CN105048613B - A kind of intelligent charger for electric bicycle - Google Patents

A kind of intelligent charger for electric bicycle Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105048613B
CN105048613B CN201510556397.7A CN201510556397A CN105048613B CN 105048613 B CN105048613 B CN 105048613B CN 201510556397 A CN201510556397 A CN 201510556397A CN 105048613 B CN105048613 B CN 105048613B
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circuit
control
voltage
charging
current
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CN201510556397.7A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN105048613A (en
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傅士杰
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泉州市海通电子设备有限公司
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Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of intelligent charger for electric bicycle comprising charging main circuit, embedded Control circuit, power management chip, voltage sampling circuit, current sampling circuit and control relay circuit.A kind of intelligent charger for electric bicycle of the present invention, using three stage charging system mode, control terminal of the embedded Control circuit as entire charger is used simultaneously, charging process is accurately controlled by embedded Control circuit, realize electric vehicle lead-acid battery parameter detecting, charging, power-off, power shortage compensation and battery abnormality processing, compared on the market charger performance and safety higher.Further, detection battery can disconnect charge circuit automatically after being full of by embedded Control circuit control relay control circuit, prevent from, because the charging time is long, leading to battery bulge, flowing water, avoid electric vehicle security risk caused by bad charging.

Description

A kind of intelligent charger for electric bicycle

Technical field

The present invention relates to charger field, the charger of specifically a kind of electric vehicle.

Background technology

Emerging vehicles electric vehicle, energy saving with its, emission-free discharge, muting advantage has been favored by people. And lead-acid accumulator is one of core component of electric vehicle, and electric vehicle often can be seen because battery charging overshoot causes from news back warp Fire and cause damages.By inquiry, lead-acid battery fails, and battery bulge, service life shortens, and has 70% or more reason system The reason of charging overshoot, causes, and the wide-spread a word of industry is:Battery be not damage but fill bad.

Now more common charging modes are three stage charging modes, theoretical according to three stage charging modes, not only may be used So that charge efficiency rises significantly, shortens the charging time, can also safeguard battery, will not be easily damaged.Three stage charging moulds Formula includes:Constant large current charge, constant-potential charge, the floating punching of decompression.

Constant current charge carries out high-speed charging with a high current.It thus can quickly restore battery electricity Can, the electric energy for restoring battery 85% is tended to after constant-current charge.At this time electric current can be usually reached and stablize in 2A Left and right, therefore can be referred to as constant-current charge and fast charge stage.Constant-voltage charge is the process of a trickle charge.Because by constant-current charge Afterwards, battery energy storage has only restored 85% or so, should then supply charging at this time.At this time cell voltage persistently increases, and charges Device output voltage should keep stable, and with this to reduce the potential difference between charger and battery, reaching, which reduces electric current, supplies charging Purpose, thus this stage be known as constant-voltage charge.The charging later stage is being supplied, electric current is small to certain when battery is substantially saturated and charges When degree, charging is at this time carried out with a smaller electric current until charging terminates.

Traditional charger is usually compared with Voltage Feedback ring by amplifier in feedback fraction using current feedback ring Feedback output control optocoupler constitutes a complete backfeed loop as the Voltage loop input signal of power supply chip control circuit. The Voltage loop feedback of conventional charger is to export feedback signal after being compared with source of stable pressure after partial pressure by output voltage, is belonged to Hardware controls mode has certain limitation.And it lacks autonomous power down function, charging for a long time will damage battery, very To leading to some safety accidents.

Invention content

The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of intelligent charger for electric bicycle, can be carried out to lead-acid battery charging process accurate Control, avoids electric vehicle security risk caused by bad charging.

To achieve the goals above, the present invention adopts the following technical scheme that:

A kind of intelligent charger for electric bicycle, including charging main circuit, embedded Control circuit, power management chip, voltage Sample circuit, current sampling circuit and control relay circuit;

Charging main circuit includes sequentially connected current rectifying and wave filtering circuit, switching tube, transformer and DC output circuit, rectification The input terminal of filter circuit connects alternating current, and the output end of DC output circuit connects battery;

The input terminal of voltage sampling circuit and current sampling circuit is separately connected the output end of DC output circuit;

Embedded Control circuit includes that main control chip, D/A conversion modules and A/D conversion modules, main control chip are built-in with PI The output end of controller, voltage sampling circuit and current sampling circuit is connected to the input terminal of A/D conversion modules, A/D conversions The output end of module is connected to the input terminal of the PI controllers of main control chip, and the output end of main control chip is connected to D/A moduluss of conversion The input terminal of block;

The power supply output end of the feeder ear connection transformer of power management chip, the feedback input end of power management chip connect The output end of D/A conversion modules is connect, the recommending output mode end of power management chip is connected to the control terminal of switching tube;

Control relay circuit is connected between alternating current and current rectifying and wave filtering circuit to be switched in or out alternating current, embedded control One output end of the main control chip of circuit processed is connected to the control terminal of control relay circuit.

