolled into, and O content is≤15ppm, N content be 50ppm~ 130ppm.Steel are Φ 10mm~Φ 60mm round steel or wire rod steel.The spring steel pours into after smelting and external refining Steel ingot is casting continuously to form steel billet, rerolls and steel are made.Steel are heat treatment hardening state or soft state.
The minimum mechanical property that the spring steel reaches is:Tensile strength Rm>=1350MPa, yield strength Rp0.2≥ 1050MPa, elongation after fracture A >=10%, contraction percentage of area Z >=35%.
The shaping of the low middle air-cooled hardening spring steel of carbon microalloy of high-strength tenacity of the present invention and Technology for Heating Processing are to the present invention Spring steel final metallographic structure, the final metallographic structure are obtained using the shaping of following any form and Technology for Heating Processing To be no more than 5% retained austenite and without non-based on the bainite and martensite by tempering, containing percent by volume The metallographic structure of martensite(The metallographic structure of non-martensite includes free ferrite, pearly-lustre caused by Cooling Austenite Transformation Body and upper bainite):
(1) the hard state material of heat treatment uses the lonneal processing of 250 DEG C~500 DEG C of progress after cold machine-shaping;
(2) hot forming after soft state material is heated to 900 DEG C~1050 DEG C, then direct hardening by cooling, then carry out 250 DEG C~ 500 DEG C of lonneal processing;
(3) spring of soft state material cold forming is heated to 900 DEG C~1050 DEG C direct hardenings by cooling, then carry out 250 DEG C~ 500 DEG C of lonneal processing.
Final metallographic structure contains the carbonitride of at least one of micro alloying element V, Nb, Ti.
The above scheme of the present invention, there are following substantive distinguishing features and significant progress:
(1)The composition design of spring steel of the present invention:Spring steel of the present invention is using C-Mn-Si-B as basis, wherein Mn and B It is that the quenching degree of raising steel makes the overcooling austenite continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curve of steel(CCT curve)Ferrite-pearlite transformation The essential element that line moves to right, and the composite alloying for adding Cr and Mo can further improve quenching degree, i.e., after high-temperature heating Air cooling or it is air-cooled under the conditions of can obtain bainite and partial martensite and the high-intensity high-tenacity group of a small amount of retained austenite Knit.
(2)Valuable alloy resource is saved in order to give full play to alloys producing, draw point of the present invention is to spring part The different specification limit of material determines that the ideal critical through hardening diameter minimum of required steel carries out the optimization of alloying component Design.For the Automotive Stabilizer Bar that material diameter is below Φ 30mm, then the ideal critical through hardening of steel is assessed by calculating method Diameter should be 130-160mm;For the hot rolling helical spring that material diameter is 30-60mm, then by the reason of calculating method assessment steel Think that critical through hardening diameter should be >=200mm;For the automotive suspension screw spring that material diameter is below Φ 20mm, then by calculating Method assesses a diameter of 100-130mm of ideal critical through hardening of steel.
(3)The one or more that steel of the present invention contains in micro alloying element V, Nb, Ti are the carbonitrides because of these elements Growing up for austenite crystal when can hinder hot-working with carbide and crystal grain thinning, while also acted on by dispersion hardening to enter one Step improves intensity and toughness.
(4)Nitrogen in steel element N of the present invention is as the useful element in micro alloyed steel, thus needs to control its content.N The precipitation process of carbonitride and carbide to microalloy element has an impact, and the quantity of these disperse phases, granular size with An important factor for distribution is also the Strengthening and Toughening of steel.
(5)Draw point of the present invention is consistent to spring-like part material section and more uniform feature, air can be used to accelerate cold But device is with comparatively faster cooling velocity(45 DEG C/min~155 DEG C/min)Cool down to avoid producing non-martensite group in tissue Knit, increase its quenching degree without excessive alloying element.
Air accelerated cooling device used is the air cooling equipment automatically controlled, is controlled by the real-time measurement of Part temperature Air quantity and wind speed realize that the cooling velocity of part on request is quickly cooled to assigned temperature.Its advantage be without quenching oil or other Cooling liquid, do not produce the pollution of oil smoke and do not need common oil cooling but and oil-temperature control device, not only operating cost it is low and Improve the environment in workshop.
(6)Steel high-temperature heating of the present invention(Shaping)And the temper after air cooling hardening is in relatively low temperature(250 DEG C~ 500℃)Lower progress, now the microstructure of material various change will occur.Due to the multiple element alloying of steel of the present invention Feature make steel microscopic structure in temper can occur complexity change, including retained austenite transformation with stably Change, the Precipitation of alloy carbonitride, martensite(Based on dislocatrion martensite)Tempering toughening of tissue etc., the present invention utilize back The optimization of fiery handling process makes the obdurability of steel not only not reduce and increase on the contrary.
The concrete application of the present invention is as follows:
(1)By the different composition design of the purposes of steel of the present invention using progress external refining removal after converter or electro-smelting Impurity simultaneously adds trace element, implements ingot casting or be casting continuously to form after steel billet to carry out continuous control rolling by material supply of material requirement.To steel The non-metallic inclusion content of material(Rank)Requirement be:
The following several classes of the supply status of material point:
1. non-heat treated soft state material, material is in the hot forming of spring manufactory and is heat-treated;
2. condition of heat treatment material, cooling is controlled to reach the tissue of low-carbon bainite, martensite, material after material hot rolling Temper can be carried out, temper can also be carried out after the cold forming of spring manufactory.