The main control chip of above-mentioned embedded Control circuit uses STM32F103.

After adopting the above scheme, a kind of intelligent charger for electric bicycle of the invention is adopted simultaneously using three stage charging system mode It uses embedded Control circuit as the control terminal of entire charger, charging process is accurately controlled by embedded Control circuit System realizes electric vehicle lead-acid battery parameter detecting, charging, power-off, power shortage compensation and battery abnormality processing, compared on the market Charger performance and safety higher.

Further, detection battery can automatically be disconnected after being full of by embedded Control circuit control relay control circuit Charge circuit prevents from, because the charging time is long, leading to battery bulge, flowing water, avoids electric vehicle safety caused by bad charging Hidden danger.

Further, after main charging power-off, because vehicle is not used in user for a long time and does not extract charger, system passes through Voltage sampling circuit and current sampling circuit under the control of embedded system can cycle detection cell voltage, work as cell voltage It carries out mending electricity when dropping to certain value, ensure the use of vehicle and ensures that battery will not be damaged because long-time is excessive without power shortage It is bad.

Description of the drawings

Fig. 1 is the schematic block circuit diagram of the present invention;

Fig. 2 is the circuit diagram of charging main circuit and power management chip in the present invention;

Fig. 3 is the circuit diagram of voltage sampling circuit in the present invention;

Fig. 4 is the circuit diagram of current sampling circuit in the present invention;

Fig. 5 is the circuit diagram of embedded Control circuit in the present invention;

Fig. 6 is PI control principle drawings when lead-acid battery charges in the present invention;

Fig. 7 is the control flow chart of the present invention;

Fig. 8 is the output waveform figure of constant high current stage power management chip in embodiment;

Fig. 9 is the output waveform of power management chip when constant-potential charge stage output current is 1.5A in embodiment Figure;

Figure 10 is the output waveform figure of power management chip when constant-potential charge stage output current is 1A in embodiment;

Figure 11 is the output waveform figure of floating charge stage power management chip in embodiment;

Figure 12 is voltage, the current curve diagram of battery in charging process in embodiment.

Specific implementation mode

The present invention a kind of intelligent charger for electric bicycle, as shown in Figure 1, including charging main circuit, embedded Control circuit, Power management chip, voltage sampling circuit, current sampling circuit and control relay circuit;

Charging main circuit includes sequentially connected current rectifying and wave filtering circuit, switching tube, transformer and DC output circuit, rectification The input terminal of filter circuit connects alternating current, and the output end of DC output circuit connects battery;

The input terminal of voltage sampling circuit and current sampling circuit is separately connected the output end of DC output circuit;

Embedded Control circuit includes main control chip (STM32F103), D/A conversion modules and A/D conversion modules, master control core Piece is built-in with PI controllers, and the output end of voltage sampling circuit and current sampling circuit is connected to the input of A/D conversion modules End, the output end of A/D conversion modules are connected to the input terminal of the PI controllers of main control chip, and the output end of main control chip is connected to Another output end of the input terminal of D/A conversion modules, main control chip is connected with LCD display;

The power supply output end of the feeder ear connection transformer of power management chip, the feedback input end of power management chip connect The output end of D/A conversion modules is connect, the recommending output mode end of power management chip is connected to the control terminal of switching tube;

Control relay circuit is connected between alternating current and current rectifying and wave filtering circuit to be switched in or out alternating current, embedded control One output end of the main control chip of circuit processed is connected to the control terminal of control relay circuit.

With specific embodiment, the present invention will be described in detail below.

Charging main circuit is as shown in Fig. 2, pair that the alternating current of single-phase 220V/50HZ is formed via capacitance C14, C11, inductance T2 After being filtered to low-pass filter, then the direct current of 310V is obtained after rectified bridge heap D2 rectifications, this direct current is through high frequency transformer T1, power switch tube Q1 and high-frequency rectification diode D1 are charged the battery.High frequency transformer T1 have 3 pair side L2, L3 and L4, this three secondary sides correspond to three outputs.The charging main circuit is single-end flyback switching power supply.

The turn-on time of power switch tube Q1 is that the duty ratio exported by power management chip U2 is determined, therefore is passed through It is the output voltage and electric current that entire charging system is adjusted to change power management chip U2 output duty cycles.The direct current of charger The conversion of output control, three stage charging system process is mainly completed by power management chip U2 controls.

As shown in Fig. 2, 1 foot of power supply control chip U2 is the output port of its error amplifier, missed to reach to improve The frequency characteristic of poor amplifier and the purpose of gain connect resistance R9 and capacitance C10 between 1 foot and 2 feet;Power supply controls core 2 feet of piece U2 are the input terminals of its feedback voltage, this reference voltage of the feedback voltage and 2.5V of input is compared, can be formed One error voltage, can change the pulse width of output by this error;3 feet of power supply control chip U2 are examined for its electric current Input terminal is surveyed, when detecting voltage more than 1V, pulse width is reduced, power supply is made to be in discontinuous operation state;Power supply control chip 4 feet of U2 are its timing end;5 feet of power supply control chip U2 are grounded;6 feet of power supply control chip U2 are its recommending output mode end, Output drive signal;7 feet of power supply control chip U2 are feeder ears;Voltage output end on the basis of 8 feet of power supply control chip U2. It is connected with 7 feet of power supply control chip U2 after the rectified filtering of output of the secondary side L2 of transformer, power supply control is given as feeder ear The U2 power supplies of coremaking piece.Resistance R16 is connected between 8 feet and 4 feet of power supply control chip U2, capacitance C15 is connected to power supply control core Between 4 feet and ground of piece U2.Resistance R16 and capacitance C15 determines the internal oscillation frequency of power supply control chip U2, also determines The PWM signal frequency of power supply control chip U2 outputs.When the resistance value of resistance R16 is 15 × 103The capacitance of Ω, capacitance C15 are 33 ×10-10When F, PWM signal frequency is:

F=1.72/ (RT·CT)=1.72/ (15 × 103×33×10-10)=34.7KHz.

Photoelectrical coupler IC1 output feedbacks are connected through resistance R13 with 2 feet of power supply control chip U2, are that cell voltage is anti- Feedback signal.Compared with this feedback signal inputs 2.5V reference voltages with the end in the same direction of the error amplifier of power supply control chip U2, An error amplification signal is exported through error amplifier, thus constitutes a voltage close loop control.Resistance R19 is current limliting end electricity Sampling resistor is flowed, 3 feet (current sense input) of power supply control chip U2 are connected to through resistance R23.When exporting change, adopt The electric current of sample resistance R19 changes therewith, and the noninverting input of the circuit comparator of power supply control chip U2 changes therewith, constitutes One closed-loop current control.Voltage close loop is controlled constitutes a complete double loop system with closed-loop current control, maintains The stabilization of entire charging system.

When charging beginning, since the voltage of battery is low, the input signal of Voltage loop is smaller, and charging current compares Greatly, the input signal of electric current loop is big, and control action is current loop control signal, and voltage ring signal is not involved in control.Charging Electric current is held essentially constant, and is at this moment constant-current charge.With the increase in charging time, cell voltage persistently rises, output end Voltage constantly increases, and the signal of Voltage loop is increasing.When the signal of Voltage loop is more than the signal of electric current loop, control is played at this time Effect is that Voltage loop controls signal, current loop control Signal Fail, and output voltage is basically unchanged, and reaches Isobarically Control.Power supply The 6 foot power supply signal output ends of control chip U2 directly drive power switch tube Q1 through resistance R11.Power supply control chip U2 passes through Export the drive signal of different duty, the turn-on time of control power switch tube Q1, to change the output of charger.

In order to enable embedded Control circuit to real-time monitor cell voltage electric current, it is necessary to introduce voltage, electricity in circuit Flow sample circuit.Because battery voltage range is in 40-60V in charging process, electric current is between 0.1A-3A, it is therefore desirable to pass through It can be just input in the middle of ADC after conversion circuit.