3. to surface and the higher material of dimension precision requirement(Such as automotive suspension spring heat treatment steel), can be rolled into Carry out cold drawn after wire rod and be heat-treated and (carry out bainite, marquench) that hard state spring steel wire is made again.
(2)The hot forming and direct quenching of spring
Refer to above-mentioned and 1. plant non-heat treated soft state material, 900 DEG C -1050 is heated to sensing heating or electric furnace, Fuel Furnace After DEG C hot forming and be directly entered air accelerated cooling device with(45 DEG C/min~155 DEG C/min)Cooling velocity quickly cool down Obtain the quenching structures such as bainite, martensite.Spring after quenching is tempered(Such as narration below).
(3)The cold forming of spring
Refer to described above the 2. kind shaped with the hard state material for 3. planting heat treatment, spring in cold conditions, the spring after shaping Lonneal processing need to be carried out immediately.
(4)Temper
Steel of the present invention is middle low-carbon bainite, the martensite steel of multicomponent microalloying, and temper is substantially lonneal, Generally in the range of 250 DEG C -500 DEG C, time 60min -150min, due to alloy multielement the characteristics of, steel during tempering Very complicated change can occur for microstructure, and drawing process is advantageous to the Strengthening and Toughening of steel need to be true by the engineer testing of system Determine the control range of technological parameter i.e. temperature and heating and thermal insulation time, correct experimental design can be used to reduce workload.

Claims (10)

1. the low middle air-cooled hardening spring steel of carbon microalloy of high-strength tenacity, it is characterized in that the spring steel includes following percentage by weight Chemical composition:
C:0.15%~0.50%,
Si:0.30%~2.00%,
Mn:0.60%~2.50%,
S:≤ 0.020%,
P:≤ 0.025%,
B:0.0005%~0.0035%,
Surplus is iron;
Described spring steel obtains final metallographic structure using the shaping of following any form and Technology for Heating Processing, and this is final Metallographic structure be with by tempering bainite and martensite based on, containing percent by volume no more than 5% retained austenite, And the metallographic structure without other non-martensite microstructures:
(1) the hard state material of heat treatment uses the lonneal processing of 250 DEG C~500 DEG C of progress after cold machine-shaping;
(2) hot forming after soft state material is heated to 900 DEG C~1050 DEG C, then direct hardening by cooling, then carry out 250 DEG C~500 DEG C lonneal processing;
(3) spring of soft state material cold forming is heated to 900 DEG C~1050 DEG C direct hardenings by cooling, then carries out 250 DEG C~500 DEG C Lonneal processing.
2. the low middle air-cooled hardening spring steel of carbon microalloy of high-strength tenacity according to claim 1, it is characterized in that:The spring steel Also at least one of chemical composition comprising following percentage by weight:
Mo:0.10%~0.50%,
Cr:0.20%~1.00%.
3. the low middle air-cooled hardening spring steel of carbon microalloy of high-strength tenacity according to claim 1 or 2, it is characterized in that:The bullet Spring steel also at least one of chemical composition comprising following percentage by weight:
V:0.03%~0.12%,
Nb:0.02%~0.1%,
Ti:0.005%~0.5%.
4. the low middle air-cooled hardening spring steel of carbon microalloy of high-strength tenacity according to claim 1, it is characterized in that:The spring steel H content is≤0.8ppm in the steel being rolled into, and O content is≤15ppm, and N content is 50ppm~130ppm.
5. the low middle air-cooled hardening spring steel of carbon microalloy of high-strength tenacity according to claim 4, it is characterized in that:The steel For Φ 10mm~Φ 60mm round steel or wire rod steel.
6. the low middle air-cooled hardening spring steel of carbon microalloy of high-strength tenacity according to claim 4, it is characterized in that:The spring steel Steel ingot is poured into after smelting and external refining or is casting continuously to form steel billet, rerolls and steel is made.
7. the low middle air-cooled hardening spring steel of carbon microalloy of high-strength tenacity according to claim 4, it is characterized in that:Described steel Material is heat treatment hardening state or soft state.
8. the low middle air-cooled hardening spring steel of carbon microalloy of high-strength tenacity according to claim 1, it is characterized in that:The spring steel The minimum mechanical property reached is:Tensile strength Rm>=1350MPa, yield strength Rp0.2>=1050MPa, elongation after fracture A >= 10%, contraction percentage of area Z >=35%.
9. shaping and the Technology for Heating Processing of the low middle air-cooled hardening spring steel of carbon microalloy of high-strength tenacity, it is characterized in that to claim Spring steel any one of 1-2,4-8 obtains final metallographic group using the shaping of following any form and Technology for Heating Processing Knit, the final metallographic structure is no more than 5% based on the bainite and martensite by tempering, containing percent by volume Retained austenite and the metallographic structure without other non-martensite microstructures:
(1) the hard state material of heat treatment uses the lonneal processing of 250 DEG C~500 DEG C of progress after cold machine-shaping;
(2) hot forming after soft state material is heated to 900 DEG C~1050 DEG C, then direct hardening by cooling, then carry out 250 DEG C~500 DEG C lonneal processing;
(3) spring of soft state material cold forming is heated to 900 DEG C~1050 DEG C direct hardenings by cooling, then carries out 250 DEG C~500 DEG C Lonneal processing.
10. shaping and the heat treatment work of the low middle air-cooled hardening spring steel of carbon microalloy of high-strength tenacity according to claim 9 Skill, it is characterized in that:The final metallographic structure contains the carbonitride of at least one of micro alloying element V, Nb, Ti.
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