Voltage sampling circuit as shown in figure 3, the feedback signal of voltage be by charger output end output voltage through R25, The low-pass filter being made of resistance R26, capacitance C17 through one after two high-precision electric resistance partial pressures of R27 enter back into voltage with It is exported with device, into ADC.The resistance value of divider resistance R25, R27 are respectively 10K Ω, 120K Ω, are in maximum output voltage In the case of 60V, the output of voltage follower is 4.6V, is reasonable to AD inputs.

Current sampling circuit is as shown in figure 4, using accurate three amplifier sample circuits, it is ensured that charging accuracy.Take the main electricity of charging Resistance RS in road is current sampling resistor, and differential amplifier circuit can be effectively prevented from temperature drift phenomenon, therefore adopt here Sample electric current is exported through differential amplifier circuit, ensures the precision of sampling.Its amplification factor is:A=RS × (1+2 × 20K/10K)/ 10K.If sampling resistor RS is 0.5 Ω, sample rate current is between 0.1A-3A, then input voltage UiFor 0.05V-1.5V.Change electricity The resistance value of resistance RS can adjust the amplification factor of circuit.In order to ensure the precision of acquisition, it is 3 times to take amplification factor, then resistance R5 Resistance value take 6K.Output voltage is:UO=A × Ui

Embedded Control circuit is as shown in figure 5, include main control chip U1 and A/D, D/A acquisition module U3, main control chip U1 PCF8591 is used using STM32F103, A/D, D/A acquisition module U3.Clock line SCL and bidirectional data line SDA respectively with master control PB6, PB7 of chip U1 is connected, and the output of current sampling circuit is inputted by A-IN, and the output of voltage sampling circuit is defeated by V-IN Enter, main control chip U1 judges according to this value and preset value, exports analog quantity by the AOUT mouths of A/D, D/A acquisition module U3, send The input terminal for entering photoelectrical coupler IC1 (PC817), the feedback signal as power management chip U2.

During control, using PI control strategies as shown in FIG. 6, required according to three stage charging system to filling when system works Electrical power is set, and by certain time delay, reads the input value of feedback AD, and the preset value of charging is compared with three stages Deviation is obtained, deviation is exported by PI algorithms to control object.When system is because of the variation variation of such as external voltage, system can be into Self adjustment of row, controls output duty cycle.

Embedded Control circuit be mainly used for charging process to voltage, electric current carry out sampling monitoring, logic control and LCD is shown.To voltage sampling signal and the comparison that pre-sets, charged state is judged, by D/A conversion circuit output voltages, As the input of photoelectrical coupler IC1, the output of control photoelectrical coupler IC1 then exports arteries and veins by power management chip U2 Wide change controls power switch tube Q1, and output voltage is made to change.When embedded Control circuit detects battery After having been filled with, by a port of its main control chip U1, a high level is exported, control control relay circuit action makes Charging main circuit is detached from power grid firmly, ensures circuit and battery charging safety and saves energy consumption.After power-off, embedded Control circuit is pressed Predetermined period detects battery status, after battery makes voltage loss to certain value due to discharging naturally, continues to mend electricity, ensures electricity Pond is not damaged because of no use for a long time.In flow in each charging, calculated by capacity check and charge cycle, when When battery cannot reach stage capacity requirement in the time of agreement, also mean that battery breaks down, main charge power supply will at this time It is actively detached from power grid, and reminds user that must be safeguarded to battery in LCD screen, ensure charging safety, control flow As shown in Figure 7.

A kind of intelligent charger for electric bicycle of the present invention, circuit test results are as follows:

In constant current charging phase, limit value, the D/A conversion electricity of embedded Control circuit is not achieved in output sampled voltage Road exports a value so that photoelectrical coupler IC1 cut-offs, feed back to power management chip U2, the error of power management chip U2 is put Big device output signal is constant.When the value that the current detecting end (3 foot) that electric current is more than power management chip U2 limits, power supply is in Intermittent condition, work so repeatedly is so that output current remains at the value of setting.Therefore under constant-current charge, power supply pipe The duty ratio of reason chip U2 outputs is fixed always.Through measure constant high current stage power management chip U2 output waveform such as Shown in Fig. 8.

In the constant-potential charge stage, sampled voltage is greater than the set value, the D/A conversion circuits output of embedded Control circuit One value so that photoelectrical coupler IC1 conductings, the output of photoelectrical coupler IC1 is as power management chip U2 terminal voltage detectings The input signal at end.When output voltage is constant, the input signal at voltage detecting end is also constant, the error of power management chip U2 Amplifier output is constant, and power management chip U2 output duty cycles are constant.When output voltage increases, power management chip U2's Error amplifier output becomes smaller, and the output duty cycle of power management chip U2 is caused to become smaller so that output voltage becomes smaller, and is come with this Realize constant pressure output function.Here it is as shown in Figure 9, Figure 10 to measure the output waveform when output current is 1.5A and 1A.

In the floating charge stage since battery fills with, charger need to only be charged the battery with a constant low current to be come Battery is made up to be lost caused by discharging naturally.Main control chip U1 is invariable larger by D/A conversion circuits output one Value so that power management chip U2 internal error amplifier output signals become very little, export a small duty ratio of fixation always, Reach the floating charge stage.It is as shown in figure 11 that power management chip U2 output waveforms are measured at this time.

It can be seen that by -11 figure of figure 8 above, power management chip U2 is filled by exporting the pwm signal change of different duty The output of electric appliance, reaches intelligent charge.

The voltage of accumulator, current curve are as shown in figure 12 in charging process, when charging starts, in order to ensure that constant current is filled The output voltage of electricity, charger rises with the rising of battery tension.With the progress of charging, on cell voltage is continuous It rises, and charger is to safeguard battery life, while supplying charging, it is necessary to reduce charging current.Therefore charger keeps output Voltage constant reduces the potential difference between accumulator, to ensure that output current reduces.

A kind of intelligent charger for electric bicycle of the present invention is combined using power management chip PWM controls with STM32, Three stage mode charging method can be used when charging.It is and pre- by embedded real-time detection cell voltage and charging current If value is compared, the charged state of present battery is judged, and feed back to power management chip.Power management chip passes through output Different duty changes the output voltage of charger, adjusts charged state.After tested, intelligent charger can be realized well Adjusting to battery state of charge is charged according to three stage charge modes, real-time display current charging voltage and electric current. After detection battery is full of, control relay disconnects alternating current, protects battery.By cycle detection cell voltage, in cell voltage It can continue to charge when dropping to predetermined value, the moment holds the cell at full power state, achievees the effect that intelligent charge.

Claims (2)

1. a kind of control method of intelligent charger for electric bicycle, it is characterised in that:The intelligent charger for electric bicycle includes charging Main circuit, embedded Control circuit, power management chip U2, photoelectrical coupler IC1, voltage sampling circuit, current sampling circuit And control relay circuit;
Charging main circuit includes sequentially connected current rectifying and wave filtering circuit, switching tube, transformer and DC output circuit, rectifying and wave-filtering The input terminal of circuit connects alternating current, and the output end of DC output circuit connects battery;
The input terminal of voltage sampling circuit and current sampling circuit is separately connected the output end of DC output circuit;
Embedded Control circuit includes main control chip, D/A conversion modules and A/D conversion modules, and main control chip is built-in with PI controls The output end of device, voltage sampling circuit and current sampling circuit is connected to the input terminal of A/D conversion modules, A/D conversion modules Output end be connected to main control chip PI controllers input terminal, the output end of main control chip is connected to D/A conversion modules Input terminal;
The power supply output end of the feeder ear connection transformer of power management chip U2, the feedback input end of power management chip U2 connect The output end of D/A conversion modules is connect, the recommending output mode end of power management chip is connected to the control terminal of switching tube, power management core The feedback voltage input terminal of piece U2 is compared to this reference voltage by the feedback voltage of input and 2.5V, can form one Error voltage can change the pulse width of output by this error;Photoelectrical coupler IC1 output feedback ends connect power supply control The output feedback of the feedback voltage input terminal of coremaking piece U2, photoelectrical coupler IC1 is cell voltage feedback signal, this feedback Signal exports compared with the end in the same direction of the error amplifier of power management chip U2 input 2.5V reference voltages through error amplifier One error amplification signal thus constitutes a voltage close loop control;Current limliting end current sampling resistor is connected to through a resistance The current sense input of power supply control chip U2, when exporting change, the electric current of current limliting end current sampling resistor changes therewith, The noninverting input of the circuit comparator of power supply control chip U2 changes therewith, constitutes a closed-loop current control;Voltage closes Ring is controlled constitutes a complete double loop system with closed-loop current control, maintains the stabilization of entire charging system;
Control relay circuit is connected between alternating current and current rectifying and wave filtering circuit to be switched in or out alternating current, embedded Control electricity One output end of the main control chip on road is connected to the control terminal of control relay circuit;
The control method of the intelligent charger for electric bicycle is as follows:
By embedded real-time detection cell voltage and charging current, it is compared with preset value, judges filling for present battery Electricity condition, and feed back to power management chip;Power management chip changes the output electricity of charger by exporting different duty Pressure adjusts charged state, charges according to three stage charge modes;
During control, using PI control strategies, require to set charge power according to three stage charging system when system works, By certain time delay, PI controllers read the input value of A/D conversion modules, and the preset value of charging is compared with three stages To deviation, deviation is exported by PI algorithms to power management chip, and specifically, in constant current charging phase, output is adopted Limit value is not achieved in sample voltage, and the D/A conversion circuits of embedded Control circuit export a value so that photoelectrical coupler IC1 is cut Only, power management chip U2 is fed back to, the error amplifier output signal of power management chip U2 is constant;In constant-potential charge Stage, sampled voltage are greater than the set value, and the D/A conversion circuits of embedded Control circuit export a value so that photoelectrical coupler IC1 is connected, the input signal of photoelectrical coupler IC1 exported as power management chip U2 terminal voltage detectings end;In floating charge rank Section, main control chip export an invariable value by D/A conversion circuits so that power management chip U2 internal error amplifiers Output signal becomes smaller, and a fixed duty cycle is exported always, so that charger is charged the battery with a constant low current It is lost caused by discharging naturally to make up battery, reaches the floating charge stage;When system changes because of external voltage, system energy Self adjustment is carried out, the output duty cycle of power management chip is controlled;
After embedded Control circuit detects that battery has been filled with, by a port of its main control chip, one high electricity is exported Flat, control control relay circuit action makes charging main circuit be detached from power grid firmly, ensures circuit and battery charging safety and saves Energy consumption;After power-off, embedded Control circuit detects battery status by predetermined period, so that voltage is lost due to discharging naturally in battery After damaging certain value, continue to mend electricity, ensures that battery is not damaged because of no use for a long time;In flow in each charging, lead to Overcapacity is detected to be calculated with charge cycle, when battery cannot reach stage capacity requirement in the time in agreement, is also meant that Battery breaks down, and main charge power supply will be actively detached from power grid at this time, ensure charging safety.
2. a kind of control method of intelligent charger for electric bicycle according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:It is above-mentioned embedded The main control chip of control circuit uses STM32F103.
CN201510556397.7A 2015-09-02 2015-09-02 A kind of intelligent charger for electric bicycle CN105048613B (en)

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US10381860B2 (en) * 2016-02-05 2019-08-13 Guangdong Oppo Mobile Telecommunications Corp., Ltd. Adapter and charging control method
CN106059023B (en) * 2016-07-15 2018-12-07 福州大学 A kind of electric vehicle charging auxiliary system and its application
CN107591851A (en) * 2017-05-04 2018-01-16 合肥中耐电子设备有限公司 A kind of charge inside condition detecting system of battery charger
CN107591869A (en) * 2017-05-04 2018-01-16 合肥中耐电子设备有限公司 A kind of electri forklift intelligent high frequency charger charge control system
CN108649626A (en) * 2018-04-27 2018-10-12 苏州诺登德智能科技有限公司 A kind of lithium battery charging current Voltage Feedback system

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CN201312131Y (en) * 2008-10-16 2009-09-16 上海华勤通讯技术有限公司 Cell phone charging circuit and cell phone battery charging system
CN102629773B (en) * 2012-04-12 2014-04-30 杭州创美实业有限公司 Intelligent pulse temperature-control charger
CN203056660U (en) * 2013-01-23 2013-07-10 南京信息工程大学 Intelligent charger for electric car
CN203840042U (en) * 2014-04-18 2014-09-17 河南速达电动汽车科技有限公司 Charger for lead-acid storage battery of electric vehicle
CN204441989U (en) * 2015-03-13 2015-07-01 李成祥 A kind of charger of automatic adaptation lead-acid battery group voltage
CN205004818U (en) * 2015-09-02 2016-01-27 泉州市海通电子设备有限公司 Intelligent charger for electric bicycle

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